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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part one 
Lundqvist, Andreas | van Hoef, Vincent | Zhang, Xiaonan | Wennerberg, Erik | Lorent, Julie | Witt, Kristina | Sanz, Laia Masvidal | Liang, Shuo | Murray, Shannon | Larsson, Ola | Kiessling, Rolf | Mao, Yumeng | Sidhom, John-William | Bessell, Catherine A. | Havel, Jonathan | Schneck, Jonathan | Chan, Timothy A. | Sachsenmeier, Eliot | Woods, David | Berglund, Anders | Ramakrishnan, Rupal | Sodre, Andressa | Weber, Jeffrey | Zappasodi, Roberta | Li, Yanyun | Qi, Jingjing | Wong, Philip | Sirard, Cynthia | Postow, Michael | Newman, Walter | Koon, Henry | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Callahan, Margaret K. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Lum, Lawrence G. | Choi, Minsig | Thakur, Archana | Deol, Abhinav | Dyson, Gregory | Shields, Anthony | Haymaker, Cara | Uemura, Marc | Murthy, Ravi | James, Marihella | Wang, Daqing | Brevard, Julie | Monaghan, Catherine | Swann, Suzanne | Geib, James | Cornfeld, Mark | Chunduru, Srinivas | Agrawal, Sudhir | Yee, Cassian | Wargo, Jennifer | Patel, Sapna P. | Amaria, Rodabe | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Woodman, Scott | Hwu, Wen-Jen | Davies, Michael A. | Hwu, Patrick | Overwijk, Willem W. | Bernatchez, Chantale | Diab, Adi | Massarelli, Erminia | Segal, Neil H. | Ribrag, Vincent | Melero, Ignacio | Gangadhar, Tara C. | Urba, Walter | Schadendorf, Dirk | Ferris, Robert L. | Houot, Roch | Morschhauser, Franck | Logan, Theodore | Luke, Jason J. | Sharfman, William | Barlesi, Fabrice | Ott, Patrick A. | Mansi, Laura | Kummar, Shivaani | Salles, Gilles | Carpio, Cecilia | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | McDonald, Dan | Maurer, Matthew | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Levy, Ronald | Khushalani, Nikhil | Wu, Jennifer | Zhang, Jinyu | Basher, Fahmin | Rubinstein, Mark | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | MacDonald, Cameron | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Chatterjee, Shilpak | Daenthanasanmak, Anusara | Chakraborty, Paramita | Toth, Kyle | Meek, Megan | Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth | Nishimura, Michael | Paulos, Chrystal | Beeson, Craig | Yu, Xuezhong | Mehrotra, Shikhar | Zhao, Fei | Evans, Kathy | Xiao, Christine | Holtzhausen, Alisha | Hanks, Brent A. | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Moreci, Rebecca | Whetstone, Ryan | Dadey, Rebekah | Watkins, Simon | Ferris, Robert | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Peled, Jonathan | Devlin, Sean | Staffas, Anna | Lumish, Melissa | Rodriguez, Kori Porosnicu | Ahr, Katya | Perales, Miguel | Giralt, Sergio | Taur, Ying | Pamer, Eric | van den Brink, Marcel R. M. | Jenq, Robert | Annels, Nicola | Pandha, Hardev | Simpson, Guy | Mostafid, Hugh | Harrington, Kevin | Melcher, Alan | Grose, Mark | Davies, Bronwyn | Au, Gough | Karpathy, Roberta | Shafren, Darren | Ricca, Jacob | Merghoub, Taha | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Zamarin, Dmitriy | Batista, Luciana | Marliot, Florence | Vasaturo, Angela | Carpentier, Sabrina | Poggionovo, Cécile | Frayssinet, Véronique | Fieschi, Jacques | Van den Eynde, Marc | Pagès, Franck | Galon, Jérôme | Hermitte, Fabienne | Smith, Sean G. | Nguyen, Khue | Ravindranathan, Sruthi | Koppolu, Bhanu | Zaharoff, David | Schvartsman, Gustavo | Bassett, Roland | McQuade, Jennifer L. | Haydu, Lauren E. | Davies, Michael A. | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Kline, Douglas | Chen, Xiufen | Fosco, Dominick | Kline, Justin | Overacre, Abigail | Chikina, Maria | Brunazzi, Erin | Shayan, Gulidanna | Horne, William | Kolls, Jay | Ferris, Robert L. | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Bruno, Tullia C. | Workman, Creg | Vignali, Dario | Adusumilli, Prasad S. | Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A | Li, Zihai | Gerry, Andrew | Sanderson, Joseph P. | Howe, Karen | Docta, Roslin | Gao, Qian | Bagg, Eleanor A. L. | Tribble, Nicholas | Maroto, Miguel | Betts, Gareth | Bath, Natalie | Melchiori, Luca | Lowther, Daniel E. | Ramachandran, Indu | Kari, Gabor | Basu, Samik | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Chagin, Karen | Pandite, Lini | Holdich, Tom | Amado, Rafael | Zhang, Hua | Glod, John | Bernstein, Donna | Jakobsen, Bent | Mackall, Crystal | Wong, Ryan | Silk, Jonathan D. | Adams, Katherine | Hamilton, Garth | Bennett, Alan D. | Brett, Sara | Jing, Junping | Quattrini, Adriano | Saini, Manoj | Wiedermann, Guy | Gerry, Andrew | Jakobsen, Bent | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Brewer, Joanna | Duong, MyLinh | Lu, An | Chang, Peter | Mahendravada, Aruna | Shinners, Nicholas | Slawin, Kevin | Spencer, David M. | Foster, Aaron E. | Bayle, J. Henri | Bergamaschi, Cristina | Ng, Sinnie Sin Man | Nagy, Bethany | Jensen, Shawn | Hu, Xintao | Alicea, Candido | Fox, Bernard | Felber, Barbara | Pavlakis, George | Chacon, Jessica | Yamamoto, Tori | Garrabrant, Thomas | Cortina, Luis | Powell, Daniel J. | Donia, Marco | Kjeldsen, Julie Westerlin | Andersen, Rikke | Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff | Bianchi, Valentina | Legut, Mateusz | Attaf, Meriem | Dolton, Garry | Szomolay, Barbara | Ott, Sascha | Lyngaa, Rikke | Hadrup, Sine Reker | Sewell, Andrew Kelvin | Svane, Inge Marie | Fan, Aaron | Kumai, Takumi | Celis, Esteban | Frank, Ian | Stramer, Amanda | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wardell, Seth | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Goff, Stephanie L. | Zacharakis, Nikolaos | Assadipour, Yasmine | Prickett, Todd D. | Gartner, Jared J. | Somerville, Robert | Black, Mary | Xu, Hui | Chinnasamy, Harshini | Kriley, Isaac | Lu, Lily | Wunderlich, John | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven | Feldman, Steven A. | Trebska-McGowan, Kasia | Kriley, Isaac | Malekzadeh, Parisa | Payabyab, Eden | Sherry, Richard | Rosenberg, Steven | Goff, Stephanie L. | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Kopits, Charlene | Rabinovich, Brian | Lotze, Michael T. | Green, Daniel S. | Kamenyeva, Olena | Zoon, Kathryn C. | Annunziata, Christina M. | Hammill, Joanne | Helsen, Christopher | Aarts, Craig | Bramson, Jonathan | Harada, Yui | Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu | Helsen, Christopher | Hammill, Joanne | Mwawasi, Kenneth | Denisova, Galina | Bramson, Jonathan | Giri, Rajanish | Jin, Benjamin | Campbell, Tracy | Draper, Lindsey M. | Stevanovic, Sanja | Yu, Zhiya | Weissbrich, Bianca | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Trimble, Cornelia L. | Rosenberg, Steven | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Tsang, Kwong | Fantini, Massimo | Hodge, James W. | Fujii, Rika | Fernando, Ingrid | Jochems, Caroline | Heery, Christopher | Gulley, James | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Schlom, Jeffrey | Jing, Weiqing | Gershan, Jill | Blitzer, Grace | Weber, James | McOlash, Laura | Johnson, Bryon D. | Kiany, Simin | Gangxiong, Huang | Kleinerman, Eugenie S. | Klichinsky, Michael | Ruella, Marco | Shestova, Olga | Kenderian, Saad | Kim, Miriam | Scholler, John | June, Carl H. | Gill, Saar | Moogk, Duane | Zhong, Shi | Yu, Zhiya | Liadi, Ivan | Rittase, William | Fang, Victoria | Dougherty, Janna | Perez-Garcia, Arianne | Osman, Iman | Zhu, Cheng | Varadarajan, Navin | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Frey, Alan | Krogsgaard, Michelle | Landi, Daniel | Fousek, Kristen | Mukherjee, Malini | Shree, Ankita | Joseph, Sujith | Bielamowicz, Kevin | Byrd, Tiara | Ahmed, Nabil | Hegde, Meenakshi | Lee, Sylvia | Byrd, David | Thompson, John | Bhatia, Shailender | Tykodi, Scott | Delismon, Judy | Chu, Liz | Abdul-Alim, Siddiq | Ohanian, Arpy | DeVito, Anna Marie | Riddell, Stanley | Margolin, Kim | Magalhaes, Isabelle | Mattsson, Jonas | Uhlin, Michael | Nemoto, Satoshi | Villarroel, Patricio Pérez | Nakagawa, Ryosuke | Mule, James J. | Mailloux, Adam W. | Mata, Melinda | Nguyen, Phuong | Gerken, Claudia | DeRenzo, Christopher | Spencer, David M. | Gottschalk, Stephen | Mathieu, Mélissa | Pelletier, Sandy | Stagg, John | Turcotte, Simon | Minutolo, Nicholas | Sharma, Prannda | Tsourkas, Andrew | Powell, Daniel J. | Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine | Mauer, Daniela | Drechsel, Katharina | Barth, Carola | Freese, Katharina | Kolrep, Ulrike | Schult, Silke | Assenmacher, Mario | Kaiser, Andrew | Mullinax, John | Hall, MacLean | Le, Julie | Kodumudi, Krithika | Royster, Erica | Richards, Allison | Gonzalez, Ricardo | Sarnaik, Amod | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Nielsen, Morten | Krarup-Hansen, Anders | Hovgaard, Dorrit | Petersen, Michael Mørk | Loya, Anand Chainsukh | Junker, Niels | Svane, Inge Marie | Rivas, Charlotte | Parihar, Robin | Gottschalk, Stephen | Rooney, Cliona M. | Qin, Haiying | Nguyen, Sang | Su, Paul | Burk, Chad | Duncan, Brynn | Kim, Bong-Hyun | Kohler, M. Eric | Fry, Terry | Rao, Arjun A. | Teyssier, Noam | Pfeil, Jacob | Sgourakis, Nikolaos | Salama, Sofie | Haussler, David | Richman, Sarah A. | Nunez-Cruz, Selene | Gershenson, Zack | Mourelatos, Zissimos | Barrett, David | Grupp, Stephan | Milone, Michael | Rodriguez-Garcia, Alba | Robinson, Matthew K. | Adams, Gregory P. | Powell, Daniel J. | Santos, João | Havunen, Riikka | Siurala, Mikko | Cervera-Carrascón, Víctor | Parviainen, Suvi | Antilla, Marjukka | Hemminki, Akseli | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Santiago, Laurelis | Chen, Jie Qing | Dai, Zhimin | Wardell, Seth | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Sha, Huizi | Su, Shu | Ding, Naiqing | Liu, Baorui | Stevanovic, Sanja | Pasetto, Anna | Helman, Sarah R. | Gartner, Jared J. | Prickett, Todd D. | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Bhatia, Shailender | Burgess, Melissa | Zhang, Hui | Lee, Tien | Klingemann, Hans | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Nghiem, Paul | Kirkwood, John M. | Rossi, John M. | Sherman, Marika | Xue, Allen | Shen, Yueh-wei | Navale, Lynn | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Kochenderfer, James N. | Bot, Adrian | Veerapathran, Anandaraman | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Stramer, Amanda | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wiener, Doris | Frank, Ian | Santiago, Laurelis | Rabinovich, Brian | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Waller, Edmund K. | Li, Jian-Ming | Petersen, Christopher | Blazar, Bruce R. | Li, Jingxia | Giver, Cynthia R. | Wang, Ziming | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Sturgill, Ian | Canter, Robert J. | Murphy, William J. | Zhang, Congcong | Burger, Michael C. | Jennewein, Lukas | Waldmann, Anja | Mittelbronn, Michel | Tonn, Torsten | Steinbach, Joachim P. | Wels, Winfried S. | Williams, Jason B. | Zha, Yuanyuan | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Williams, LaTerrica C. | Krenciute, Giedre | Kalra, Mamta | Louis, Chrystal | Gottschalk, Stephen | Xin, Gang | Schauder, David | Jiang, Aimin | Joshi, Nikhil | Cui, Weiguo | Zeng, Xue | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Zhao, Zeguo | Hamieh, Mohamad | Eyquem, Justin | Gunset, Gertrude | Bander, Neil | Sadelain, Michel | Askmyr, David | Abolhalaj, Milad | Lundberg, Kristina | Greiff, Lennart | Lindstedt, Malin | Angell, Helen K. | Kim, Kyoung-Mee | Kim, Seung-Tae | Kim, Sung | Sharpe, Alan D. | Ogden, Julia | Davenport, Anna | Hodgson, Darren R. | Barrett, Carl | Lee, Jeeyun | Kilgour, Elaine | Hanson, Jodi | Caspell, Richard | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ansari, Tameem | Schiller, Annemarie | Sundararaman, Srividya | Lehmann, Paul | Hanson, Jodi | Roen, Diana | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ayers, Mark | Levitan, Diane | Arreaza, Gladys | Liu, Fang | Mogg, Robin | Bang, Yung-Jue | O’Neil, Bert | Cristescu, Razvan | Friedlander, Philip | Wassman, Karl | Kyi, Chrisann | Oh, William | Bhardwaj, Nina | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gustafson, Michael P. | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Parney, Ian F. | Dietz, Allan B. | Carvajal-Hausdorf, Daniel | Mani, Nikita | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Schalper, Kurt | Rimm, David | Chang, Serena | Levy, Ronald | Kurland, John | Krishnan, Suba | Ahlers, Christoph Matthias | Jure-Kunkel, Maria | Cohen, Lewis | Maecker, Holden | Kohrt, Holbrook | Chen, Shuming | Crabill, George | Pritchard, Theresa | McMiller, Tracee | Pardoll, Drew | Pan, Fan | Topalian, Suzanne | Danaher, Patrick | Warren, Sarah | Dennis, Lucas | White, Andrew M. | D’Amico, Leonard | Geller, Melissa | Disis, Mary L. | Beechem, Joseph | Odunsi, Kunle | Fling, Steven | Derakhshandeh, Roshanak | Webb, Tonya J. | Dubois, Sigrid | Conlon, Kevin | Bryant, Bonita | Hsu, Jennifer | Beltran, Nancy | Müller, Jürgen | Waldmann, Thomas | Duhen, Rebekka | Duhen, Thomas | Thompson, Lucas | Montler, Ryan | Weinberg, Andrew | Kates, Max | Early, Brandon | Yusko, Erik | Schreiber, Taylor H. | Bivalacqua, Trinity J. | Ayers, Mark | Lunceford, Jared | Nebozhyn, Michael | Murphy, Erin | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Albright, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Kang, S. Peter | Shankaran, Veena | Piha-Paul, Sarina A. | Yearley, Jennifer | Seiwert, Tanguy | Ribas, Antoni | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Cristescu, Razvan | Mogg, Robin | Ayers, Mark | Albright, Andrew | Murphy, Erin | Yearley, Jennifer | Sher, Xinwei | Liu, Xiao Qiao | Nebozhyn, Michael | Lunceford, Jared | Joe, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Plimack, Elizabeth | Ott, Patrick A. | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Forrest-Hay, Alex | Guyre, Cheryl A. | Narumiya, Kohei | Delcommenne, Marc | Hirsch, Heather A. | Deshpande, Amit | Reeves, Jason | Shu, Jenny | Zi, Tong | Michaelson, Jennifer | Law, Debbie | Trehu, Elizabeth | Sathyanaryanan, Sriram | Hodkinson, Brendan P. | Hutnick, Natalie A. | Schaffer, Michael E. | Gormley, Michael | Hulett, Tyler | Jensen, Shawn | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Dubay, Christopher | Afentoulis, Michael | Reddy, Ashok | David, Larry | Fox, Bernard | Jayant, Kumar | Agrawal, Swati | Agrawal, Rajendra | Jeyakumar, Ghayathri | Kim, Seongho | Kim, Heejin | Silski, Cynthia | Suisham, Stacey | Heath, Elisabeth | Vaishampayan, Ulka | Vandeven, Natalie | Viller, Natasja Nielsen | O’Connor, Alison | Chen, Hui | Bossen, Bolette | Sievers, Eric | Uger, Robert | Nghiem, Paul | Johnson, Lisa | Kao, Hsiang-Fong | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Lai, Shu-Chuan | Wang, Chun-Wei | Ko, Jenq-Yuh | Lou, Pei-Jen | Lee, Tsai-Jan | Liu, Tsang-Wu | Hong, Ruey-Long | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Landis, Benjamin J. | Koegler, Sally | Hirsch, Brooke | Gianani, Roberto | Kim, Jeffrey | He, Ming-Xiao | Zhang, Bingqing | Su, Nan | Luo, Yuling | Ma, Xiao-Jun | Park, Emily | Kim, Dae Won | Copploa, Domenico | Kothari, Nishi | doo Chang, Young | Kim, Richard | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Knaus, Hanna A. | Berglund, Sofia | Hackl, Hubert | Karp, Judith E. | Gojo, Ivana | Luznik, Leo | Hong, Henoch S. | Koch, Sven D. | Scheel, Birgit | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Wiegand, Volker | Backert, Linus | Kohlbacher, Oliver | Hoerr, Ingmar | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Billingsley, James M. | Koguchi, Yoshinobu | Conrad, Valerie | Miller, William | Gonzalez, Iliana | Poplonski, Tomasz | Meeuwsen, Tanisha | Howells-Ferreira, Ana | Rattray, Rogan | Campbell, Mary | Bifulco, Carlo | Dubay, Christopher | Bahjat, Keith | Curti, Brendan | Urba, Walter | Vetsika, E-K | Kallergi, G. | Aggouraki, Despoina | Lyristi, Z. | Katsarlinos, P. | Koinis, Filippos | Georgoulias, V. | Kotsakis, Athanasios | Martin, Nathan T. | Aeffner, Famke | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Cerkovnik, Logan | Pratte, Luke | Kim, Rebecca | Hirsch, Brooke | Krueger, Joseph | Gianani, Roberto | Martínez-Usatorre, Amaia | Jandus, Camilla | Donda, Alena | Carretero-Iglesia, Laura | Speiser, Daniel E. | Zehn, Dietmar | Rufer, Nathalie | Romero, Pedro | Panda, Anshuman | Mehnert, Janice | Hirshfield, Kim M. | Riedlinger, Greg | Damare, Sherri | Saunders, Tracie | Sokol, Levi | Stein, Mark | Poplin, Elizabeth | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Silk, Ann | Chan, Nancy | Frankel, Melissa | Kane, Michael | Malhotra, Jyoti | Aisner, Joseph | Kaufman, Howard L. | Ali, Siraj | Ross, Jeffrey | White, Eileen | Bhanot, Gyan | Ganesan, Shridar | Monette, Anne | Bergeron, Derek | Amor, Amira Ben | Meunier, Liliane | Caron, Christine | Morou, Antigoni | Kaufmann, Daniel | Liberman, Moishe | Jurisica, Igor | Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie | Hamzaoui, Kamel | Lapointe, Rejean | Mongan, Ann | Ku, Yuan-Chieh | Tom, Warren | Sun, Yongming | Pankov, Alex | Looney, Tim | Au-Young, Janice | Hyland, Fiona | Conroy, Jeff | Morrison, Carl | Glenn, Sean | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Gardner, Mark | Mongan, Ann | Omilian, Angela R. | Conroy, Jeff | Bshara, Wiam | Angela, Omilian | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Glenn, Sean | Morrison, Carl | Mongan, Ann | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Smolkin, Mark E. | Deacon, Donna H. | Patterson, James W. | Chen, Lieping | Bullock, Timothy N. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Deacon, Donna H. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Bullock, Timothy N. | Loffredo, John T. | Vuyyuru, Raja | Beyer, Sophie | Spires, Vanessa M. | Fox, Maxine | Ehrmann, Jon M. | Taylor, Katrina A. | Korman, Alan J. | Graziano, Robert F. | Page, David | Sanchez, Katherine | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Martel, Maritza | Bifulco, Carlo | Urba, Walter | Fox, Bernard | Patel, Sapna P. | De Macedo, Mariana Petaccia | Qin, Yong | Reuben, Alex | Spencer, Christine | Guindani, Michele | Bassett, Roland | Wargo, Jennifer | Racolta, Adriana | Kelly, Brian | Jones, Tobin | Polaske, Nathan | Theiss, Noah | Robida, Mark | Meridew, Jeffrey | Habensus, Iva | Zhang, Liping | Pestic-Dragovich, Lidija | Tang, Lei | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Logan, Theodore | Khushalani, Nikhil | Margolin, Kim | Koon, Henry | Olencki, Thomas | Hutson, Thomas | Curti, Brendan | Roder, Joanna | Blackmon, Shauna | Roder, Heinrich | Stewart, John | Amin, Asim | Ernstoff, Marc S. | Clark, Joseph I. | Atkins, Michael B. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Sosman, Jeffrey | Weber, Jeffrey | McDermott, David F. | Weber, Jeffrey | Kluger, Harriet | Halaban, Ruth | Snzol, Mario | Roder, Heinrich | Roder, Joanna | Asmellash, Senait | Steingrimsson, Arni | Blackmon, Shauna | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Wang, Chichung | Roman, Kristin | Clement, Amanda | Downing, Sean | Hoyt, Clifford | Harder, Nathalie | Schmidt, Guenter | Schoenmeyer, Ralf | Brieu, Nicolas | Yigitsoy, Mehmet | Madonna, Gabriele | Botti, Gerardo | Grimaldi, Antonio | Ascierto, Paolo A. | Huss, Ralf | Athelogou, Maria | Hessel, Harald | Harder, Nathalie | Buchner, Alexander | Schmidt, Guenter | Stief, Christian | Huss, Ralf | Binnig, Gerd | Kirchner, Thomas | Sellappan, Shankar | Thyparambil, Sheeno | Schwartz, Sarit | Cecchi, Fabiola | Nguyen, Andrew | Vaske, Charles | Hembrough, Todd
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):1-106.
doi:10.1186/s40425-016-0172-7
PMCID: PMC5123387
2.  The use of research biopsies in clinical trials: are risks and benefits adequately discussed? 
Background
While the incorporation of research biopsies into clinical trials is increasing, limited information is available on how study protocols and informed consents integrate and describe their use.
Methods
All therapeutic clinical trials where image-guided research biopsies were performed from January 1, 2005 to October 1, 2010 were identified from an Interventional Radiology database. Data from study protocols and informed consents was extracted and analyzed. Procedural complications were recorded.
Results
A total of 57 clinical trials were identified, of which 38 (67%) contained at least one mandatory biopsy. Analysis of the research biopsy tumor tissue was a study endpoint in 95% of trials. The primary indication for research biopsy was for integral biomarker analysis in 32% and for correlative science in 68% of trials. A statistical analytic plan for the correlative science research biopsy tumor tissue was mentioned in 26%, described as exploratory in 51% and not mentioned in 23% of trials. For studies with mandatory biopsies, “biopsy” was an eligibility criterion in 71% of trials and a statistical justification for the research biopsy sample size was present in 50% of trials. 745 research biopsies were performed on 576 patients. The overall and major complication rates were 5.2% (39/745) and 0.8% (6/745), respectively. Complication rates for intra-thoracic and abdominal/pelvic solid organ biopsies were 17.1% (36/211) and 1.6% (3/189), respectively. Site stratified research biopsy-related risks were discussed in 5 consents.
Conclusion
A better representation of the risks and benefits of research biopsies in study protocols and informed consents is needed.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2012.43.1718
PMCID: PMC5545102  PMID: 23129736
3.  Comprehensive genomic profiling of clinically advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma 
Oncology  2016;90(6):339-346.
Objective
To determine the genomic alterations of cancer-related genes in advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma during the course of clinical care.
Methods
Hybrid-capture based comprehensive genomic profiling was performed on 34 consecutive medullary thyroid carcinoma cases to identify all four classes of genomic alterations, and outcome for an index patient was collected.
Results
RET was mutated in 88% (30/34) of cases, with RET M918T being responsible for 70% (21/30) of the RET alterations. The other RET alterations were RET E632_L633del, C634R, C620R, C618G/R/S, V804M, and RET amplification. Two of the four RET wild-type patients harbored mutations in KRAS or HRAS (1/34 each). The next most frequent genomic alterations were amplifications of CCND1, FGF3, FGF19 and alterations in CDKN2A (3/34 each). One case with a RET M918T mutation developed acquired resistance to progressively dose-escalated vandetinib. When the mTOR inhibitor everolimus was added to continued vandetanib treatment, the patient achieved a second, 25% reduction of tumor volume (RECIST 1.1) for 8 months.
Conclusions
Comprehensive genomic profiling identified the full breadth of RET alterations in metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma and possible co-operating oncogenic driver alterations. This approach may refine the use of targeted therapy for these patients.
doi:10.1159/000445978
PMCID: PMC4909575  PMID: 27207748
medullary thyroid carcinoma; RET; genomic profiling; vandetanib; cabozantinib; everolimus; precision medicine
4.  Anti-tumor response to combined anti-angiogenic and cytotoxic chemotherapy in recurrent metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: Response signatures and Proteomic Correlates 
Clinical genitourinary cancer  2015;14(2):e187-e193.
doi:10.1016/j.clgc.2015.11.004
PMCID: PMC4783251  PMID: 26684814
metastatic; recurrent; refractory; resistant; resistance; morphoproteomics; cell signaling pathways
5.  Minimally invasive image-guided therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma 
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most frequently occurring cancer globally and predominantly develops in the setting of various grades of underlying chronic liver disease, which affects management decisions. Image-guided percutaneous ablative or transarterial therapies have acquired wide acceptance in HCC management as a single treatment modality or combined with other treatment options in patients who are not amenable for surgery. Recently, such treatment modalities have also been used for bridging or downsizing before definitive treatment (ie, surgical resection or liver transplantation). This review focuses on the use of minimally invasive image-guided locoregional therapies for HCC. Additionally, it highlights recent advancements in imaging and catheter technology, embolic materials, chemotherapeutic agents, and delivery techniques; all lead to improved patient outcomes, thereby increasing the interest in these invasive techniques.
doi:10.2147/JHC.S92732
PMCID: PMC5067062  PMID: 27785450
hepatocelleular carcinoma; locoregional therapy; TACE; ablation; 90Y
6.  Yttrium-90 resin microspheres as an adjunct to sorafenib in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma 
Purpose
The safety and efficacy of the combined use of sorafenib and yttrium-90 resin microspheres (Y90 RMS) to treat advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not well established. We determined the incidence of adverse events with this combination therapy in patients with advanced HCC at our institution and analyzed the treatment and survival outcomes.
Materials and methods
We reviewed the records of 19 patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer class B or C HCC who underwent treatment with Y90 RMS (for 21 sessions) while receiving full or reduced doses of sorafenib between January 2008 and May 2010. Therapy response was evaluated using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. We evaluated median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) as well as hepatic and extrahepatic disease PFS and incidence of adverse events.
Results
The median patient age was 67 years, and portal or hepatic venous invasion was present in eight patients (42%). Ten patients received reduced doses of sorafenib. The median Y90 radiation activity delivered was 41.2 mCi. The partial response of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors was observed in four patients (19%). The median hepatic disease PFS was 7.82 months, extrahepatic disease PFS was 8.94 months, OS was 19.52 months, and PFS was 6.63 months. Ninety days after treatment with Y90 RMS, five patients (26%) had grade II adverse events and four patients (21%) had grade III adverse events.
Conclusion
OS and PFS outcomes were superior to those observed in prior studies evaluating sorafenib alone in patients with a similar disease status, warranting further study of this treatment combination.
doi:10.2147/JHC.S62261
PMCID: PMC4994795  PMID: 27574586
yttrium-90; sorafenib; hepatocellular carcinoma
8.  Intratumoral injection of Clostridium novyi-NT spores induces antitumor responses 
Science translational medicine  2014;6(249):249ra111.
Species of Clostridium bacteria are notable for their ability to lyse tumor cells growing in hypoxic environments. We show that an attenuated strain of Clostridium novyi (C. novyi-NT) induces a microscopically precise, tumor-localized response in a rat orthotopic brain tumor model after intratumoral injection. It is well known, however, that experimental models often do not reliably predict the responses of human patients to therapeutic agents. We therefore used naturally occurring canine tumors as a translational bridge to human trials. Canine tumors are more like those of humans because they occur in animals with heterogeneous genetic backgrounds, are of host origin, and are due to spontaneous rather than engineered mutations. We found that intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores was well tolerated in companion dogs bearing spontaneous solid tumors, with the most common toxicities being the expected symptoms associated with bacterial infections. Objective responses were observed in 6 of 16 dogs (37.5%), with three complete and three partial responses. On the basis of these encouraging results, we treated a human patient who had an advanced leiomyosarcoma with an intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores. This treatment reduced the tumor within and surrounding the bone. Together, these results show that C. novyi-NT can precisely eradicate neoplastic tissues and suggest that further clinical trials of this agent in selected patients are warranted.
doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3008982
PMCID: PMC4399712  PMID: 25122639
11.  Concurrent removal of intravitreal lens fragments after phacoemulsification with pars plana vitrectomy prevents development of retinal detachment 
AIM
To evaluate the outcomes of “concurrent vitrectomy” to retrieve dislocated lens fragment during phacoemulsification.
METHODS
In a retrospective, observational case series, data of patients who underwent “concurrent” pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for dislocated lens fragments between the period 2000 and 2008 were reviewed. Data collected included patient demographics, pre-operative visual acuity, intra-operative occurrence of retinal breaks, duration of follow up, post-operative intraocular pressure, final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), presence of cystoid macular edema (CME) and occurrence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD).
RESULTS
A total of 58 eyes of 58 patients were included in the study. At 12mo the mean postoperative BCVA was logMAR 0.17 (20/30) with a range of logMAR 0 to 0.69 (20/20 to 20/100), with 96.6% (56/58) of patients showing post-operative improvement in visual acuity (P=0.005). None of the patients developed postoperative retinal detachment, endophthalmitis or non-resolving uveitis at 12mo.
CONCLUSION
Our study results suggest concurrent PPV for retained lens fragments after cataract surgery is beneficial and may decrease the risk of glaucoma and prevent development of RRD.
doi:10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2015.01.16
PMCID: PMC4325248  PMID: 25709914
phacoemulsification; dislocated lens fragments; vitrectomy; glaucoma; cystoid macular edema; retinal detachment
13.  Aqueous Interleukin-6 Levels Are Superior to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Predicting Therapeutic Response to Bevacizumab in Age-Related Macular Degeneration 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2014;2014:502174.
Objective. To prospectively evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on aqueous levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and correlate clinical outcomes with cytokine levels. Methods. 30 eyes of 30 patients with exudative AMD underwent intravitreal injection of bevacizumab three times at monthly intervals. The aqueous samples prior to the 1st injection (baseline) and 3rd injection were analyzed for VEGF and IL-6 levels. Subjects were subgrouped based upon change in the central subfield (CSF) macular thickness on SD-OCT at 8 weeks. Group 1 included patients (n = 14) with a decrease in CSF thickness greater than 10% from the baseline (improved group). Group 2 included patients (n = 16) who had a decrease in CSF thickness 10% or less (treatment-resistant). Results. In subgroup analysis, in both groups 1 and 2 patients, compared to aqueous VEGF, aqueous IL-6 levels showed a better correlation with CSF thickness on SD-OCT (r = 0.72 and 0.71, resp.). Conclusions. Aqueous IL-6 may be an important marker of treatment response or resistance in wet macular degeneration. Future therapeutic strategies may include targeted treatment against both VEGF and IL-6, in patients who do not respond to anti-VEGF treatment alone.
doi:10.1155/2014/502174
PMCID: PMC4121253  PMID: 25110587
15.  Can imaging patterns of neuroendocrine hepatic metastases predict response yttruim-90 radioembolotherapy? 
World Journal of Radiology  2013;5(6):241-247.
AIM: To evaluate the response to treatment in patients with neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases following yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolotherapy, as a function of image patterns at presentation for 90Y radioembolotherapy.
METHODS: The study cohort consisted of patients with hepatic metastatic neuroendocrine tumors treated with 90Y at our institution during a two-year time period. Hepatic metastases were evaluated on a pre-therapy study assessing relative arterial enhancement compared to liver, lesion size, necrosis of the lesion, and associated tumor burden in the liver. We used six response criteria: Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) size, World Health Organization (WHO) size, European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) necrosis guidelines, Choi size, Choi necrosis and combination of Choi size and necrosis.
RESULTS: About 65 lesions in 17 patients met study criteria and formed the cohort. Statistically significant response was found for lesions < 5 cm vs those ≥ 5 cm with RECIST (P = 0.04), WHO (P = 0.002) and combined Choi criteria (P = 0.02). Hyperenhancing lesions demonstrated greater response only with the Choi size criteria (P = 0.04). Lesions with ≤ 50% necrosis on the pre-scan had statistically significant greater response with the Choi necrosis criteria (P = 0.01). There was no statistical significance for response comparing lesions < 2 cm vs ≥ 2 cm or in comparing the degrees of tumor burden.
CONCLUSION: Based on our findings in this study, it is suggested that initial imaging findings, as listed above, are not a good predictor of response to 90Y radioembolization.
doi:10.4329/wjr.v5.i6.241
PMCID: PMC3692962  PMID: 23807902
Yttrium-90 radioembolization; Computed tomography; Response; Neuroendocrine; Metastases; Liver; Predictor
16.  Use of Research Biopsies in Clinical Trials: Are Risks and Benefits Adequately Discussed? 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2012;31(1):17-22.
Purpose
Although the incorporation of research biopsies into clinical trials is increasing, limited information is available about how study protocols and informed consents integrate and describe their use.
Methods
All therapeutic clinical trials in which image-guided research biopsies were performed from January 1, 2005, to October 1, 2010, were identified from an interventional radiology database. Data from study protocols and informed consents were extracted and analyzed. Procedural complications were recorded.
Results
A total of 57 clinical trials were identified, of which 38 (67%) contained at least one mandatory biopsy. The analysis of the research biopsy tumor tissue was a study end point in 95% of trials. The primary indication for a research biopsy was for integral biomarker analysis in 32% and for correlative science in 68% of trials. A statistical analytic plan for the correlative science research biopsy tumor tissue was mentioned in 26%, described as exploratory in 51%, and not mentioned in 23% of trials. For studies with mandatory biopsies, biopsy was an eligibility criterion in 71% of trials, and a statistical justification for the research biopsy sample size was present in 50% of trials. A total of 745 research biopsies were performed on 576 patients. Overall and major complication rates were 5.2% (39 of 745 biopsies) and 0.8% (six of 745 biopsies), respectively. Complication rates for intrathoracic and abdominal/pelvic solid organ biopsies were 17.1% (36 of 211 biopsies) and 1.6% (three of 189 biopsies), respectively. Site-stratified research biopsy–related risks were discussed in five consents.
Conclusion
A better representation of the risks and benefits of research biopsies in study protocols and informed consents is needed.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2012.43.1718
PMCID: PMC5545102  PMID: 23129736
17.  Temporary Balloon Occlusion of the Common Hepatic Artery for Yttrium-90 Glass Microspheres Administration in a Patient with Hepatocellular Cancer and Renal Insufficiency 
Case Reports in Radiology  2013;2013:560758.
The most severe complication of yttrium-90 therapy is gastrointestinal ulceration caused by extrahepatic dispersion of microspheres. Standard pretreatment planning requires extensive angiographic evaluation of the hepatic circulation and embolization of hepatoenteric collaterals; however, in patients with severe renal insufficiency, this evaluation may lead to acute renal failure. In order to minimize iodinated contrast utilization in a patient with preexisting severe renal insufficiency, the authors describe the use of a balloon catheter for temporary occlusion of the common hepatic artery to induce transient redirection of flow of the hepatoenteric arteries towards the liver, in lieu of conventional coil embolization.
doi:10.1155/2013/560758
PMCID: PMC3655505  PMID: 23710405
18.  Resveratrol inhibits proliferation of hypoxic choroidal vascular endothelial cells 
Molecular Vision  2013;19:2385-2392.
Purpose
Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin present in red wine, has a protective role against tumor-induced angiogenesis. Exudative age-related macular degeneration is characterized by hypoxia-induced choroidal vascular endothelial cell (CVEC) proliferation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of resveratrol on hypoxic CVECs and the underlying signaling pathways involved.
Methods
CVECs (RF/6A) after induction of hypoxia with cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 200 μM) were exposed to increasing doses of resveratrol (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 μg/ml). Cell viability was measured with 4-[3-(4Iodophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio]-1, 3-benzene disulfonate (WST-1) colorimetric assay. The effect of resveratrol on hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mechanistic pathway was further evaluated by analyzing phosphorylated stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) using immunoblot and cleaved caspase-3 with In-Cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results
Resveratrol inhibited hypoxic CVEC proliferation. Hypoxia-induced VEGF release (30.9±2.6 pg/ml) was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 μg/ml resveratrol to 12.4±2.1, 11.0±1.9, 10.3±3.0, 7.5±1.9, 5.5±2.0, and 5.5±2.3 pg/ml, respectively. SAPK/JNK increased by 1.8-fold and 3.9-fold after treatment with 4 and 12 μg/ml resveratrol, respectively. Significant increase in caspase-3 levels was observed with 12 μg/ml resveratrol.
Conclusions
Our study demonstrates that resveratrol suppresses hypoxic CVEC proliferation through activation of the SAPK/JNK pathway. Resveratrol, a nutritional supplement and inhibitor of CVECs, may be a useful adjunct to current anti-VEGF therapy in wet age-related macular degeneration.
PMCID: PMC3850978  PMID: 24319332
19.  What's New in Transarterial Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma? 
Gastrointestinal Cancer Research : GCR  2012;5(3 Suppl 1):S14-S19.
ABSTRACT
Transarterial therapies play an important role in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, both in a palliative setting and as an adjunct to surgery. These therapies exploit the dual blood supply of the liver to selectively target tumors via the hepatic artery, while sparing nontumorous liver. Currently available therapies include transarterial embolization; chemoembolization, with or without drug-eluting beads; and radioembolization. Transarterial techniques are also being used in the development of novel therapies. This article provides an outline of the technical and clinical applications of intraarterial therapies in the treatment of HCC and highlights pertinent future directions.
PMCID: PMC3413029  PMID: 22876334
21.  Evaluation of a Novel, Non Contact, Automated Focal Laser with Integrated (NAVILAS®) Fluorescein Angiography for Diabetic Macular Edema 
Purpose:
To evaluate the procedural experience and complications of a novel integrated laser delivery system (NAVILAS®; OD-OS Teltow, Germany) that combines automated laser delivery with color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and infrared imaging with a frequency doubled YAG laser.
Materials and Methods:
This prospective study evaluated surgical experience with the NAVILAS automated photocoagulation system for the treatment of patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Subjective assessment of the accuracy of laser spot placement and postoperative complications were documented.
Results:
Twelve patients (7 males, 5 females) were enrolled in this pilot study. Five patients were phakic and 7 were pseudophakic. Image overlays and the tracking system allowed accurate delivery of laser spots of varying size, duration and power. None of the patients reported any pain and tolerated the procedure well. No complications were reported in the study.
Conclusion:
In this pilot study, the NAVILAS system allowed accurate laser spot placement with no complications in patients with DME. However a larger sample with longer follow up is required to determine the safety of this procedure.
doi:10.4103/0974-9233.92134
PMCID: PMC3277016  PMID: 22346133
Automated Focal Macular Laser; Diabetic Macular Edema; NAVILAS
22.  Infrared imaging and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings correlate with microperimetry in acute macular neuroretinopathy: a case report 
Introduction
Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings in a patient with acute macular neuroretinopathy, and correlation with functional defects on microperimetry, are presented.
Case presentation
A 25-year old Caucasian woman presented with bitemporal field defects following an upper respiratory tract infection. Her visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes and a dilated fundus examination revealed bilateral hyperpigmentary changes in the papillomacular bundle. Our patient underwent further evaluation with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, infrared and fundus autofluorescence imaging. Functional changes were assessed by microperimetry. Infrared imaging showed the classic wedge-shaped defects and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography exhibited changes at the inner segment-outer segment junction, with a thickened outer plexiform layer overlying these areas. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography did not demonstrate any perfusion defects or any other abnormality. Microperimetry demonstrated focal elevation in threshold correlating with the wedge-shaped defects in both eyes.
Conclusion
Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings provide new evidence of the involvement of the outer plexiform layer of the retina in acute macular neuroretinopathy.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-536
PMCID: PMC3236017  PMID: 22040584
23.  Evaluation of Modified Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening Guidelines Using Birth Weight as the Sole Inclusion Criterion 
Purpose:
The purpose was to determine if birth weight (BW) alone can be the sole criterion for screening infants at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).
Materials and Methods:
In this retrospective, observational case series, 208 infants were screened for ROP using the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) Guidelines (1997). Variables examined included gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), and a composite variable BWGA Index [(grams × weeks)/1000], which takes into consideration both the birth weight and gestational age of the infant. Infants were divided into two groups: Group 1, BW ≤1250 g, and Group 2, BW >1250 g. Multivariate analysis was performed to detect factors predictive of ROP. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the efficacy of screening using the BW, GA, and BWGA Index. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression with a P-value of 0.05 or less indicating statistical significance.
Results:
Varying stages of ROP were present in 116 of 416 eyes. Of the 105 eyes in Group 2, only 1 eye developed stage 1 ROP. Only Group 1 eyes developed stage 3 or higher ROP. The ROC curve for BW alone gave an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.797 (standard error [SE] = 0.0329, P < 0.0001); for GA, AUC was 0.801 (SE = 0.0340, P < 0.0001) and for the BWGA Index, the AUC was 0.808 (SE = 0.0324, P < 0.0001). Using 1250-g BW as a criterion for ROP screening would have decreased the number of screenings by 24%, and did not exclude any ROP higher than stage 1.
Conclusion:
Data from our neonatal intensive care unit suggest that birth weight ≤ 1250 g alone is an adequate parameter to identify premature infants at risk for ROP.
doi:10.4103/0974-9233.84048
PMCID: PMC3162733  PMID: 21887076
Birth Weight; Neonates; Premature Infants; Retinopathy of Prematurity; Screening Criterion
24.  Freezing adversely affects measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor levels in human aqueous samples 
Purpose
Aqueous levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can be a surrogate marker of intraocular VEGF activity and a measure of efficacy of anti-VEGF treatment in a variety of vasoproliferative retinal disorders, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and central retinal vein occlusion. Measurement of the VEGF level may be adversely affected by premeasurement variables, such as freezing and delay, in sample analysis. We aim to evaluate the effect of storage and delayed measurement of human aqueous VEGF levels in these conditions.
Methods
Aqueous samples collected from patients receiving intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for various retinal diseases were divided into two groups. In Group 1, the VEGF levels were analyzed on the same day; in Group 2, the VEGF levels were analyzed after 21 days of freezer storage (−80°C) using immunobead assay. Statistical comparison using a paired t-test was performed between the two groups.
Results
Thirty-one aqueous humor samples were collected, and the VEGF concentration for fresh samples was 7.8 ± 5.9 pg/mL (mean ± SD) compared to 6.5 ± 6.0 pg/mL in frozen samples, resulting in a statistically significant difference (P = 0.03).
Conclusions
Accurate measurement of the VEGF level is a vital component of clinical decision-making. Delayed analysis of VEGF levels in aqueous samples may result in significant sample degradation and lower levels of measured VEGF.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S15837
PMCID: PMC3033008  PMID: 21311660
VEGF level; aqueous humor; immunobead assay; VEGF storage
25.  Spectral domain optical coherence tomography features of multiple subfoveal retinal pigment epithelial tears after intravitreal bevacizumab 
Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tear has been described to occur spontaneously, after laser photocoagulation and in recent times, after intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents. In the latter case, the rapid contraction of the choroidal vascular membrane underneath a serous RPE detachment is believed to be the underlying cause. Preservation of good visual acuity after the occurrence of RPE tear with continued use of intravitreal VEGF agents has been reported. In this case report, we describe the occurrence of multiple RPE tears with the use of intravitreal bevacizumab and also correlate the preservation of visual acuity with features seen on spectral domain optical coherence tomography.
doi:10.4103/0301-4738.73712
PMCID: PMC3032242  PMID: 21157072
Bevacizumab; retinal pigment epithelial tear; spectral domain optical coherence tomography

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