PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (67)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
more »
Year of Publication
more »
1.  Genome-wide association study of prostate cancer-specific survival 
Szulkin, Robert | Karlsson, Robert | Whitington, Thomas | Aly, Markus | Gronberg, Henrik | Eeles, Rosalind A. | Easton, Douglas F. | Kote-Jarai, Zsofia | Olama, Ali Amin Al | Benlloch, Sara | Muir, Kenneth | Giles, Graham G. | Southey, Melissa C. | FitzGerald, Liesel M. | Henderson, Brian E. | Schumacher, Fredrick R. | Haiman, Christopher A. | Sipeky, Csilla | Tammela, Teuvo LJ | Nordestgaard, Børge G. | Key, Timothy J. | Travis, Ruth C. | Neal, David E. | Donovan, Jenny L. | Hamdy, Freddie C. | Pharoah, Paul D.P. | Pashayan, Nora | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Stanford, Janet L. | Thibodeau, Stephen N. | McDonnell, Shannon K. | Schaid, Daniel J. | Maier, Christiane | Vogel, Walther | Luedeke, Manuel | Herkommer, Kathleen | Kibel, Adam S. | Cybulski, Cezary | Lubiński, Jan | Kluźniak, Wojciech | Cannon-Albright, Lisa | Brenner, Hermann | Herrmann, Volker | Holleczek, Bernd | Park, Jong Y. | Sellers, Thomas A. | Lim, Hui-Yi | Slavov, Chavdar | Kaneva, Radka P. | Mitev, Vanio I. | Spurdle, Amanda | Teixeira, Manuel R. | Paulo, Paula | Maia, Sofia | Pandha, Hardev | Michael, Agnieszka | Kierzek, Andrzej | Batra, Jyotsna | Clements, Judith A. | Albanes, Demetrius | Andriole, Gerald L. | Berndt, Sonja I. | Chanock, Stephen | Gapstur, Susan M. | Giovannucci, Edward L. | Hunter, David J. | Kraft, Peter | Le Marchand, Loic | Ma, Jing | Mondul, Alison M. | Penney, Kathryn L. | Stampfer, Meir J. | Stevens, Victoria L. | Weinstein, Stephanie J. | Trichopoulou, Antonia | Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas H. | Tjonneland, Anne | Cox, David G. | Maehle, Lovise | Schleutker, Johanna | Lindström, Sara | Wiklund, Fredrik
Background
Unnecessary intervention and overtreatment of indolent disease are common challenges in clinical management of prostate cancer. Improved tools to distinguish lethal from indolent disease are critical.
Methods
We performed a genome-wide survival analysis of cause-specific death in 24,023 prostate cancer patients (3,513 disease-specific deaths) from the PRACTICAL and BPC3 consortia. Top findings were assessed for replication in a Norwegian cohort (CONOR).
Results
We observed no significant association between genetic variants and prostate cancer survival.
Conclusions
Common genetic variants with large impact on prostate cancer survival were not observed in this study.
Impact
Future studies should be designed for identification of rare variants with large effect sizes or common variants with small effect sizes.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0543
PMCID: PMC5674990  PMID: 26307654
2.  Inhibition of HOX/PBX dimer formation leads to necroptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cells 
Oncotarget  2017;8(52):89566-89579.
The HOX genes encode a family of transcription factors that have key roles in both development and malignancy. Disrupting the interaction between HOX proteins and their binding partner, PBX, has been shown to cause apoptotic cell death in a range of solid tumors. However, despite HOX proteins playing a particularly significant role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the relationship between HOX gene expression and patient survival has not been evaluated (with the exception of HOXA9), and the mechanism by which HOX/PBX inhibition induces cell death in this malignancy is not well understood. In this study, we show that the expression of HOXA5, HOXB2, HOXB4, HOXB9, and HOXC9, but not HOXA9, in primary AML samples is significantly related to survival. Furthermore, the previously described inhibitor of HOX/PBX dimerization, HXR9, is cytotoxic to both AML-derived cell lines and primary AML cells from patients. The mechanism of cell death is not dependent on apoptosis but instead involves a regulated form of necrosis referred to as necroptosis. HXR9-induced necroptosis is enhanced by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, and HXR9 combined with the PKC inhibitor Ro31 causes a significantly greater reduction in tumor growth compared to either reagent alone.
doi:10.18632/oncotarget.20023
PMCID: PMC5685692
acute myeloid leukemia; HOX; HXR9; necroptosis; protein kinase C
3.  Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk: a Mendelian randomisation analysis from the PRACTICAL consortium 
British Journal of Cancer  2016;115(5):624-631.
Background:
Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations between PUFAs and prostate cancer risk.
Methods:
We used individual-level data from a consortium of 22 721 cases and 23 034 controls of European ancestry. Externally-weighted PUFA-specific polygenic risk scores (wPRSs), with explanatory variation ranging from 0.65 to 33.07%, were constructed and used to evaluate associations with prostate cancer risk per one standard deviation (s.d.) increase in genetically-predicted plasma PUFA levels using multivariable-adjusted unconditional logistic regression.
Results:
No overall association was observed between the genetically-predicted PUFAs evaluated in this study and prostate cancer risk. However, risk reductions were observed for short-chain PUFAs, linoleic (ORLA=0.95, 95%CI=0.92, 0.98) and α-linolenic acids (ORALA=0.96, 95%CI=0.93, 0.98), among men <62 years; whereas increased risk was found among men ⩾62 years for LA (ORLA=1.04, 95%CI=1.01, 1.07). For long-chain PUFAs (i.e., arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids), increased risks were observed among men <62 years (ORAA=1.05, 95%CI=1.02, 1.08; OREPA=1.04, 95%CI=1.01, 1.06; ORDPA=1.05, 95%CI=1.02, 1.08).
Conclusion:
Results from this study suggest that circulating ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs may have a different role in the aetiology of early- and late-onset prostate cancer.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.228
PMCID: PMC4997551  PMID: 27490808
polyunsaturated fatty acids; prostate cancer; Mendelian randomisation; polygenic risk score; omega-3 fatty acids; omega-6 fatty acids
4.  Phase I/II Trial of Carboplatin and Paclitaxel Chemotherapy in Combination with Intravenous Oncolytic Reovirus in Patients with Advanced Malignancies 
Purpose
Reovirus type 3 Dearing (RT3D) replicates preferentially in Ras-activated cancers. RT3D shows synergistic in vitro cytotoxicity in combination with platins and taxanes. The purpose of this phase I/II study was to assess RT3D combined with carboplatin/paclitaxel in patients with advanced cancers.
Experimental Design
Patients were initially treated in a dose-escalating, phase I trial with intravenous RT3D days 1 to 5, carboplatin [area under curve (AUC) 5, day 1] and paclitaxel (175 mg/m2, day 1) 3-weekly. RT3D was escalated through three dose levels: 3 × 109, 1 × 1010, and 3 × 1010 TCID50 in cohorts of three. Primary endpoints were to define the maximum tolerated dose and dose-limiting toxicity and to recommend a dose for phase II studies. Secondary endpoints included pharmacokinetics, immune response, and antitumor activity. A subsequent phase II study using the 3 × 1010 TCID50 dose characterized the response rate in patients with head and neck cancer.
Results
Thirty-one heavily pretreated patients received study therapy. There were no dose-limiting toxicities during dose-escalation and most toxicities were grade I/II. Overall effectiveness rates were as follows: one patient had a complete response (3.8%), six patients (23.1%) had partial response, two patients (7.6%) had major clinical responses clinically evaluated in radiation pretreated lesions which are not evaluable by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), nine patients (34.6%) had stable disease, and eight patients (30.8%) had disease progression. Viral shedding was minimal and antiviral immune responses were attenuated compared with previous single-agent data for RT3D.
Conclusions
The combination of RT3D plus carboplatin/paclitaxel is well tolerated with evidence of activity in cancer of the head and neck. A randomized phase III study is currently open for recruitment.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-2181
PMCID: PMC5553618  PMID: 22316603
6.  Targeting HOX/PBX dimers in cancer 
Oncotarget  2017;8(19):32322-32331.
The HOX and PBX gene families encode transcription factors that have key roles in establishing the identity of cells and tissues in early development. Over the last 20 years it has become apparent that they are also dysregulated in a wide range of solid and haematological malignancies and have a predominantly pro-oncogenic function. A key mode of transcriptional regulation by HOX and PBX proteins is through their interaction as a heterodimer or larger complex that enhances their binding affinity and specificity for DNA, and there is growing evidence that this interaction is a potential therapeutic target in malignancies that include prostate, breast, renal, ovarian and lung cancer, melanoma, myeloma, and acute myeloid leukaemia. This review summarizes the roles of HOX and PBX genes in cancer and assesses the therapeutic potential of HOX/PBX dimer inhibition, including the availability of biomarkers for its application in precision medicine.
doi:10.18632/oncotarget.15971
PMCID: PMC5458287  PMID: 28423659
HOX; PBX; HXR9; targeted therapy; biomarker
7.  Prime-boost using Separate Oncolytic Viruses in Combination with Checkpoint Blockade Improves Anti-tumor Therapy 
Gene therapy  2016;24(1):21-30.
The anti-tumor effects associated with oncolytic virus therapy are mediated significantly through immune-mediated mechanisms which depends both on the type of virus and the route of delivery. Here, we show that intra-tumoral (i.t.) oncolysis by Reovirus induced the priming of a CD8+, Th1-type anti-tumor response. In contrast, systemically delivered VSV expressing a cDNA library of melanoma antigens (VSV-ASMEL) promoted a potent anti-tumor CD4+ Th17 response. Therefore, we hypothesised that combining the Reovirus-induced CD8+ T cell response, with the VSV-ASMEL CD4+ Th17 helper response, would produce enhanced anti-tumor activity. Consistent with this, priming with i.t. Reovirus, followed by an intra-venous VSV-ASMEL Th17 boost, significantly improved survival of mice bearing established subcutaneous (s.c.) B16 melanoma tumors. We also show that combination of either therapy alone with anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade augmented both the Th1 response induced by systemically delivered Reovirus in combination with GM-CSF, and also the Th17 response induced by VSV-ASMEL. Significantly, anti-PD-1 also uncovered an anti-tumor Th1 response following VSV-ASMEL treatment that was not seen in the absence of checkpoint blockade. Finally, the combination of all three treatments (priming with systemically delivered Reovirus, followed by double boosting with systemic VSV-ASMEL and anti-PD-1) significantly enhanced survival, with long-term cures, compared to any individual, or double, combination therapies, associated with strong Th1 and Th17 responses to tumor antigens. Our data show that it is possible to generate fully systemic, highly effective anti-tumor immunovirotherapy by combining oncolytic viruses, along with immune checkpoint blockade, to induce complimentary mechanisms of anti-tumor immune responses.
doi:10.1038/gt.2016.70
PMCID: PMC5387692  PMID: 27779616
8.  Genome-wide Meta-analyses of Breast, Ovarian and Prostate Cancer Association Studies Identify Multiple New Susceptibility Loci Shared by At Least Two Cancer Types 
Kar, Siddhartha P. | Beesley, Jonathan | Al Olama, Ali Amin | Michailidou, Kyriaki | Tyrer, Jonathan | Kote-Jarai, ZSofia | Lawrenson, Kate | Lindstrom, Sara | Ramus, Susan J. | Thompson, Deborah J. | Kibel, Adam S. | Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka | Michael, Agnieszka | Dieffenbach, Aida K. | Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra | Whittemore, Alice S. | Wolk, Alicja | Monteiro, Alvaro | Peixoto, Ana | Kierzek, Andrzej | Cox, Angela | Rudolph, Anja | Gonzalez-Neira, Anna | Wu, Anna H. | Lindblom, Annika | Swerdlow, Anthony | Ziogas, Argyrios | Ekici, Arif B. | Burwinkel, Barbara | Karlan, Beth Y. | Nordestgaard, Børge G. | Blomqvist, Carl | Phelan, Catherine | McLean, Catriona | Pearce, Celeste Leigh | Vachon, Celine | Cybulski, Cezary | Slavov, Chavdar | Stegmaier, Christa | Maier, Christiane | Ambrosone, Christine B. | Høgdall, Claus K. | Teerlink, Craig C. | Kang, Daehee | Tessier, Daniel C. | Schaid, Daniel J. | Stram, Daniel O. | Cramer, Daniel W. | Neal, David E. | Eccles, Diana | Flesch-Janys, Dieter | Velez Edwards, Digna R. | Wokozorczyk, Dominika | Levine, Douglas A. | Yannoukakos, Drakoulis | Sawyer, Elinor J. | Bandera, Elisa V. | Poole, Elizabeth M. | Goode, Ellen L. | Khusnutdinova, Elza | Høgdall, Estrid | Song, Fengju | Bruinsma, Fiona | Heitz, Florian | Modugno, Francesmary | Hamdy, Freddie C. | Wiklund, Fredrik | Giles, Graham G. | Olsson, Håkan | Wildiers, Hans | Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich | Pandha, Hardev | Risch, Harvey A. | Darabi, Hatef | Salvesen, Helga B. | Nevanlinna, Heli | Gronberg, Henrik | Brenner, Hermann | Brauch, Hiltrud | Anton-Culver, Hoda | Song, Honglin | Lim, Hui-Yi | McNeish, Iain | Campbell, Ian | Vergote, Ignace | Gronwald, Jacek | Lubiński, Jan | Stanford, Janet L. | Benítez, Javier | Doherty, Jennifer A. | Permuth, Jennifer B. | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Donovan, Jenny L. | Dennis, Joe | Schildkraut, Joellen M. | Schleutker, Johanna | Hopper, John L. | Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta | Park, Jong Y. | Figueroa, Jonine | Clements, Judith A. | Knight, Julia A. | Peto, Julian | Cunningham, Julie M. | Pow-Sang, Julio | Batra, Jyotsna | Czene, Kamila | Lu, Karen H. | Herkommer, Kathleen | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Matsuo, Keitaro | Muir, Kenneth | Offitt, Kenneth | Chen, Kexin | Moysich, Kirsten B. | Aittomäki, Kristiina | Odunsi, Kunle | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Massuger, Leon F.A.G. | Fitzgerald, Liesel M. | Cook, Linda S. | Cannon-Albright, Lisa | Hooning, Maartje J. | Pike, Malcolm C. | Bolla, Manjeet K. | Luedeke, Manuel | Teixeira, Manuel R. | Goodman, Marc T. | Schmidt, Marjanka K. | Riggan, Marjorie | Aly, Markus | Rossing, Mary Anne | Beckmann, Matthias W. | Moisse, Matthieu | Sanderson, Maureen | Southey, Melissa C. | Jones, Michael | Lush, Michael | Hildebrandt, Michelle A. T. | Hou, Ming-Feng | Schoemaker, Minouk J. | Garcia-Closas, Montserrat | Bogdanova, Natalia | Rahman, Nazneen | Le, Nhu D. | Orr, Nick | Wentzensen, Nicolas | Pashayan, Nora | Peterlongo, Paolo | Guénel, Pascal | Brennan, Paul | Paulo, Paula | Webb, Penelope M. | Broberg, Per | Fasching, Peter A. | Devilee, Peter | Wang, Qin | Cai, Qiuyin | Li, Qiyuan | Kaneva, Radka | Butzow, Ralf | Kopperud, Reidun Kristin | Schmutzler, Rita K. | Stephenson, Robert A. | MacInnis, Robert J. | Hoover, Robert N. | Winqvist, Robert | Ness, Roberta | Milne, Roger L. | Travis, Ruth C. | Benlloch, Sara | Olson, Sara H. | McDonnell, Shannon K. | Tworoger, Shelley S. | Maia, Sofia | Berndt, Sonja | Lee, Soo Chin | Teo, Soo-Hwang | Thibodeau, Stephen N. | Bojesen, Stig E. | Gapstur, Susan M. | Kjær, Susanne Krüger | Pejovic, Tanja | Tammela, Teuvo L.J. | Dörk, Thilo | Brüning, Thomas | Wahlfors, Tiina | Key, Tim J. | Edwards, Todd L. | Menon, Usha | Hamann, Ute | Mitev, Vanio | Kosma, Veli-Matti | Setiawan, Veronica Wendy | Kristensen, Vessela | Arndt, Volker | Vogel, Walther | Zheng, Wei | Sieh, Weiva | Blot, William J. | Kluzniak, Wojciech | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Gao, Yu-Tang | Schumacher, Fredrick | Freedman, Matthew L. | Berchuck, Andrew | Dunning, Alison M. | Simard, Jacques | Haiman, Christopher A. | Spurdle, Amanda | Sellers, Thomas A. | Hunter, David J. | Henderson, Brian E. | Kraft, Peter | Chanock, Stephen J. | Couch, Fergus J. | Hall, Per | Gayther, Simon A. | Easton, Douglas F. | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Eeles, Rosalind | Pharoah, Paul D.P. | Lambrechts, Diether
Cancer discovery  2016;6(9):1052-1067.
Breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers are hormone-related and may have a shared genetic basis but this has not been investigated systematically by genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Meta-analyses combining the largest GWA meta-analysis data sets for these cancers totaling 112,349 cases and 116,421 controls of European ancestry, all together and in pairs, identified at P < 10−8 seven new cross-cancer loci: three associated with susceptibility to all three cancers (rs17041869/2q13/BCL2L11; rs7937840/11q12/INCENP; rs1469713/19p13/GATAD2A), two breast and ovarian cancer risk loci (rs200182588/9q31/SMC2; rs8037137/15q26/RCCD1), and two breast and prostate cancer risk loci (rs5013329/1p34/NSUN4; rs9375701/6q23/L3MBTL3). Index variants in five additional regions previously associated with only one cancer also showed clear association with a second cancer type. Cell-type specific expression quantitative trait locus and enhancer-gene interaction annotations suggested target genes with potential cross-cancer roles at the new loci. Pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment of death receptor signaling genes near loci with P < 10−5 in the three-cancer meta-analysis.
doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-15-1227
PMCID: PMC5010513  PMID: 27432226
breast cancer; ovarian cancer; prostate cancer; genome-wide association studies; pleiotropy
9.  Induction of trismus by sunitinib and pazopanib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma 
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors sunitinib and pazopanib are used as first-line agents in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Treatment-related toxicities have been described with both these drugs. This report describes a patient with metastatic renal carcinoma who developed trismus while being treated with these agents and is, to the best of our knowledge, the first such case to be reported.
doi:10.4103/0970-1591.194787
PMCID: PMC5264200
10.  Immunogenicity of self tumor associated proteins is enhanced through protein truncation 
We showed previously that therapy with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) expressing tumor-associated proteins eradicates established tumors. We show here that when cellular cDNA were cloned into VSV which retained their own poly-A signal, viral species emerged in culture which had deleted the cellular poly-A signal and also contained a truncated form of the protein coding sequence. Typically, the truncation occurred such that a Tyrosine-encoding codon was converted into a STOP codon. We believe that the truncation of tumor-associated proteins expressed from VSV in this way occurred to preserve the ability of the virus to replicate efficiently. Truncated cDNA expressed from VSV were significantly more effective than full length cDNA in treating established tumors. Moreover, tumor therapy with truncated cDNA was completely abolished by depletion of CD4+ T cells, whereas therapy with full length cDNA was CD8+ T cell dependent. These data show that the type/potency of antitumor immune responses against self-tumor-associated proteins can be manipulated in vivo through the nature of the self protein (full length or truncated). Therefore, in addition to generation of neoantigens through sequence mutation, immunological tolerance against self-tumor-associated proteins can be broken through manipulation of protein integrity, allowing for rational design of better self-immunogens for cancer immunotherapy.
doi:10.1038/mto.2016.30
PMCID: PMC5142466  PMID: 27933315
11.  Investigating the possible causal role of coffee consumption with prostate cancer risk and progression using Mendelian randomization analysis 
International Journal of Cancer  2016;140(2):322-328.
Coffee consumption has been shown in some studies to be associated with lower risk of prostate cancer. However, it is unclear if this association is causal or due to confounding or reverse causality. We conducted a Mendelian randomisation analysis to investigate the causal effects of coffee consumption on prostate cancer risk and progression. We used two genetic variants robustly associated with caffeine intake (rs4410790 and rs2472297) as proxies for coffee consumption in a sample of 46,687 men of European ancestry from 25 studies in the PRACTICAL consortium. Associations between genetic variants and prostate cancer case status, stage and grade were assessed by logistic regression and with all‐cause and prostate cancer‐specific mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression. There was no clear evidence that a genetic risk score combining rs4410790 and rs2472297 was associated with prostate cancer risk (OR per additional coffee increasing allele: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.98,1.03) or having high‐grade compared to low‐grade disease (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.97,1.04). There was some evidence that the genetic risk score was associated with higher odds of having nonlocalised compared to localised stage disease (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06). Amongst men with prostate cancer, there was no clear association between the genetic risk score and all‐cause mortality (HR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.97,1.04) or prostate cancer‐specific mortality (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.98,1.08). These results, which should have less bias from confounding than observational estimates, are not consistent with a substantial effect of coffee consumption on reducing prostate cancer incidence or progression.
What's new?
Does coffee consumption reduce prostate cancer risk? It's biologically plausible that it could, but studies showing a link have relied on observational evidence, which could be affected by confounding factors. These authors set out to isolate coffee's contribution. They focused on two genetic variants that correspond with caffeine intake, and used them as proxies for coffee drinking. Alleles are not affected by behavior or demographic factors, nor can behavior changes after diagnosis change whether a person carries an allele. The authors found no correlation between either of the alleles and prostate cancer risk, suggesting drinking coffee may not protect against prostate cancer.
doi:10.1002/ijc.30462
PMCID: PMC5132137  PMID: 27741566
prostate cancer; coffee; Mendelian randomization
12.  Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression: A Mendelian randomisation study 
International Journal of Cancer  2016;140(1):75-85.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this study, we investigated the associations of genetic variants in alcohol‐metabolising genes with prostate cancer incidence and survival. We analysed data from 23,868 men with prostate cancer and 23,051 controls from 25 studies within the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Study‐specific associations of 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 alcohol‐metabolising genes (Alcohol Dehydrogenases (ADHs) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases (ALDHs)) with prostate cancer diagnosis and prostate cancer‐specific mortality, by grade, were assessed using logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. The data across the 25 studies were meta‐analysed using fixed‐effect and random‐effects models. We found little evidence that variants in alcohol metabolising genes were associated with prostate cancer diagnosis. Four variants in two genes exceeded the multiple testing threshold for associations with prostate cancer mortality in fixed‐effect meta‐analyses. SNPs within ALDH1A2 associated with prostate cancer mortality were rs1441817 (fixed effects hazard ratio, HRfixed = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):0.66,0.91; p values = 0.002); rs12910509, HRfixed = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.003); and rs8041922 (HRfixed = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.002). These SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. In ALDH1B1, rs10973794 (HRfixed = 1.43; 95%CI:1.14,1.79; p values = 0.002) was associated with prostate cancer mortality in men with low‐grade prostate cancer. These results suggest that alcohol consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression.
What's new?
Alcohol may spur prostate cancer progression, though it does not appear to affect incidence, according to new analysis. Variation in genes involved in alcohol metabolism affect how much the body is exposed to carcinogenic metabolites. These authors examined 68 genetic variants in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes, seeking a link with prostate cancer risk. While they found no evidence that these variants alter prostate cancer incidence, they did show that SNPs in the ALDH1A2 gene affect prostate cancer mortality. From a public health standpoint, these results suggest reducing alcohol consumption could slow prostate cancer disease progression.
doi:10.1002/ijc.30436
PMCID: PMC5111609  PMID: 27643404
alcohol; prostate cancer; alcohol metabolising genes; Mendelian randomisation
13.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part two 
Ager, Casey | Reilley, Matthew | Nicholas, Courtney | Bartkowiak, Todd | Jaiswal, Ashvin | Curran, Michael | Albershardt, Tina C. | Bajaj, Anshika | Archer, Jacob F. | Reeves, Rebecca S. | Ngo, Lisa Y. | Berglund, Peter | ter Meulen, Jan | Denis, Caroline | Ghadially, Hormas | Arnoux, Thomas | Chanuc, Fabien | Fuseri, Nicolas | Wilkinson, Robert W. | Wagtmann, Nicolai | Morel, Yannis | Andre, Pascale | Atkins, Michael B. | Carlino, Matteo S. | Ribas, Antoni | Thompson, John A. | Choueiri, Toni K. | Hodi, F. Stephen | Hwu, Wen-Jen | McDermott, David F. | Atkinson, Victoria | Cebon, Jonathan S. | Fitzharris, Bernie | Jameson, Michael B. | McNeil, Catriona | Hill, Andrew G. | Mangin, Eric | Ahamadi, Malidi | van Vugt, Marianne | van Zutphen, Mariëlle | Ibrahim, Nageatte | Long, Georgina V. | Gartrell, Robyn | Blake, Zoe | Simoes, Ines | Fu, Yichun | Saito, Takuro | Qian, Yingzhi | Lu, Yan | Saenger, Yvonne M. | Budhu, Sadna | De Henau, Olivier | Zappasodi, Roberta | Schlunegger, Kyle | Freimark, Bruce | Hutchins, Jeff | Barker, Christopher A. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Burova, Elena | Allbritton, Omaira | Hong, Peter | Dai, Jie | Pei, Jerry | Liu, Matt | Kantrowitz, Joel | Lai, Venus | Poueymirou, William | MacDonald, Douglas | Ioffe, Ella | Mohrs, Markus | Olson, William | Thurston, Gavin | Capasso, Cristian | Frascaro, Federica | Carpi, Sara | Tähtinen, Siri | Feola, Sara | Fusciello, Manlio | Peltonen, Karita | Martins, Beatriz | Sjöberg, Madeleine | Pesonen, Sari | Ranki, Tuuli | Kyruk, Lukasz | Ylösmäki, Erkko | Cerullo, Vincenzo | Cerignoli, Fabio | Xi, Biao | Guenther, Garret | Yu, Naichen | Muir, Lincoln | Zhao, Leyna | Abassi, Yama | Cervera-Carrascón, Víctor | Siurala, Mikko | Santos, João | Havunen, Riikka | Parviainen, Suvi | Hemminki, Akseli | Dalgleish, Angus | Mudan, Satvinder | DeBenedette, Mark | Plachco, Ana | Gamble, Alicia | Grogan, Elizabeth W. | Krisko, John | Tcherepanova, Irina | Nicolette, Charles | Dhupkar, Pooja | Yu, Ling | Kleinerman, Eugenie S. | Gordon, Nancy | Grenga, Italia | Lepone, Lauren | Gameiro, Sofia | Knudson, Karin M. | Fantini, Massimo | Tsang, Kwong | Hodge, James | Donahue, Renee | Schlom, Jeffrey | Evans, Elizabeth | Bussler, Holm | Mallow, Crystal | Reilly, Christine | Torno, Sebold | Scrivens, Maria | Foster, Cathie | Howell, Alan | Balch, Leslie | Knapp, Alyssa | Leonard, John E. | Paris, Mark | Fisher, Terry | Hu-Lieskovan, Siwen | Ribas, Antoni | Smith, Ernest | Zauderer, Maurice | Fogler, William | Franklin, Marilyn | Thayer, Matt | Saims, Dan | Magnani, John L. | Gong, Jian | Gray, Michael | Hutchins, Jeff | Freimark, Bruce | Fromm, George | de Silva, Suresh | Giffin, Louise | Xu, Xin | Rose, Jason | Schreiber, Taylor H. | Fantini, Massimo | Gameiro, Sofia R. | Knudson, Karin M. | Clavijo, Paul E. | Allen, Clint T. | Donahue, Renee | Lepone, Lauren | Grenga, Italia | Hodge, James W. | Tsang, Kwong Y. | Schlom, Jeffrey | Gray, Michael | Gong, Jian | Hutchins, Jeff | Freimark, Bruce | Grogan, Jane | Manieri, Nicholas | Chiang, Eugene | Caplazi, Patrick | Yadav, Mahesh | Hagner, Patrick | Chiu, Hsiling | Waldman, Michelle | Klippel, Anke | Thakurta, Anjan | Pourdehnad, Michael | Gandhi, Anita | Henrich, Ian | Quick, Laura | Young, Rob | Chou, Margaret | Hotson, Andrew | Willingham, Stephen | Ho, Po | Choy, Carmen | Laport, Ginna | McCaffery, Ian | Miller, Richard | Tipton, Kimberly A. | Wong, Kenneth R. | Singson, Victoria | Wong, Chihunt | Chan, Chanty | Huang, Yuanhiu | Liu, Shouchun | Richardson, Jennifer H. | Kavanaugh, W. Michael | West, James | Irving, Bryan A. | Tipton, Kimberly A. | Wong, Kenneth R. | Singson, Victoria | Wong, Chihunt | Chan, Chanty | Huang, Yuanhiu | Liu, Shouchun | Richardson, Jennifer H. | Kavanaugh, W. Michael | West, James | Irving, Bryan A. | Jaini, Ritika | Loya, Matthew | Eng, Charis | Johnson, Melissa L. | Adjei, Alex A. | Opyrchal, Mateusz | Ramalingam, Suresh | Janne, Pasi A. | Dominguez, George | Gabrilovich, Dmitry | de Leon, Laura | Hasapidis, Jeannette | Diede, Scott J. | Ordentlich, Peter | Cruickshank, Scott | Meyers, Michael L. | Hellmann, Matthew D. | Kalinski, Pawel | Zureikat, Amer | Edwards, Robert | Muthuswamy, Ravi | Obermajer, Nataša | Urban, Julie | Butterfield, Lisa H. | Gooding, William | Zeh, Herbert | Bartlett, David | Zubkova, Olga | Agapova, Larissa | Kapralova, Marina | Krasovskaia, Liudmila | Ovsepyan, Armen | Lykov, Maxim | Eremeev, Artem | Bokovanov, Vladimir | Grigoryeva, Olga | Karpov, Andrey | Ruchko, Sergey | Nicolette, Charles | Shuster, Alexandr | Khalil, Danny N. | Campesato, Luis Felipe | Li, Yanyun | Merghoub, Taha | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Lazorchak, Adam S. | Patterson, Troy D. | Ding, Yueyun | Sasikumar, Pottayil | Sudarshan, Naremaddepalli | Gowda, Nagaraj | Ramachandra, Raghuveer | Samiulla, Dodheri | Giri, Sanjeev | Eswarappa, Rajesh | Ramachandra, Murali | Tuck, David | Wyant, Timothy | Leshem, Jasmin | Liu, Xiu-fen | Bera, Tapan | Terabe, Masaki | Bossenmaier, Birgit | Niederfellner, Gerhard | Reiter, Yoram | Pastan, Ira | Xia, Leiming | Xia, Yang | Hu, Yangyang | Wang, Yi | Bao, Yangyi | Dai, Fu | Huang, Shiang | Hurt, Elaine | Hollingsworth, Robert E. | Lum, Lawrence G. | Chang, Alfred E. | Wicha, Max S. | Li, Qiao | Mace, Thomas | Makhijani, Neil | Talbert, Erin | Young, Gregory | Guttridge, Denis | Conwell, Darwin | Lesinski, Gregory B. | Gonzales, Rodney JM Macedo | Huffman, Austin P. | Wang, Ximi K. | Reshef, Ran | MacKinnon, Andy | Chen, Jason | Gross, Matt | Marguier, Gisele | Shwonek, Peter | Sotirovska, Natalija | Steggerda, Susanne | Parlati, Francesco | Makkouk, Amani | Bennett, Mark K. | Chen, Jason | Emberley, Ethan | Gross, Matt | Huang, Tony | Li, Weiqun | MacKinnon, Andy | Marguier, Gisele | Neou, Silinda | Pan, Alison | Zhang, Jing | Zhang, Winter | Parlati, Francesco | Marshall, Netonia | Marron, Thomas U. | Agudo, Judith | Brown, Brian | Brody, Joshua | McQuinn, Christopher | Mace, Thomas | Farren, Matthew | Komar, Hannah | Shakya, Reena | Young, Gregory | Ludwug, Thomas | Lesinski, Gregory B. | Morillon, Y. Maurice | Hammond, Scott A. | Schlom, Jeffrey | Greiner, John W. | Nath, Pulak R. | Schwartz, Anthony L. | Maric, Dragan | Roberts, David D. | Obermajer, Nataša | Bartlett, David | Kalinski, Pawel | Naing, Aung | Papadopoulos, Kyriakos P. | Autio, Karen A. | Wong, Deborah J. | Patel, Manish | Falchook, Gerald | Pant, Shubham | Ott, Patrick A. | Whiteside, Melinda | Patnaik, Amita | Mumm, John | Janku, Filip | Chan, Ivan | Bauer, Todd | Colen, Rivka | VanVlasselaer, Peter | Brown, Gail L. | Tannir, Nizar M. | Oft, Martin | Infante, Jeffrey | Lipson, Evan | Gopal, Ajay | Neelapu, Sattva S. | Armand, Philippe | Spurgeon, Stephen | Leonard, John P. | Hodi, F. Stephen | Sanborn, Rachel E. | Melero, Ignacio | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Maurer, Matthew | Perna, Serena | Gutierrez, Andres A. | Clynes, Raphael | Mitra, Priyam | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Gladstone, Douglas | Callahan, Margaret K. | Crooks, James | Brown, Sheila | Gauthier, Audrey | de Boisferon, Marc Hillairet | MacDonald, Andrew | Brunet, Laura Rosa | Rothwell, William T. | Bell, Peter | Wilson, James M. | Sato-Kaneko, Fumi | Yao, Shiyin | Zhang, Shannon S. | Carson, Dennis A. | Guiducci, Cristina | Coffman, Robert L. | Kitaura, Kazutaka | Matsutani, Takaji | Suzuki, Ryuji | Hayashi, Tomoko | Cohen, Ezra E. W. | Schaer, David | Li, Yanxia | Dobkin, Julie | Amatulli, Michael | Hall, Gerald | Doman, Thompson | Manro, Jason | Dorsey, Frank Charles | Sams, Lillian | Holmgaard, Rikke | Persaud, Krishnadatt | Ludwig, Dale | Surguladze, David | Kauh, John S. | Novosiadly, Ruslan | Kalos, Michael | Driscoll, Kyla | Pandha, Hardev | Ralph, Christy | Harrington, Kevin | Curti, Brendan | Sanborn, Rachel E. | Akerley, Wallace | Gupta, Sumati | Melcher, Alan | Mansfield, David | Kaufman, David R. | Schmidt, Emmett | Grose, Mark | Davies, Bronwyn | Karpathy, Roberta | Shafren, Darren | Shamalov, Katerina | Cohen, Cyrille | Sharma, Naveen | Allison, James | Shekarian, Tala | Valsesia-Wittmann, Sandrine | Caux, Christophe | Marabelle, Aurelien | Slomovitz, Brian M. | Moore, Kathleen M. | Youssoufian, Hagop | Posner, Marshall | Tewary, Poonam | Brooks, Alan D. | Xu, Ya-Ming | Wijeratne, Kithsiri | Gunatilaka, Leslie A. A. | Sayers, Thomas J. | Vasilakos, John P. | Alston, Tesha | Dovedi, Simon | Elvecrog, James | Grigsby, Iwen | Herbst, Ronald | Johnson, Karen | Moeckly, Craig | Mullins, Stefanie | Siebenaler, Kristen | SternJohn, Julius | Tilahun, Ashenafi | Tomai, Mark A. | Vogel, Katharina | Wilkinson, Robert W. | Vietsch, Eveline E. | Wellstein, Anton | Wythes, Martin | Crosignani, Stefano | Tumang, Joseph | Alekar, Shilpa | Bingham, Patrick | Cauwenberghs, Sandra | Chaplin, Jenny | Dalvie, Deepak | Denies, Sofie | De Maeseneire, Coraline | Feng, JunLi | Frederix, Kim | Greasley, Samantha | Guo, Jie | Hardwick, James | Kaiser, Stephen | Jessen, Katti | Kindt, Erick | Letellier, Marie-Claire | Li, Wenlin | Maegley, Karen | Marillier, Reece | Miller, Nichol | Murray, Brion | Pirson, Romain | Preillon, Julie | Rabolli, Virginie | Ray, Chad | Ryan, Kevin | Scales, Stephanie | Srirangam, Jay | Solowiej, Jim | Stewart, Al | Streiner, Nicole | Torti, Vince | Tsaparikos, Konstantinos | Zheng, Xianxian | Driessens, Gregory | Gomes, Bruno | Kraus, Manfred | Xu, Chunxiao | Zhang, Yanping | Kradjian, Giorgio | Qin, Guozhong | Qi, Jin | Xu, Xiaomei | Marelli, Bo | Yu, Huakui | Guzman, Wilson | Tighe, Rober | Salazar, Rachel | Lo, Kin-Ming | English, Jessie | Radvanyi, Laszlo | Lan, Yan | Zappasodi, Roberta | Budhu, Sadna | Hellmann, Matthew D. | Postow, Michael | Senbabaoglu, Yasin | Gasmi, Billel | Zhong, Hong | Li, Yanyun | Liu, Cailian | Hirschhorhn-Cymerman, Daniel | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Zha, Yuanyuan | Malnassy, Gregory | Fulton, Noreen | Park, Jae-Hyun | Stock, Wendy | Nakamura, Yusuke | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Liu, Hongtao | Ju, Xiaoming | Kosoff, Rachelle | Ramos, Kimberly | Coder, Brandon | Petit, Robert | Princiotta, Michael | Perry, Kyle | Zou, Jun | Arina, Ainhoa | Fernandez, Christian | Zheng, Wenxin | Beckett, Michael A. | Mauceri, Helena J. | Fu, Yang-Xin | Weichselbaum, Ralph R. | DeBenedette, Mark | Lewis, Whitney | Gamble, Alicia | Nicolette, Charles | Han, Yanyan | Wu, Yeting | Yang, Chou | Huang, Jing | Wu, Dongyun | Li, Jin | Liang, Xiaoling | Zhou, Xiangjun | Hou, Jinlin | Hassan, Raffit | Jahan, Thierry | Antonia, Scott J. | Kindler, Hedy L. | Alley, Evan W. | Honarmand, Somayeh | Liu, Weiqun | Leong, Meredith L. | Whiting, Chan C. | Nair, Nitya | Enstrom, Amanda | Lemmens, Edward E. | Tsujikawa, Takahiro | Kumar, Sushil | Coussens, Lisa M. | Murphy, Aimee L. | Brockstedt, Dirk G. | Koch, Sven D. | Sebastian, Martin | Weiss, Christian | Früh, Martin | Pless, Miklos | Cathomas, Richard | Hilbe, Wolfgang | Pall, Georg | Wehler, Thomas | Alt, Jürgen | Bischoff, Helge | Geissler, Michael | Griesinger, Frank | Kollmeier, Jens | Papachristofilou, Alexandros | Doener, Fatma | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Hipp, Madeleine | Hong, Henoch S. | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Klinkhardt, Ute | Stosnach, Claudia | Scheel, Birgit | Schroeder, Andreas | Seibel, Tobias | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Zippelius, Alfred | Park, Ha-Ram | Ahn, Yong-Oon | Kim, Tae Min | Kim, Soyeon | Kim, Seulki | Lee, Yu Soo | Keam, Bhumsuk | Kim, Dong-Wan | Heo, Dae Seog | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Weber, Amy | Morse, Jennifer | Kodumudi, Krithika | Liu, Hao | Mullinax, John | Sarnaik, Amod A. | Pike, Luke | Bang, Andrew | Ott, Patrick A. | Balboni, Tracy | Taylor, Allison | Spektor, Alexander | Wilhite, Tyler | Krishnan, Monica | Cagney, Daniel | Alexander, Brian | Aizer, Ayal | Buchbinder, Elizabeth | Awad, Mark | Ghandi, Leena | Hodi, F. Stephen | Schoenfeld, Jonathan | Schwartz, Anthony L. | Nath, Pulak R. | Lessey-Morillon, Elizabeth | Ridnour, Lisa | Roberts, David D. | Segal, Neil H. | Sharma, Manish | Le, Dung T. | Ott, Patrick A. | Ferris, Robert L. | Zelenetz, Andrew D. | Neelapu, Sattva S. | Levy, Ronald | Lossos, Izidore S. | Jacobson, Caron | Ramchandren, Radhakrishnan | Godwin, John | Colevas, A. Dimitrios | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Timmerman, John | Vanpouille-Box, Claire I. | Formenti, Silvia C. | Demaria, Sandra | Wennerberg, Erik | Mediero, Aranzazu | Cronstein, Bruce N. | Formenti, Silvia C. | Demaria, Sandra | Gustafson, Michael P. | DiCostanzo, AriCeli | Wheatley, Courtney | Kim, Chul-Ho | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Johnson, Bruce D. | Dietz, Allan B. | MacDonald, Cameron | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Turbitt, William J. | Xu, Yitong | Mastro, Andrea | Rogers, Connie J. | Withers, Sita | Wang, Ziming | Khuat, Lam T. | Dunai, Cordelia | Blazar, Bruce R. | Longo, Dan | Rebhun, Robert | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Monjazeb, Arta | Murphy, William J. | Rowlinson, Scott | Agnello, Giulia | Alters, Susan | Lowe, David | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Whetstone, Ryan | Zeng, Xue | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Santos, Patricia M. | Menk, Ashley V. | Shi, Jian | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Butterfield, Lisa H. | Whetstone, Ryan | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg | Nagasaka, Misako | Sukari, Ammar | Byrne-Steele, Miranda | Pan, Wenjing | Hou, Xiaohong | Brown, Brittany | Eisenhower, Mary | Han, Jian | Collins, Natalie | Manguso, Robert | Pope, Hans | Shrestha, Yashaswi | Boehm, Jesse | Haining, W. Nicholas | Cron, Kyle R. | Sivan, Ayelet | Aquino-Michaels, Keston | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Orecchioni, Marco | Bedognetti, Davide | Hendrickx, Wouter | Fuoco, Claudia | Spada, Filomena | Sgarrella, Francesco | Cesareni, Gianni | Marincola, Francesco | Kostarelos, Kostas | Bianco, Alberto | Delogu, Lucia | Hendrickx, Wouter | Roelands, Jessica | Boughorbel, Sabri | Decock, Julie | Presnell, Scott | Wang, Ena | Marincola, Franco M. | Kuppen, Peter | Ceccarelli, Michele | Rinchai, Darawan | Chaussabel, Damien | Miller, Lance | Bedognetti, Davide | Nguyen, Andrew | Sanborn, J. Zachary | Vaske, Charles | Rabizadeh, Shahrooz | Niazi, Kayvan | Benz, Steven | Patel, Shashank | Restifo, Nicholas | White, James | Angiuoli, Sam | Sausen, Mark | Jones, Sian | Sevdali, Maria | Simmons, John | Velculescu, Victor | Diaz, Luis | Zhang, Theresa | Sims, Jennifer S. | Barton, Sunjay M. | Gartrell, Robyn | Kadenhe-Chiweshe, Angela | Dela Cruz, Filemon | Turk, Andrew T. | Lu, Yan | Mazzeo, Christopher F. | Kung, Andrew L. | Bruce, Jeffrey N. | Saenger, Yvonne M. | Yamashiro, Darrell J. | Connolly, Eileen P. | Baird, Jason | Crittenden, Marka | Friedman, David | Xiao, Hong | Leidner, Rom | Bell, Bryan | Young, Kristina | Gough, Michael | Bian, Zhen | Kidder, Koby | Liu, Yuan | Curran, Emily | Chen, Xiufen | Corrales, Leticia P. | Kline, Justin | Dunai, Cordelia | Aguilar, Ethan G. | Khuat, Lam T. | Murphy, William J. | Guerriero, Jennifer | Sotayo, Alaba | Ponichtera, Holly | Pourzia, Alexandra | Schad, Sara | Carrasco, Ruben | Lazo, Suzan | Bronson, Roderick | Letai, Anthony | Kornbluth, Richard S. | Gupta, Sachin | Termini, James | Guirado, Elizabeth | Stone, Geoffrey W. | Meyer, Christina | Helming, Laura | Tumang, Joseph | Wilson, Nicholas | Hofmeister, Robert | Radvanyi, Laszlo | Neubert, Natalie J. | Tillé, Laure | Barras, David | Soneson, Charlotte | Baumgaertner, Petra | Rimoldi, Donata | Gfeller, David | Delorenzi, Mauro | Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A. | Speiser, Daniel E. | Abraham, Tara S. | Xiang, Bo | Magee, Michael S. | Waldman, Scott A. | Snook, Adam E. | Blogowski, Wojciech | Zuba-Surma, Ewa | Budkowska, Marta | Salata, Daria | Dolegowska, Barbara | Starzynska, Teresa | Chan, Leo | Somanchi, Srinivas | McCulley, Kelsey | Lee, Dean | Buettner, Nico | Shi, Feng | Myers, Paisley T. | Curbishley, Stuart | Penny, Sarah A. | Steadman, Lora | Millar, David | Speers, Ellen | Ruth, Nicola | Wong, Gabriel | Thimme, Robert | Adams, David | Cobbold, Mark | Thomas, Remy | Hendrickx, Wouter | Al-Muftah, Mariam | Decock, Julie | Wong, Michael KK | Morse, Michael | McDermott, David F. | Clark, Joseph I. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Daniels, Gregory A. | Hua, Hong | Rao, Tharak | Dutcher, Janice P. | Kang, Kai | Saunthararajah, Yogen | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Kumar, Vikas | Anwar, Firoz | Verma, Amita | Chheda, Zinal | Kohanbash, Gary | Sidney, John | Okada, Kaori | Shrivastav, Shruti | Carrera, Diego A. | Liu, Shuming | Jahan, Naznin | Mueller, Sabine | Pollack, Ian F. | Carcaboso, Angel M. | Sette, Alessandro | Hou, Yafei | Okada, Hideho | Field, Jessica J. | Zeng, Weiping | Shih, Vincent FS | Law, Che-Leung | Senter, Peter D. | Gardai, Shyra J. | Okeley, Nicole M. | Penny, Sarah A. | Abelin, Jennifer G. | Saeed, Abu Z. | Malaker, Stacy A. | Myers, Paisley T. | Shabanowitz, Jeffrey | Ward, Stephen T. | Hunt, Donald F. | Cobbold, Mark | Profusek, Pam | Wood, Laura | Shepard, Dale | Grivas, Petros | Kapp, Kerstin | Volz, Barbara | Oswald, Detlef | Wittig, Burghardt | Schmidt, Manuel | Sefrin, Julian P. | Hillringhaus, Lars | Lifke, Valeria | Lifke, Alexander | Skaletskaya, Anna | Ponte, Jose | Chittenden, Thomas | Setiady, Yulius | Valsesia-Wittmann, Sandrine | Sivado, Eva | Thomas, Vincent | El Alaoui, Meddy | Papot, Sébastien | Dumontet, Charles | Dyson, Mike | McCafferty, John | El Alaoui, Said | Verma, Amita | Kumar, Vikas | Bommareddy, Praveen K. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Zloza, Andrew | Kohlhapp, Frederick | Silk, Ann W. | Jhawar, Sachin | Paneque, Tomas | Bommareddy, Praveen K. | Kohlhapp, Frederick | Newman, Jenna | Beltran, Pedro | Zloza, Andrew | Kaufman, Howard L. | Cao, Felicia | Hong, Bang-Xing | Rodriguez-Cruz, Tania | Song, Xiao-Tong | Gottschalk, Stephen | Calderon, Hugo | Illingworth, Sam | Brown, Alice | Fisher, Kerry | Seymour, Len | Champion, Brian | Eriksson, Emma | Wenthe, Jessica | Hellström, Ann-Charlotte | Paul-Wetterberg, Gabriella | Loskog, Angelica | Eriksson, Emma | Milenova, Ioanna | Wenthe, Jessica | Ståhle, Magnus | Jarblad-Leja, Justyna | Ullenhag, Gustav | Dimberg, Anna | Moreno, Rafael | Alemany, Ramon | Loskog, Angelica | Eriksson, Emma | Milenova, Ioanna | Moreno, Rafael | Alemany, Ramon
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):107-221.
doi:10.1186/s40425-016-0173-6
PMCID: PMC5123381
14.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part one 
Lundqvist, Andreas | van Hoef, Vincent | Zhang, Xiaonan | Wennerberg, Erik | Lorent, Julie | Witt, Kristina | Sanz, Laia Masvidal | Liang, Shuo | Murray, Shannon | Larsson, Ola | Kiessling, Rolf | Mao, Yumeng | Sidhom, John-William | Bessell, Catherine A. | Havel, Jonathan | Schneck, Jonathan | Chan, Timothy A. | Sachsenmeier, Eliot | Woods, David | Berglund, Anders | Ramakrishnan, Rupal | Sodre, Andressa | Weber, Jeffrey | Zappasodi, Roberta | Li, Yanyun | Qi, Jingjing | Wong, Philip | Sirard, Cynthia | Postow, Michael | Newman, Walter | Koon, Henry | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Callahan, Margaret K. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Lum, Lawrence G. | Choi, Minsig | Thakur, Archana | Deol, Abhinav | Dyson, Gregory | Shields, Anthony | Haymaker, Cara | Uemura, Marc | Murthy, Ravi | James, Marihella | Wang, Daqing | Brevard, Julie | Monaghan, Catherine | Swann, Suzanne | Geib, James | Cornfeld, Mark | Chunduru, Srinivas | Agrawal, Sudhir | Yee, Cassian | Wargo, Jennifer | Patel, Sapna P. | Amaria, Rodabe | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Woodman, Scott | Hwu, Wen-Jen | Davies, Michael A. | Hwu, Patrick | Overwijk, Willem W. | Bernatchez, Chantale | Diab, Adi | Massarelli, Erminia | Segal, Neil H. | Ribrag, Vincent | Melero, Ignacio | Gangadhar, Tara C. | Urba, Walter | Schadendorf, Dirk | Ferris, Robert L. | Houot, Roch | Morschhauser, Franck | Logan, Theodore | Luke, Jason J. | Sharfman, William | Barlesi, Fabrice | Ott, Patrick A. | Mansi, Laura | Kummar, Shivaani | Salles, Gilles | Carpio, Cecilia | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | McDonald, Dan | Maurer, Matthew | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Levy, Ronald | Khushalani, Nikhil | Wu, Jennifer | Zhang, Jinyu | Basher, Fahmin | Rubinstein, Mark | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | MacDonald, Cameron | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Chatterjee, Shilpak | Daenthanasanmak, Anusara | Chakraborty, Paramita | Toth, Kyle | Meek, Megan | Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth | Nishimura, Michael | Paulos, Chrystal | Beeson, Craig | Yu, Xuezhong | Mehrotra, Shikhar | Zhao, Fei | Evans, Kathy | Xiao, Christine | Holtzhausen, Alisha | Hanks, Brent A. | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Moreci, Rebecca | Whetstone, Ryan | Dadey, Rebekah | Watkins, Simon | Ferris, Robert | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Peled, Jonathan | Devlin, Sean | Staffas, Anna | Lumish, Melissa | Rodriguez, Kori Porosnicu | Ahr, Katya | Perales, Miguel | Giralt, Sergio | Taur, Ying | Pamer, Eric | van den Brink, Marcel R. M. | Jenq, Robert | Annels, Nicola | Pandha, Hardev | Simpson, Guy | Mostafid, Hugh | Harrington, Kevin | Melcher, Alan | Grose, Mark | Davies, Bronwyn | Au, Gough | Karpathy, Roberta | Shafren, Darren | Ricca, Jacob | Merghoub, Taha | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Zamarin, Dmitriy | Batista, Luciana | Marliot, Florence | Vasaturo, Angela | Carpentier, Sabrina | Poggionovo, Cécile | Frayssinet, Véronique | Fieschi, Jacques | Van den Eynde, Marc | Pagès, Franck | Galon, Jérôme | Hermitte, Fabienne | Smith, Sean G. | Nguyen, Khue | Ravindranathan, Sruthi | Koppolu, Bhanu | Zaharoff, David | Schvartsman, Gustavo | Bassett, Roland | McQuade, Jennifer L. | Haydu, Lauren E. | Davies, Michael A. | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Kline, Douglas | Chen, Xiufen | Fosco, Dominick | Kline, Justin | Overacre, Abigail | Chikina, Maria | Brunazzi, Erin | Shayan, Gulidanna | Horne, William | Kolls, Jay | Ferris, Robert L. | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Bruno, Tullia C. | Workman, Creg | Vignali, Dario | Adusumilli, Prasad S. | Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A | Li, Zihai | Gerry, Andrew | Sanderson, Joseph P. | Howe, Karen | Docta, Roslin | Gao, Qian | Bagg, Eleanor A. L. | Tribble, Nicholas | Maroto, Miguel | Betts, Gareth | Bath, Natalie | Melchiori, Luca | Lowther, Daniel E. | Ramachandran, Indu | Kari, Gabor | Basu, Samik | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Chagin, Karen | Pandite, Lini | Holdich, Tom | Amado, Rafael | Zhang, Hua | Glod, John | Bernstein, Donna | Jakobsen, Bent | Mackall, Crystal | Wong, Ryan | Silk, Jonathan D. | Adams, Katherine | Hamilton, Garth | Bennett, Alan D. | Brett, Sara | Jing, Junping | Quattrini, Adriano | Saini, Manoj | Wiedermann, Guy | Gerry, Andrew | Jakobsen, Bent | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Brewer, Joanna | Duong, MyLinh | Lu, An | Chang, Peter | Mahendravada, Aruna | Shinners, Nicholas | Slawin, Kevin | Spencer, David M. | Foster, Aaron E. | Bayle, J. Henri | Bergamaschi, Cristina | Ng, Sinnie Sin Man | Nagy, Bethany | Jensen, Shawn | Hu, Xintao | Alicea, Candido | Fox, Bernard | Felber, Barbara | Pavlakis, George | Chacon, Jessica | Yamamoto, Tori | Garrabrant, Thomas | Cortina, Luis | Powell, Daniel J. | Donia, Marco | Kjeldsen, Julie Westerlin | Andersen, Rikke | Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff | Bianchi, Valentina | Legut, Mateusz | Attaf, Meriem | Dolton, Garry | Szomolay, Barbara | Ott, Sascha | Lyngaa, Rikke | Hadrup, Sine Reker | Sewell, Andrew Kelvin | Svane, Inge Marie | Fan, Aaron | Kumai, Takumi | Celis, Esteban | Frank, Ian | Stramer, Amanda | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wardell, Seth | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Goff, Stephanie L. | Zacharakis, Nikolaos | Assadipour, Yasmine | Prickett, Todd D. | Gartner, Jared J. | Somerville, Robert | Black, Mary | Xu, Hui | Chinnasamy, Harshini | Kriley, Isaac | Lu, Lily | Wunderlich, John | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven | Feldman, Steven A. | Trebska-McGowan, Kasia | Kriley, Isaac | Malekzadeh, Parisa | Payabyab, Eden | Sherry, Richard | Rosenberg, Steven | Goff, Stephanie L. | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Kopits, Charlene | Rabinovich, Brian | Lotze, Michael T. | Green, Daniel S. | Kamenyeva, Olena | Zoon, Kathryn C. | Annunziata, Christina M. | Hammill, Joanne | Helsen, Christopher | Aarts, Craig | Bramson, Jonathan | Harada, Yui | Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu | Helsen, Christopher | Hammill, Joanne | Mwawasi, Kenneth | Denisova, Galina | Bramson, Jonathan | Giri, Rajanish | Jin, Benjamin | Campbell, Tracy | Draper, Lindsey M. | Stevanovic, Sanja | Yu, Zhiya | Weissbrich, Bianca | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Trimble, Cornelia L. | Rosenberg, Steven | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Tsang, Kwong | Fantini, Massimo | Hodge, James W. | Fujii, Rika | Fernando, Ingrid | Jochems, Caroline | Heery, Christopher | Gulley, James | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Schlom, Jeffrey | Jing, Weiqing | Gershan, Jill | Blitzer, Grace | Weber, James | McOlash, Laura | Johnson, Bryon D. | Kiany, Simin | Gangxiong, Huang | Kleinerman, Eugenie S. | Klichinsky, Michael | Ruella, Marco | Shestova, Olga | Kenderian, Saad | Kim, Miriam | Scholler, John | June, Carl H. | Gill, Saar | Moogk, Duane | Zhong, Shi | Yu, Zhiya | Liadi, Ivan | Rittase, William | Fang, Victoria | Dougherty, Janna | Perez-Garcia, Arianne | Osman, Iman | Zhu, Cheng | Varadarajan, Navin | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Frey, Alan | Krogsgaard, Michelle | Landi, Daniel | Fousek, Kristen | Mukherjee, Malini | Shree, Ankita | Joseph, Sujith | Bielamowicz, Kevin | Byrd, Tiara | Ahmed, Nabil | Hegde, Meenakshi | Lee, Sylvia | Byrd, David | Thompson, John | Bhatia, Shailender | Tykodi, Scott | Delismon, Judy | Chu, Liz | Abdul-Alim, Siddiq | Ohanian, Arpy | DeVito, Anna Marie | Riddell, Stanley | Margolin, Kim | Magalhaes, Isabelle | Mattsson, Jonas | Uhlin, Michael | Nemoto, Satoshi | Villarroel, Patricio Pérez | Nakagawa, Ryosuke | Mule, James J. | Mailloux, Adam W. | Mata, Melinda | Nguyen, Phuong | Gerken, Claudia | DeRenzo, Christopher | Spencer, David M. | Gottschalk, Stephen | Mathieu, Mélissa | Pelletier, Sandy | Stagg, John | Turcotte, Simon | Minutolo, Nicholas | Sharma, Prannda | Tsourkas, Andrew | Powell, Daniel J. | Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine | Mauer, Daniela | Drechsel, Katharina | Barth, Carola | Freese, Katharina | Kolrep, Ulrike | Schult, Silke | Assenmacher, Mario | Kaiser, Andrew | Mullinax, John | Hall, MacLean | Le, Julie | Kodumudi, Krithika | Royster, Erica | Richards, Allison | Gonzalez, Ricardo | Sarnaik, Amod | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Nielsen, Morten | Krarup-Hansen, Anders | Hovgaard, Dorrit | Petersen, Michael Mørk | Loya, Anand Chainsukh | Junker, Niels | Svane, Inge Marie | Rivas, Charlotte | Parihar, Robin | Gottschalk, Stephen | Rooney, Cliona M. | Qin, Haiying | Nguyen, Sang | Su, Paul | Burk, Chad | Duncan, Brynn | Kim, Bong-Hyun | Kohler, M. Eric | Fry, Terry | Rao, Arjun A. | Teyssier, Noam | Pfeil, Jacob | Sgourakis, Nikolaos | Salama, Sofie | Haussler, David | Richman, Sarah A. | Nunez-Cruz, Selene | Gershenson, Zack | Mourelatos, Zissimos | Barrett, David | Grupp, Stephan | Milone, Michael | Rodriguez-Garcia, Alba | Robinson, Matthew K. | Adams, Gregory P. | Powell, Daniel J. | Santos, João | Havunen, Riikka | Siurala, Mikko | Cervera-Carrascón, Víctor | Parviainen, Suvi | Antilla, Marjukka | Hemminki, Akseli | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Santiago, Laurelis | Chen, Jie Qing | Dai, Zhimin | Wardell, Seth | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Sha, Huizi | Su, Shu | Ding, Naiqing | Liu, Baorui | Stevanovic, Sanja | Pasetto, Anna | Helman, Sarah R. | Gartner, Jared J. | Prickett, Todd D. | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Bhatia, Shailender | Burgess, Melissa | Zhang, Hui | Lee, Tien | Klingemann, Hans | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Nghiem, Paul | Kirkwood, John M. | Rossi, John M. | Sherman, Marika | Xue, Allen | Shen, Yueh-wei | Navale, Lynn | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Kochenderfer, James N. | Bot, Adrian | Veerapathran, Anandaraman | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Stramer, Amanda | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wiener, Doris | Frank, Ian | Santiago, Laurelis | Rabinovich, Brian | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Waller, Edmund K. | Li, Jian-Ming | Petersen, Christopher | Blazar, Bruce R. | Li, Jingxia | Giver, Cynthia R. | Wang, Ziming | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Sturgill, Ian | Canter, Robert J. | Murphy, William J. | Zhang, Congcong | Burger, Michael C. | Jennewein, Lukas | Waldmann, Anja | Mittelbronn, Michel | Tonn, Torsten | Steinbach, Joachim P. | Wels, Winfried S. | Williams, Jason B. | Zha, Yuanyuan | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Williams, LaTerrica C. | Krenciute, Giedre | Kalra, Mamta | Louis, Chrystal | Gottschalk, Stephen | Xin, Gang | Schauder, David | Jiang, Aimin | Joshi, Nikhil | Cui, Weiguo | Zeng, Xue | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Zhao, Zeguo | Hamieh, Mohamad | Eyquem, Justin | Gunset, Gertrude | Bander, Neil | Sadelain, Michel | Askmyr, David | Abolhalaj, Milad | Lundberg, Kristina | Greiff, Lennart | Lindstedt, Malin | Angell, Helen K. | Kim, Kyoung-Mee | Kim, Seung-Tae | Kim, Sung | Sharpe, Alan D. | Ogden, Julia | Davenport, Anna | Hodgson, Darren R. | Barrett, Carl | Lee, Jeeyun | Kilgour, Elaine | Hanson, Jodi | Caspell, Richard | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ansari, Tameem | Schiller, Annemarie | Sundararaman, Srividya | Lehmann, Paul | Hanson, Jodi | Roen, Diana | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ayers, Mark | Levitan, Diane | Arreaza, Gladys | Liu, Fang | Mogg, Robin | Bang, Yung-Jue | O’Neil, Bert | Cristescu, Razvan | Friedlander, Philip | Wassman, Karl | Kyi, Chrisann | Oh, William | Bhardwaj, Nina | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gustafson, Michael P. | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Parney, Ian F. | Dietz, Allan B. | Carvajal-Hausdorf, Daniel | Mani, Nikita | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Schalper, Kurt | Rimm, David | Chang, Serena | Levy, Ronald | Kurland, John | Krishnan, Suba | Ahlers, Christoph Matthias | Jure-Kunkel, Maria | Cohen, Lewis | Maecker, Holden | Kohrt, Holbrook | Chen, Shuming | Crabill, George | Pritchard, Theresa | McMiller, Tracee | Pardoll, Drew | Pan, Fan | Topalian, Suzanne | Danaher, Patrick | Warren, Sarah | Dennis, Lucas | White, Andrew M. | D’Amico, Leonard | Geller, Melissa | Disis, Mary L. | Beechem, Joseph | Odunsi, Kunle | Fling, Steven | Derakhshandeh, Roshanak | Webb, Tonya J. | Dubois, Sigrid | Conlon, Kevin | Bryant, Bonita | Hsu, Jennifer | Beltran, Nancy | Müller, Jürgen | Waldmann, Thomas | Duhen, Rebekka | Duhen, Thomas | Thompson, Lucas | Montler, Ryan | Weinberg, Andrew | Kates, Max | Early, Brandon | Yusko, Erik | Schreiber, Taylor H. | Bivalacqua, Trinity J. | Ayers, Mark | Lunceford, Jared | Nebozhyn, Michael | Murphy, Erin | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Albright, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Kang, S. Peter | Shankaran, Veena | Piha-Paul, Sarina A. | Yearley, Jennifer | Seiwert, Tanguy | Ribas, Antoni | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Cristescu, Razvan | Mogg, Robin | Ayers, Mark | Albright, Andrew | Murphy, Erin | Yearley, Jennifer | Sher, Xinwei | Liu, Xiao Qiao | Nebozhyn, Michael | Lunceford, Jared | Joe, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Plimack, Elizabeth | Ott, Patrick A. | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Forrest-Hay, Alex | Guyre, Cheryl A. | Narumiya, Kohei | Delcommenne, Marc | Hirsch, Heather A. | Deshpande, Amit | Reeves, Jason | Shu, Jenny | Zi, Tong | Michaelson, Jennifer | Law, Debbie | Trehu, Elizabeth | Sathyanaryanan, Sriram | Hodkinson, Brendan P. | Hutnick, Natalie A. | Schaffer, Michael E. | Gormley, Michael | Hulett, Tyler | Jensen, Shawn | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Dubay, Christopher | Afentoulis, Michael | Reddy, Ashok | David, Larry | Fox, Bernard | Jayant, Kumar | Agrawal, Swati | Agrawal, Rajendra | Jeyakumar, Ghayathri | Kim, Seongho | Kim, Heejin | Silski, Cynthia | Suisham, Stacey | Heath, Elisabeth | Vaishampayan, Ulka | Vandeven, Natalie | Viller, Natasja Nielsen | O’Connor, Alison | Chen, Hui | Bossen, Bolette | Sievers, Eric | Uger, Robert | Nghiem, Paul | Johnson, Lisa | Kao, Hsiang-Fong | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Lai, Shu-Chuan | Wang, Chun-Wei | Ko, Jenq-Yuh | Lou, Pei-Jen | Lee, Tsai-Jan | Liu, Tsang-Wu | Hong, Ruey-Long | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Landis, Benjamin J. | Koegler, Sally | Hirsch, Brooke | Gianani, Roberto | Kim, Jeffrey | He, Ming-Xiao | Zhang, Bingqing | Su, Nan | Luo, Yuling | Ma, Xiao-Jun | Park, Emily | Kim, Dae Won | Copploa, Domenico | Kothari, Nishi | doo Chang, Young | Kim, Richard | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Knaus, Hanna A. | Berglund, Sofia | Hackl, Hubert | Karp, Judith E. | Gojo, Ivana | Luznik, Leo | Hong, Henoch S. | Koch, Sven D. | Scheel, Birgit | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Wiegand, Volker | Backert, Linus | Kohlbacher, Oliver | Hoerr, Ingmar | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Billingsley, James M. | Koguchi, Yoshinobu | Conrad, Valerie | Miller, William | Gonzalez, Iliana | Poplonski, Tomasz | Meeuwsen, Tanisha | Howells-Ferreira, Ana | Rattray, Rogan | Campbell, Mary | Bifulco, Carlo | Dubay, Christopher | Bahjat, Keith | Curti, Brendan | Urba, Walter | Vetsika, E-K | Kallergi, G. | Aggouraki, Despoina | Lyristi, Z. | Katsarlinos, P. | Koinis, Filippos | Georgoulias, V. | Kotsakis, Athanasios | Martin, Nathan T. | Aeffner, Famke | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Cerkovnik, Logan | Pratte, Luke | Kim, Rebecca | Hirsch, Brooke | Krueger, Joseph | Gianani, Roberto | Martínez-Usatorre, Amaia | Jandus, Camilla | Donda, Alena | Carretero-Iglesia, Laura | Speiser, Daniel E. | Zehn, Dietmar | Rufer, Nathalie | Romero, Pedro | Panda, Anshuman | Mehnert, Janice | Hirshfield, Kim M. | Riedlinger, Greg | Damare, Sherri | Saunders, Tracie | Sokol, Levi | Stein, Mark | Poplin, Elizabeth | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Silk, Ann | Chan, Nancy | Frankel, Melissa | Kane, Michael | Malhotra, Jyoti | Aisner, Joseph | Kaufman, Howard L. | Ali, Siraj | Ross, Jeffrey | White, Eileen | Bhanot, Gyan | Ganesan, Shridar | Monette, Anne | Bergeron, Derek | Amor, Amira Ben | Meunier, Liliane | Caron, Christine | Morou, Antigoni | Kaufmann, Daniel | Liberman, Moishe | Jurisica, Igor | Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie | Hamzaoui, Kamel | Lapointe, Rejean | Mongan, Ann | Ku, Yuan-Chieh | Tom, Warren | Sun, Yongming | Pankov, Alex | Looney, Tim | Au-Young, Janice | Hyland, Fiona | Conroy, Jeff | Morrison, Carl | Glenn, Sean | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Gardner, Mark | Mongan, Ann | Omilian, Angela R. | Conroy, Jeff | Bshara, Wiam | Angela, Omilian | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Glenn, Sean | Morrison, Carl | Mongan, Ann | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Smolkin, Mark E. | Deacon, Donna H. | Patterson, James W. | Chen, Lieping | Bullock, Timothy N. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Deacon, Donna H. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Bullock, Timothy N. | Loffredo, John T. | Vuyyuru, Raja | Beyer, Sophie | Spires, Vanessa M. | Fox, Maxine | Ehrmann, Jon M. | Taylor, Katrina A. | Korman, Alan J. | Graziano, Robert F. | Page, David | Sanchez, Katherine | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Martel, Maritza | Bifulco, Carlo | Urba, Walter | Fox, Bernard | Patel, Sapna P. | De Macedo, Mariana Petaccia | Qin, Yong | Reuben, Alex | Spencer, Christine | Guindani, Michele | Bassett, Roland | Wargo, Jennifer | Racolta, Adriana | Kelly, Brian | Jones, Tobin | Polaske, Nathan | Theiss, Noah | Robida, Mark | Meridew, Jeffrey | Habensus, Iva | Zhang, Liping | Pestic-Dragovich, Lidija | Tang, Lei | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Logan, Theodore | Khushalani, Nikhil | Margolin, Kim | Koon, Henry | Olencki, Thomas | Hutson, Thomas | Curti, Brendan | Roder, Joanna | Blackmon, Shauna | Roder, Heinrich | Stewart, John | Amin, Asim | Ernstoff, Marc S. | Clark, Joseph I. | Atkins, Michael B. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Sosman, Jeffrey | Weber, Jeffrey | McDermott, David F. | Weber, Jeffrey | Kluger, Harriet | Halaban, Ruth | Snzol, Mario | Roder, Heinrich | Roder, Joanna | Asmellash, Senait | Steingrimsson, Arni | Blackmon, Shauna | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Wang, Chichung | Roman, Kristin | Clement, Amanda | Downing, Sean | Hoyt, Clifford | Harder, Nathalie | Schmidt, Guenter | Schoenmeyer, Ralf | Brieu, Nicolas | Yigitsoy, Mehmet | Madonna, Gabriele | Botti, Gerardo | Grimaldi, Antonio | Ascierto, Paolo A. | Huss, Ralf | Athelogou, Maria | Hessel, Harald | Harder, Nathalie | Buchner, Alexander | Schmidt, Guenter | Stief, Christian | Huss, Ralf | Binnig, Gerd | Kirchner, Thomas | Sellappan, Shankar | Thyparambil, Sheeno | Schwartz, Sarit | Cecchi, Fabiola | Nguyen, Andrew | Vaske, Charles | Hembrough, Todd
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):1-106.
doi:10.1186/s40425-016-0172-7
PMCID: PMC5123387
16.  Multiplatform Biomarker Discovery for Bladder Cancer Recurrence Diagnosis 
Disease Markers  2016;2016:4591910.
Purpose. Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (BCa) has a high recurrence rate requiring lifelong surveillance. Urinary biomarkers are promising as simple alternatives to cystoscopy for the diagnosis of recurrent bladder cancer. However, no single marker can achieve the required accuracy. The purpose of this study was to select a multiparameter panel, comprising urinary biomarkers and clinical parameters, for BCa recurrence diagnosis. Experimental Design. Candidate biomarkers were measured in urine samples of BCa patients with recurrence and BCa patients without recurrence. A multiplatform strategy was used for marker quantification comprising a multiplexed microarray and an automated platform for ELISA analysis. A multivariate statistical analysis combined the results from both platforms with the collected clinical data. Results. The best performing combination of biomarkers and clinical parameters achieved an AUC value of 0.91, showing better performance than individual parameters. This panel comprises six biomarkers (cadherin-1, IL-8, ErbB2, IL-6, EN2, and VEGF-A) and three clinical parameters (number of past recurrences, number of BCG therapies, and stage at time of diagnosis). Conclusions. The multiparameter panel could be a useful noninvasive tool for BCa surveillance and potentially impact the clinical management of this disease. Validation of results in an independent cohort is warranted.
doi:10.1155/2016/4591910
PMCID: PMC5021863  PMID: 27660385
17.  Live viruses to treat cancer 
Viruses that selectively replicate in cancer cells, leading to the death of the cell, are being studied for their potential as cancer therapies. Some of these viruses are naturally occurring but cause little if any illness in humans; others have been engineered to make them specifically able to kill cancer cells while sparing normal cells. These oncolytic viruses may be selective for cancer cells because viral receptors are over-expressed on the surface of cancer cells or because antiviral pathways are distorted in cancer cells. Additionally, when oncolytic viruses kill cancer cells, it can stimulate an antitumour immune response from the host that can enhance efficacy. Numerous early phase trials of at least six oncolytic viruses have been reported with no evidence of concerning toxicity either as single agents or in combination with chemotherapies and radiotherapy. Three oncolytic viruses have reached randomized testing in cancer patients; reolysin in head and neck cancer and JX594 in hepatocellular cancers, while results from the first-phase III trial of T-vec in metastatic melanoma are expected shortly.
doi:10.1177/0141076813494196
PMCID: PMC3725859  PMID: 23824333
oncolytic virotherapy; immunotherapy; delivery; cancer
18.  Assessing the role of insulin‐like growth factors and binding proteins in prostate cancer using Mendelian randomization: Genetic variants as instruments for circulating levels 
International Journal of Cancer  2016;139(7):1520-1533.
Circulating insulin‐like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) are associated with prostate cancer. Using genetic variants as instruments for IGF peptides, we investigated whether these associations are likely to be causal. We identified from the literature 56 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IGF axis previously associated with biomarker levels (8 from a genome‐wide association study [GWAS] and 48 in reported candidate genes). In ∼700 men without prostate cancer and two replication cohorts (N ∼ 900 and ∼9,000), we examined the properties of these SNPS as instrumental variables (IVs) for IGF‐I, IGF‐II, IGFBP‐2 and IGFBP‐3. Those confirmed as strong IVs were tested for association with prostate cancer risk, low (< 7) vs. high (≥ 7) Gleason grade, localised vs. advanced stage, and mortality, in 22,936 controls and 22,992 cases. IV analysis was used in an attempt to estimate the causal effect of circulating IGF peptides on prostate cancer. Published SNPs in the IGFBP1/IGFBP3 gene region, particularly rs11977526, were strong instruments for IGF‐II and IGFBP‐3, less so for IGF‐I. Rs11977526 was associated with high (vs. low) Gleason grade (OR per IGF‐II/IGFBP‐3 level‐raising allele 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.10). Using rs11977526 as an IV we estimated the causal effect of a one SD increase in IGF‐II (∼265 ng/mL) on risk of high vs. low grade disease as 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.31). Because of the potential for pleiotropy of the genetic instruments, these findings can only causally implicate the IGF pathway in general, not any one specific biomarker.
What's New?
Circulating insulin‐like growth factors (IGF) and their binding proteins have been associated with prostate cancer risk in observational epidemiological studies but it is not clear whether there is a causal relationship with disease. To address this question, the authors used Mendelian randomization, a method that uses genetic variants as proxies for measured exposures. Their results implicate the IGF pathway in general in prostate cancer development but specific biomarkers remain to be determined.
doi:10.1002/ijc.30206
PMCID: PMC4957617  PMID: 27225428
insulin‐like growth factors; insulin‐like growth factor‐binding proteins; prostate cancer; Mendelian randomization; single nucleotide polymorphisms; IGFBP3; ProtecT; PRACTICAL; ALSPAC; UKHLS
19.  Definitive Management of Oligometastatic Melanoma in a Murine Model Using Combined Ablative Radiation Therapy and Viral Immunotherapy 
Purpose
The oligometastatic state is an intermediate state between a malignancy that can be completely eradicated with conventional modalities and one in which a palliative approach is undertaken. Clinically, high rates of local tumor control are possible with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), using precisely targeted, high-dose, low-fraction radiation therapy. However, in oligometastatic melanoma, virtually all patients develop progression systemically at sites not initially treated with ablative radiation therapy that cannot be managed with conventional chemotherapy and immunotherapy. We have demonstrated in mice that intravenous administration of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing defined tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) generates systemic immune responses capable of clearing established tumors. Therefore, in the present preclinical study, we tested whether the combination of systemic VSV-mediated antigen delivery and SABR would be effective against oligometastatic disease.
Methods and Materials
We generated a model of oligometastatic melanoma in C57BL/6 immunocompetent mice and then used a combination of SABR and systemically administered VSV-TAA viral immunotherapy to treat both local and systemic disease.
Results
Our data showed that SABR generates excellent control or cure of local, clinically detectable, and accessible tumor through direct cell ablation. Also, the immunotherapeutic activity of systemically administered VSV-TAA generated T-cell responses that cleared subclinical metastatic tumors. We also showed that SABR induced weak T-cell-mediated tumor responses, which, particularly if boosted by VSV−TAA, might contribute to control of local and systemic disease. In addition, VSV−TAA therapy alone had significant effects on control of both local and metastatic tumors.
Conclusions
We have shown in the present preliminary murine study using a single tumor model that this approach represents an effective, complementary combination therapy model that addresses the need for both systemic and local control in oligometastatic melanoma.
doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.07.2274
PMCID: PMC4877702  PMID: 26461000
20.  Integrated analysis of the prostate cancer small‐nucleolar transcriptome reveals SNORA55 as a driver of prostate cancer progression 
Molecular Oncology  2015;10(5):693-703.
Metastasis is the primary cause of death in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) have long been considered “housekeeping” genes with no relevance for cancer biology. Emerging evidence has challenged this assumption, suggesting that snoRNA expression is frequently modulated during cancer progression. Despite this, no study has systematically addressed the prognostic and functional significance of snoRNAs in PCa.
We performed RNA Sequencing on paired metastatic/non‐metastatic PCa xenografts derived from clinical specimens. The clinical significance of differentially expressed snoRNAs was further investigated in two independent primary PCa cohorts (131 and 43 patients, respectively). The snoRNA demonstrating the strongest association with clinical outcome was quantified in PCa patient‐derived serum samples and its functional relevance was investigated in PCa cells via gene expression profiling, pathway analysis and gene silencing.
Our comparison revealed 21 differentially expressed snoRNAs in the metastatic vs. non‐metastatic xenografts. Of those, 12 were represented in clinical databases and were further analyzed. SNORA55 emerged as a predictor of shorter relapse‐free survival (results confirmed in two independent databases). SNORA55 was reproducibly detectable in serum samples from PCa patients. SNORA55 silencing in PCa cell lines significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration. Pathway analysis revealed that SNORA55 expression is significantly associated with growth factor signaling and pro‐inflammatory cytokine expression in PCa.
Our results demonstrate that SNORA55 up‐regulation predicts PCa progression and that silencing this non‐coding gene affects PCa cell proliferation and metastatic potential, thus positioning it as both a novel biomarker and therapeutic target.
Highlights
The role of small nucleolar RNAs (SnoRNAs) in prostate cancer progression has been scarcely investigated.We analyzed the transcriptome of patient‐derived prostate cancer xenografts.Our analysis revealed that SNORA55 is up‐regulated in prostate cancer and associated with worse prognosis.SNORA55 inhibition impaired prostate cancer cell growth and metastatic potential.Pathway analysis revealed that SNORA55 interacts with pro‐oncogenic and inflammatory pathways.
doi:10.1016/j.molonc.2015.12.010
PMCID: PMC5423162  PMID: 26809501
Prostate cancer; SNORA55; Non‐coding RNAs; Patient‐derived xenograft; Next generation sequencing; Antisense oligonucleotide
21.  Gene and pathway level analyses of germline DNA-repair gene variants and prostate cancer susceptibility using the iCOGS-genotyping array 
British Journal of Cancer  2016;114(8):945-952.
Background:
Germline mutations within DNA-repair genes are implicated in susceptibility to multiple forms of cancer. For prostate cancer (PrCa), rare mutations in BRCA2 and BRCA1 give rise to moderately elevated risk, whereas two of ∼100 common, low-penetrance PrCa susceptibility variants identified so far by genome-wide association studies implicate RAD51B and RAD23B.
Methods:
Genotype data from the iCOGS array were imputed to the 1000 genomes phase 3 reference panel for 21 780 PrCa cases and 21 727 controls from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. We subsequently performed single variant, gene and pathway-level analyses using 81 303 SNPs within 20 Kb of a panel of 179 DNA-repair genes.
Results:
Single SNP analyses identified only the previously reported association with RAD51B. Gene-level analyses using the SKAT-C test from the SNP-set (Sequence) Kernel Association Test (SKAT) identified a significant association with PrCa for MSH5. Pathway-level analyses suggested a possible role for the translesion synthesis pathway in PrCa risk and Homologous recombination/Fanconi Anaemia pathway for PrCa aggressiveness, even though after adjustment for multiple testing these did not remain significant.
Conclusions:
MSH5 is a novel candidate gene warranting additional follow-up as a prospective PrCa-risk locus. MSH5 has previously been reported as a pleiotropic susceptibility locus for lung, colorectal and serous ovarian cancers.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.50
PMCID: PMC5379914  PMID: 26964030
DNA repair; prostate cancer; genome-wide association study; GWAS; iCOGS
22.  Phase I Trial of Cyclophosphamide as an Immune Modulator for Optimizing Oncolytic Reovirus Delivery to Solid Tumors 
Purpose
Reovirus is a wild-type oncolytic virus that is ubiquitous in the environment; most patients are therefore preimmune. Therapeutic administration leads to an increase in neutralizing antireovirus antibody (NARA) titer. We hypothesized that if NARA limited reovirus antitumor activity, the effect might be attenuated by coadministration of cyclophosphamide.
Experimental design
In a phase I study, patients with advanced cancer received cyclophosphamide 3 days before intravenous reovirus serotype 3 Dearing (RT3D). The primary objective was to reduce the resulting rise in NARA titer. Cyclophosphamide dose was escalated from 25–1,000 mg/m2 through nine cohorts; we aimed to define a well-tolerated immunomodulatory dose.
Results
The combination was well tolerated in 36 patients, with grade 3/4 toxicities only seen at or above the maximum tolerated dose of cyclophosphamide, which was 800 mg/m2 combined with reovirus. Immunosuppressive effect, defined as maintaining NARA titer rise below a predefined threshold, was observed in only one patient. Furthermore, despite expected myelosuppression seen at higher cyclophosphamide doses, no changes in T-cell subsets, including Tregs, occurred with dose escalation. Viable virus was detected in association with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 14% of patients 10 days after the last RT3D injection, despite high plasma NARA titer, demonstrating a potential mechanism for prolonged evasion of neutralization by reovirus.
Conclusions
Coadministration of cyclophosphamide with reovirus is safe, but does not attenuate host antiviral responses. Alternative immunomodulation approaches should be explored, but association with PBMCs may allow reovirus to persist and evade even high levels of neutralizing antibodies.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-1770
PMCID: PMC4821068  PMID: 25424857
23.  Immune-Mediated Antitumor Activity of Reovirus Is Required for Therapy and Is Independent of Direct Viral Oncolysis and Replication 
Purpose
Reovirus is a naturally occurring oncolytic virus in clinical trials. Although tumor infection by reovirus can generate adaptive antitumor immunity, its therapeutic importance versus direct viral oncolysis is undefined. This study addresses the requirement for viral oncolysis and replication, and the relative importance of antitumor immunity and direct oncolysis in therapy.
Experimental Design
Nonantigen specific T cells loaded with reovirus were delivered i.v. to C57BL/6 and severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing lymph node and splenic metastases from the murine melanoma, B16ova, with assessment of viral replication, metastatic clearance by tumor colony outgrowth, and immune priming. Human cytotoxic lymphocyte priming assays were done with dendritic cells loaded with Mel888 cells before the addition of reovirus.
Results
B16ova was resistant to direct oncolysis in vitro, and failed to support reovirus replication in vitro or in vivo. Nevertheless, reovirus purged lymph node and splenic metastases in C57BL/6 mice and generated antitumor immunity. In contrast, reovirus failed to reduce tumor burden in severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing either B16ova or reovirus-sensitive B16tk metastases. In the human system, reovirus acted solely as an adjuvant when added to dendritic cells already loaded with Mel888, supporting priming of specific antitumor cytotoxic lymphocyte, in the absence of significant direct tumor oncolysis; UV-treated nonreplicating reovirus was similarly immunogenic.
Conclusion
The immune response is critical in mediating the efficacy of reovirus, and does not depend upon direct viral oncolysis or replication. The findings are of direct relevance to fulfilling the potential of this novel anticancer agent.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-0334
PMCID: PMC4821072  PMID: 19509134
24.  Pubertal development and prostate cancer risk: Mendelian randomization study in a population-based cohort 
BMC Medicine  2016;14:66.
Background
Epidemiological studies have observed a positive association between an earlier age at sexual development and prostate cancer, but markers of sexual maturation in boys are imprecise and observational estimates are likely to suffer from a degree of uncontrolled confounding. To obtain causal estimates, we examined the role of pubertal development in prostate cancer using genetic polymorphisms associated with Tanner stage in adolescent boys in a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach.
Methods
We derived a weighted genetic risk score for pubertal development, combining 13 SNPs associated with male Tanner stage. A higher score indicated a later puberty onset. We examined the association of this score with prostate cancer risk, stage and grade in the UK-based ProtecT case-control study (n = 2,927), and used the PRACTICAL consortium (n = 43,737) as a replication sample.
Results
In ProtecT, the puberty genetic score was inversely associated with prostate cancer grade (odds ratio (OR) of high- vs. low-grade cancer, per tertile of the score: 0.76; 95 % CI, 0.64–0.89). In an instrumental variable estimation of the causal OR, later physical development in adolescence (equivalent to a difference of one Tanner stage between pubertal boys of the same age) was associated with a 77 % (95 % CI, 43–91 %) reduced odds of high Gleason prostate cancer. In PRACTICAL, the puberty genetic score was associated with prostate cancer stage (OR of advanced vs. localized cancer, per tertile: 0.95; 95 % CI, 0.91–1.00) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio amongst cases, per tertile: 0.94; 95 % CI, 0.90–0.98), but not with disease grade.
Conclusions
Older age at sexual maturation is causally linked to a reduced risk of later prostate cancer, especially aggressive disease.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12916-016-0602-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12916-016-0602-x
PMCID: PMC4820939  PMID: 27044414
Boys; Mendelian randomization; Prostate cancer; Puberty; Tanner scale
25.  Blood lipids and prostate cancer: a Mendelian randomization analysis 
Cancer Medicine  2016;5(6):1125-1136.
Abstract
Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL consortium were analyzed. Allele scores based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously reported to be uniquely associated with each of low‐density lipoprotein (LDL), high‐density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) levels, were first validated in an independent dataset, and then entered into logistic regression models to estimate the presence (and direction) of any causal effect of each lipid trait on prostate cancer risk. There was weak evidence for an association between the LDL genetic score and cancer grade: the odds ratio (OR) per genetically instrumented standard deviation (SD) in LDL, comparing high‐ (≥7 Gleason score) versus low‐grade (<7 Gleason score) cancers was 1.50 (95% CI: 0.92, 2.46; P = 0.11). A genetically instrumented SD increase in TGs was weakly associated with stage: the OR for advanced versus localized cancer per unit increase in genetic risk score was 1.68 (95% CI: 0.95, 3.00; P = 0.08). The rs12916‐T variant in 3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutaryl‐CoA reductase (HMGCR) was inversely associated with prostate cancer (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.00; P = 0.03). In conclusion, circulating lipids, instrumented by our genetic risk scores, did not appear to alter prostate cancer risk. We found weak evidence that higher LDL and TG levels increase aggressive prostate cancer risk, and that a variant in HMGCR (that mimics the LDL lowering effect of statin drugs) reduces risk. However, inferences are limited by sample size and evidence of pleiotropy.
doi:10.1002/cam4.695
PMCID: PMC4924371  PMID: 26992435
Cholesterol; Mendelian randomization; prostate cancer; statins

Results 1-25 (67)