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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  Impact of cigarette smoking on recurrence of hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2017;23(47):8387-8394.
AIM
To investigate the impact of cigarette smoking on the recurrence rate and recurrence-free survival in patients with hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis (HLAP).
METHODS
A total of 863 patients were admitted to our hospital for acute pancreatitis (AP) from January 2013 to March 2016, of whom 88 diagnosed with HLAP were enrolled in this retrospective study. Demographic data, medical history, previous episodes of pancreatitis, consumption of alcohol and cigarettes, as well as biochemical and hematological data were carefully recorded for univariate and multivariate analyses. During follow-up, the information on current smoking status and recurrent AP was gathered. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the differences between groups were compared using the log-rank test.
RESULTS
No significant differences were observed between the three groups in age or medical history of hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or AP. The current smokers had a remarkably higher recurrence rate and a greater incidence of repeated episodes of AP (50.0% and 77.8%, respectively) than non-smokers (9.8% and 39.0%), and these two percentages were reduced to 9.1% and 36.4% for patients who gave up smoking. The median follow-up time was 13.5 mo and HLAP recurred after hospital discharge in 23 (26.1%) patients. Multivariate analysis identified current smoking (HR = 6.3, P = 0.020) as an independent risk factor contributing to HLAP recurrence. Current smokers had significantly worse RFS than non-smokers (23 mo vs 42 mo), but no significant difference was documented between ex-smokers (34 mo) and non-smokers. The RFS was not significantly different between light and heavy smokers.
CONCLUSION
Smoking is associated with worse RFS and an increased rate of HLAP recurrence. Continued smoking correlates with a compromised survival and smoking cessation should be recommended.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v23.i47.8387
PMCID: PMC5743509
Acute pancreatitis; Hyperlipemia; Smoking; Recurrence; Epidemiology
2.  Hypothermic machine perfusion with metformin-University of Wisconsin solution for ex vivo preservation of standard and marginal liver grafts in a rat model 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2017;23(40):7221-7231.
AIM
To compare the effect of University of Wisconsin (UW) solution with or without metformin, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, for preserving standard and marginal liver grafts of young and aged rats ex vivo by hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP).
METHODS
Eighteen young (4 mo old) and 18 aged (17 mo old) healthy male SD rats were selected and randomly divided into three groups: control group, UW solution perfusion group (UWP), and UW solution with metformin perfusion group (MUWP). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), interleukin-18 (IL-18), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the perfused liquid were tested. The expression levels of AMPK and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells were also examined. Additionally, microscopic evaluation of the harvested perfused liver tissue samples was done.
RESULTS
AST, ALT, LDH, IL-18 and TNF-α levels in the young and aged liver-perfused liquid were, respectively, significantly lower in the MUWP group than in the UWP group (P < 0.05), but no significant differences were found between the young and aged MUWP groups. Metformin increased the expression of AMPK and eNOS protein levels, and promoted the extracellular release of nitric oxide through activation of the AMPK-eNOS mediated pathway. Histological examination revealed that in the MUWP group, the extent of liver cells and tissue damage was significantly reduced compared with the UWP group.
CONCLUSION
The addition of metformin to the UW preservative solution for ex vivo HMP can reduce rat liver injury during cold ischemia, with significant protective effects on livers, especially of aged rats.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v23.i40.7221
PMCID: PMC5677206
Metformin; AMP-activated protein kinase; Cold ischemia injury; Hypothermic machine perfusion; Liver Grafts
3.  Polysome-profiling in small tissue samples 
Nucleic Acids Research  2017;46(1):e3.
Abstract
Polysome-profiling is commonly used to study translatomes and applies laborious extraction of efficiently translated mRNA (associated with >3 ribosomes) from a large volume across many fractions. This property makes polysome-profiling inconvenient for larger experimental designs or samples with low RNA amounts. To address this, we optimized a non-linear sucrose gradient which reproducibly enriches for efficiently translated mRNA in only one or two fractions, thereby reducing sample handling 5–10-fold. The technique generates polysome-associated RNA with a quality reflecting the starting material and, when coupled with smart-seq2 single-cell RNA sequencing, translatomes in small tissues from biobanks can be obtained. Translatomes acquired using optimized non-linear gradients resemble those obtained with the standard approach employing linear gradients. Polysome-profiling using optimized non-linear gradients in serum starved HCT-116 cells with or without p53 showed that p53 status associates with changes in mRNA abundance and translational efficiency leading to changes in protein levels. Moreover, p53 status also induced translational buffering whereby changes in mRNA levels are buffered at the level of mRNA translation. Thus, here we present a polysome-profiling technique applicable to large study designs, primary cells and frozen tissue samples such as those collected in biobanks.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkx940
PMCID: PMC5758873  PMID: 29069469
4.  Coral-Derived Natural Marine Compound GB9 Impairs Vascular Development in Zebrafish 
Blood vessels in vertebrates are established and genetically controlled in an evolutionarily-conserved manner during embryogenesis. Disruption of vascular growth by chemical compounds or environmental hormones may cause developmental defects. This study analyzed the vascular impacts of marine compound GB9 in zebrafish. GB9 was isolated from the marine soft coral Capnella imbricata and had shown anti-neuroinflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. However, the role of GB9 on vascular development has not been reported. We first tested the survival rate of embryos under exogenous 5, 7.5, 10, and 15 μM GB9 added to the medium and determined a sub-lethal dosage of 10 μM GB9 for further assay. Using transgenic Tg(fli:eGFP) fish to examine vascular development, we found that GB9 treatment impaired intersegmental vessel (ISV) growth and caudal vein plexus (CVP) patterning at 25 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and 30 hpf. GB9 exposure caused pericardial edema and impaired circulation at 48–52 hpf, which are common secondary effects of vascular defects and suggest the effects of GB9 on vascular development. Apoptic cell death analysis showed that vascular defects were not caused by cell death, but were likely due to the inhibition of migration and/or proliferation by examining ISV cell numbers. To test the molecular mechanisms of vascular defects in GB9-treated embryos, we examined the expression of vascular markers and found the decreased expression of vascular specific markers ephrinb2, flk, mrc1, and stabilin. In addition, we examined whether GB9 treatment impairs vascular growth due to an imbalance of redox homeostasis. We found an enhanced effect of vascular defects during GB9 and H2O2 co-treatment. Moreover, exogenous N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) treatment rescued the vascular defects in GB9 treated embryos. Our results showed that GB9 exposure causes vascular defects likely mediated by the imbalance of redox homeostasis.
doi:10.3390/ijms18081696
PMCID: PMC5578086  PMID: 28771210
marine compound GB9; intersegmental vessel; vascular development; zebrafish; oxidative stress
5.  Immunity status of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis patients with structural lung diseases in Chinese adults 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2017;9(2):247-253.
Background
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a fungal infection frequently observed in patients with immune dysfunction, such as those suffering from structural lung diseases. Nevertheless, studies assessing IPA combined with other common respiratory diseases remain scarce, particularly those regarding the immune status of its patients. Different structural lung diseases are known to differently affect patient immune status; however, the mechanisms by which this is conferred have yet to be determined. Thus, our study aims to compare the immune status of IPA patients with the structural lung diseases chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), interstitial lung disease (ILD) and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB).
Methods
This study was performed retrospectively with data collected over the years 2004 to 2013 at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University, and included 77 patients whose lower respiratory tract (LRT) samples tested positive for. Our analysis considered blood examinations of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, IgG, IgA and IgM levels.
Results
CD4+/CD8+ double positive cells, representing cell-mediated immunity, were less abundant in IPA patients with COPD than those with ILD and NCFB (0.81±0.09 vs. 1.39±0.25 and 0.81±0.09 vs. 1.57±0.06, respectively, P<0.001). In agreement with this result, corticosteroid and broad-spectrum antibiotic use were most common in individuals with COPD (57%). IgA levels, which indicate humoral immunity, were lower in IPA patients with NCFB than those with COPD or ILD (0.95±0.28 vs. 1.64±0.40 g/L and 0.95±0.28 vs. 3.16±0.83 g/L, respectively, P<0.001).
Conclusions
Immunity status differs between IPA patients with different structural lung diseases. Among IPA patients with COPD, ILD and NCFB, those with COPD have the lowest cell-mediated immunity, while those with NCFB have the lowest humoral immunity.
doi:10.21037/jtd.2017.02.49
PMCID: PMC5334084
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA); chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD); interstitial lung disease (ILD); non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB)
6.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part one 
Lundqvist, Andreas | van Hoef, Vincent | Zhang, Xiaonan | Wennerberg, Erik | Lorent, Julie | Witt, Kristina | Sanz, Laia Masvidal | Liang, Shuo | Murray, Shannon | Larsson, Ola | Kiessling, Rolf | Mao, Yumeng | Sidhom, John-William | Bessell, Catherine A. | Havel, Jonathan | Schneck, Jonathan | Chan, Timothy A. | Sachsenmeier, Eliot | Woods, David | Berglund, Anders | Ramakrishnan, Rupal | Sodre, Andressa | Weber, Jeffrey | Zappasodi, Roberta | Li, Yanyun | Qi, Jingjing | Wong, Philip | Sirard, Cynthia | Postow, Michael | Newman, Walter | Koon, Henry | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Callahan, Margaret K. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Lum, Lawrence G. | Choi, Minsig | Thakur, Archana | Deol, Abhinav | Dyson, Gregory | Shields, Anthony | Haymaker, Cara | Uemura, Marc | Murthy, Ravi | James, Marihella | Wang, Daqing | Brevard, Julie | Monaghan, Catherine | Swann, Suzanne | Geib, James | Cornfeld, Mark | Chunduru, Srinivas | Agrawal, Sudhir | Yee, Cassian | Wargo, Jennifer | Patel, Sapna P. | Amaria, Rodabe | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Woodman, Scott | Hwu, Wen-Jen | Davies, Michael A. | Hwu, Patrick | Overwijk, Willem W. | Bernatchez, Chantale | Diab, Adi | Massarelli, Erminia | Segal, Neil H. | Ribrag, Vincent | Melero, Ignacio | Gangadhar, Tara C. | Urba, Walter | Schadendorf, Dirk | Ferris, Robert L. | Houot, Roch | Morschhauser, Franck | Logan, Theodore | Luke, Jason J. | Sharfman, William | Barlesi, Fabrice | Ott, Patrick A. | Mansi, Laura | Kummar, Shivaani | Salles, Gilles | Carpio, Cecilia | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | McDonald, Dan | Maurer, Matthew | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Levy, Ronald | Khushalani, Nikhil | Wu, Jennifer | Zhang, Jinyu | Basher, Fahmin | Rubinstein, Mark | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | MacDonald, Cameron | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Chatterjee, Shilpak | Daenthanasanmak, Anusara | Chakraborty, Paramita | Toth, Kyle | Meek, Megan | Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth | Nishimura, Michael | Paulos, Chrystal | Beeson, Craig | Yu, Xuezhong | Mehrotra, Shikhar | Zhao, Fei | Evans, Kathy | Xiao, Christine | Holtzhausen, Alisha | Hanks, Brent A. | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Moreci, Rebecca | Whetstone, Ryan | Dadey, Rebekah | Watkins, Simon | Ferris, Robert | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Peled, Jonathan | Devlin, Sean | Staffas, Anna | Lumish, Melissa | Rodriguez, Kori Porosnicu | Ahr, Katya | Perales, Miguel | Giralt, Sergio | Taur, Ying | Pamer, Eric | van den Brink, Marcel R. M. | Jenq, Robert | Annels, Nicola | Pandha, Hardev | Simpson, Guy | Mostafid, Hugh | Harrington, Kevin | Melcher, Alan | Grose, Mark | Davies, Bronwyn | Au, Gough | Karpathy, Roberta | Shafren, Darren | Ricca, Jacob | Merghoub, Taha | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Zamarin, Dmitriy | Batista, Luciana | Marliot, Florence | Vasaturo, Angela | Carpentier, Sabrina | Poggionovo, Cécile | Frayssinet, Véronique | Fieschi, Jacques | Van den Eynde, Marc | Pagès, Franck | Galon, Jérôme | Hermitte, Fabienne | Smith, Sean G. | Nguyen, Khue | Ravindranathan, Sruthi | Koppolu, Bhanu | Zaharoff, David | Schvartsman, Gustavo | Bassett, Roland | McQuade, Jennifer L. | Haydu, Lauren E. | Davies, Michael A. | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Kline, Douglas | Chen, Xiufen | Fosco, Dominick | Kline, Justin | Overacre, Abigail | Chikina, Maria | Brunazzi, Erin | Shayan, Gulidanna | Horne, William | Kolls, Jay | Ferris, Robert L. | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Bruno, Tullia C. | Workman, Creg | Vignali, Dario | Adusumilli, Prasad S. | Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A | Li, Zihai | Gerry, Andrew | Sanderson, Joseph P. | Howe, Karen | Docta, Roslin | Gao, Qian | Bagg, Eleanor A. L. | Tribble, Nicholas | Maroto, Miguel | Betts, Gareth | Bath, Natalie | Melchiori, Luca | Lowther, Daniel E. | Ramachandran, Indu | Kari, Gabor | Basu, Samik | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Chagin, Karen | Pandite, Lini | Holdich, Tom | Amado, Rafael | Zhang, Hua | Glod, John | Bernstein, Donna | Jakobsen, Bent | Mackall, Crystal | Wong, Ryan | Silk, Jonathan D. | Adams, Katherine | Hamilton, Garth | Bennett, Alan D. | Brett, Sara | Jing, Junping | Quattrini, Adriano | Saini, Manoj | Wiedermann, Guy | Gerry, Andrew | Jakobsen, Bent | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Brewer, Joanna | Duong, MyLinh | Lu, An | Chang, Peter | Mahendravada, Aruna | Shinners, Nicholas | Slawin, Kevin | Spencer, David M. | Foster, Aaron E. | Bayle, J. Henri | Bergamaschi, Cristina | Ng, Sinnie Sin Man | Nagy, Bethany | Jensen, Shawn | Hu, Xintao | Alicea, Candido | Fox, Bernard | Felber, Barbara | Pavlakis, George | Chacon, Jessica | Yamamoto, Tori | Garrabrant, Thomas | Cortina, Luis | Powell, Daniel J. | Donia, Marco | Kjeldsen, Julie Westerlin | Andersen, Rikke | Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff | Bianchi, Valentina | Legut, Mateusz | Attaf, Meriem | Dolton, Garry | Szomolay, Barbara | Ott, Sascha | Lyngaa, Rikke | Hadrup, Sine Reker | Sewell, Andrew Kelvin | Svane, Inge Marie | Fan, Aaron | Kumai, Takumi | Celis, Esteban | Frank, Ian | Stramer, Amanda | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wardell, Seth | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Goff, Stephanie L. | Zacharakis, Nikolaos | Assadipour, Yasmine | Prickett, Todd D. | Gartner, Jared J. | Somerville, Robert | Black, Mary | Xu, Hui | Chinnasamy, Harshini | Kriley, Isaac | Lu, Lily | Wunderlich, John | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven | Feldman, Steven A. | Trebska-McGowan, Kasia | Kriley, Isaac | Malekzadeh, Parisa | Payabyab, Eden | Sherry, Richard | Rosenberg, Steven | Goff, Stephanie L. | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Kopits, Charlene | Rabinovich, Brian | Lotze, Michael T. | Green, Daniel S. | Kamenyeva, Olena | Zoon, Kathryn C. | Annunziata, Christina M. | Hammill, Joanne | Helsen, Christopher | Aarts, Craig | Bramson, Jonathan | Harada, Yui | Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu | Helsen, Christopher | Hammill, Joanne | Mwawasi, Kenneth | Denisova, Galina | Bramson, Jonathan | Giri, Rajanish | Jin, Benjamin | Campbell, Tracy | Draper, Lindsey M. | Stevanovic, Sanja | Yu, Zhiya | Weissbrich, Bianca | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Trimble, Cornelia L. | Rosenberg, Steven | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Tsang, Kwong | Fantini, Massimo | Hodge, James W. | Fujii, Rika | Fernando, Ingrid | Jochems, Caroline | Heery, Christopher | Gulley, James | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Schlom, Jeffrey | Jing, Weiqing | Gershan, Jill | Blitzer, Grace | Weber, James | McOlash, Laura | Johnson, Bryon D. | Kiany, Simin | Gangxiong, Huang | Kleinerman, Eugenie S. | Klichinsky, Michael | Ruella, Marco | Shestova, Olga | Kenderian, Saad | Kim, Miriam | Scholler, John | June, Carl H. | Gill, Saar | Moogk, Duane | Zhong, Shi | Yu, Zhiya | Liadi, Ivan | Rittase, William | Fang, Victoria | Dougherty, Janna | Perez-Garcia, Arianne | Osman, Iman | Zhu, Cheng | Varadarajan, Navin | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Frey, Alan | Krogsgaard, Michelle | Landi, Daniel | Fousek, Kristen | Mukherjee, Malini | Shree, Ankita | Joseph, Sujith | Bielamowicz, Kevin | Byrd, Tiara | Ahmed, Nabil | Hegde, Meenakshi | Lee, Sylvia | Byrd, David | Thompson, John | Bhatia, Shailender | Tykodi, Scott | Delismon, Judy | Chu, Liz | Abdul-Alim, Siddiq | Ohanian, Arpy | DeVito, Anna Marie | Riddell, Stanley | Margolin, Kim | Magalhaes, Isabelle | Mattsson, Jonas | Uhlin, Michael | Nemoto, Satoshi | Villarroel, Patricio Pérez | Nakagawa, Ryosuke | Mule, James J. | Mailloux, Adam W. | Mata, Melinda | Nguyen, Phuong | Gerken, Claudia | DeRenzo, Christopher | Spencer, David M. | Gottschalk, Stephen | Mathieu, Mélissa | Pelletier, Sandy | Stagg, John | Turcotte, Simon | Minutolo, Nicholas | Sharma, Prannda | Tsourkas, Andrew | Powell, Daniel J. | Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine | Mauer, Daniela | Drechsel, Katharina | Barth, Carola | Freese, Katharina | Kolrep, Ulrike | Schult, Silke | Assenmacher, Mario | Kaiser, Andrew | Mullinax, John | Hall, MacLean | Le, Julie | Kodumudi, Krithika | Royster, Erica | Richards, Allison | Gonzalez, Ricardo | Sarnaik, Amod | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Nielsen, Morten | Krarup-Hansen, Anders | Hovgaard, Dorrit | Petersen, Michael Mørk | Loya, Anand Chainsukh | Junker, Niels | Svane, Inge Marie | Rivas, Charlotte | Parihar, Robin | Gottschalk, Stephen | Rooney, Cliona M. | Qin, Haiying | Nguyen, Sang | Su, Paul | Burk, Chad | Duncan, Brynn | Kim, Bong-Hyun | Kohler, M. Eric | Fry, Terry | Rao, Arjun A. | Teyssier, Noam | Pfeil, Jacob | Sgourakis, Nikolaos | Salama, Sofie | Haussler, David | Richman, Sarah A. | Nunez-Cruz, Selene | Gershenson, Zack | Mourelatos, Zissimos | Barrett, David | Grupp, Stephan | Milone, Michael | Rodriguez-Garcia, Alba | Robinson, Matthew K. | Adams, Gregory P. | Powell, Daniel J. | Santos, João | Havunen, Riikka | Siurala, Mikko | Cervera-Carrascón, Víctor | Parviainen, Suvi | Antilla, Marjukka | Hemminki, Akseli | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Santiago, Laurelis | Chen, Jie Qing | Dai, Zhimin | Wardell, Seth | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Sha, Huizi | Su, Shu | Ding, Naiqing | Liu, Baorui | Stevanovic, Sanja | Pasetto, Anna | Helman, Sarah R. | Gartner, Jared J. | Prickett, Todd D. | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Bhatia, Shailender | Burgess, Melissa | Zhang, Hui | Lee, Tien | Klingemann, Hans | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Nghiem, Paul | Kirkwood, John M. | Rossi, John M. | Sherman, Marika | Xue, Allen | Shen, Yueh-wei | Navale, Lynn | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Kochenderfer, James N. | Bot, Adrian | Veerapathran, Anandaraman | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Stramer, Amanda | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wiener, Doris | Frank, Ian | Santiago, Laurelis | Rabinovich, Brian | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Waller, Edmund K. | Li, Jian-Ming | Petersen, Christopher | Blazar, Bruce R. | Li, Jingxia | Giver, Cynthia R. | Wang, Ziming | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Sturgill, Ian | Canter, Robert J. | Murphy, William J. | Zhang, Congcong | Burger, Michael C. | Jennewein, Lukas | Waldmann, Anja | Mittelbronn, Michel | Tonn, Torsten | Steinbach, Joachim P. | Wels, Winfried S. | Williams, Jason B. | Zha, Yuanyuan | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Williams, LaTerrica C. | Krenciute, Giedre | Kalra, Mamta | Louis, Chrystal | Gottschalk, Stephen | Xin, Gang | Schauder, David | Jiang, Aimin | Joshi, Nikhil | Cui, Weiguo | Zeng, Xue | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Zhao, Zeguo | Hamieh, Mohamad | Eyquem, Justin | Gunset, Gertrude | Bander, Neil | Sadelain, Michel | Askmyr, David | Abolhalaj, Milad | Lundberg, Kristina | Greiff, Lennart | Lindstedt, Malin | Angell, Helen K. | Kim, Kyoung-Mee | Kim, Seung-Tae | Kim, Sung | Sharpe, Alan D. | Ogden, Julia | Davenport, Anna | Hodgson, Darren R. | Barrett, Carl | Lee, Jeeyun | Kilgour, Elaine | Hanson, Jodi | Caspell, Richard | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ansari, Tameem | Schiller, Annemarie | Sundararaman, Srividya | Lehmann, Paul | Hanson, Jodi | Roen, Diana | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ayers, Mark | Levitan, Diane | Arreaza, Gladys | Liu, Fang | Mogg, Robin | Bang, Yung-Jue | O’Neil, Bert | Cristescu, Razvan | Friedlander, Philip | Wassman, Karl | Kyi, Chrisann | Oh, William | Bhardwaj, Nina | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gustafson, Michael P. | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Parney, Ian F. | Dietz, Allan B. | Carvajal-Hausdorf, Daniel | Mani, Nikita | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Schalper, Kurt | Rimm, David | Chang, Serena | Levy, Ronald | Kurland, John | Krishnan, Suba | Ahlers, Christoph Matthias | Jure-Kunkel, Maria | Cohen, Lewis | Maecker, Holden | Kohrt, Holbrook | Chen, Shuming | Crabill, George | Pritchard, Theresa | McMiller, Tracee | Pardoll, Drew | Pan, Fan | Topalian, Suzanne | Danaher, Patrick | Warren, Sarah | Dennis, Lucas | White, Andrew M. | D’Amico, Leonard | Geller, Melissa | Disis, Mary L. | Beechem, Joseph | Odunsi, Kunle | Fling, Steven | Derakhshandeh, Roshanak | Webb, Tonya J. | Dubois, Sigrid | Conlon, Kevin | Bryant, Bonita | Hsu, Jennifer | Beltran, Nancy | Müller, Jürgen | Waldmann, Thomas | Duhen, Rebekka | Duhen, Thomas | Thompson, Lucas | Montler, Ryan | Weinberg, Andrew | Kates, Max | Early, Brandon | Yusko, Erik | Schreiber, Taylor H. | Bivalacqua, Trinity J. | Ayers, Mark | Lunceford, Jared | Nebozhyn, Michael | Murphy, Erin | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Albright, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Kang, S. Peter | Shankaran, Veena | Piha-Paul, Sarina A. | Yearley, Jennifer | Seiwert, Tanguy | Ribas, Antoni | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Cristescu, Razvan | Mogg, Robin | Ayers, Mark | Albright, Andrew | Murphy, Erin | Yearley, Jennifer | Sher, Xinwei | Liu, Xiao Qiao | Nebozhyn, Michael | Lunceford, Jared | Joe, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Plimack, Elizabeth | Ott, Patrick A. | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Forrest-Hay, Alex | Guyre, Cheryl A. | Narumiya, Kohei | Delcommenne, Marc | Hirsch, Heather A. | Deshpande, Amit | Reeves, Jason | Shu, Jenny | Zi, Tong | Michaelson, Jennifer | Law, Debbie | Trehu, Elizabeth | Sathyanaryanan, Sriram | Hodkinson, Brendan P. | Hutnick, Natalie A. | Schaffer, Michael E. | Gormley, Michael | Hulett, Tyler | Jensen, Shawn | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Dubay, Christopher | Afentoulis, Michael | Reddy, Ashok | David, Larry | Fox, Bernard | Jayant, Kumar | Agrawal, Swati | Agrawal, Rajendra | Jeyakumar, Ghayathri | Kim, Seongho | Kim, Heejin | Silski, Cynthia | Suisham, Stacey | Heath, Elisabeth | Vaishampayan, Ulka | Vandeven, Natalie | Viller, Natasja Nielsen | O’Connor, Alison | Chen, Hui | Bossen, Bolette | Sievers, Eric | Uger, Robert | Nghiem, Paul | Johnson, Lisa | Kao, Hsiang-Fong | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Lai, Shu-Chuan | Wang, Chun-Wei | Ko, Jenq-Yuh | Lou, Pei-Jen | Lee, Tsai-Jan | Liu, Tsang-Wu | Hong, Ruey-Long | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Landis, Benjamin J. | Koegler, Sally | Hirsch, Brooke | Gianani, Roberto | Kim, Jeffrey | He, Ming-Xiao | Zhang, Bingqing | Su, Nan | Luo, Yuling | Ma, Xiao-Jun | Park, Emily | Kim, Dae Won | Copploa, Domenico | Kothari, Nishi | doo Chang, Young | Kim, Richard | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Knaus, Hanna A. | Berglund, Sofia | Hackl, Hubert | Karp, Judith E. | Gojo, Ivana | Luznik, Leo | Hong, Henoch S. | Koch, Sven D. | Scheel, Birgit | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Wiegand, Volker | Backert, Linus | Kohlbacher, Oliver | Hoerr, Ingmar | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Billingsley, James M. | Koguchi, Yoshinobu | Conrad, Valerie | Miller, William | Gonzalez, Iliana | Poplonski, Tomasz | Meeuwsen, Tanisha | Howells-Ferreira, Ana | Rattray, Rogan | Campbell, Mary | Bifulco, Carlo | Dubay, Christopher | Bahjat, Keith | Curti, Brendan | Urba, Walter | Vetsika, E-K | Kallergi, G. | Aggouraki, Despoina | Lyristi, Z. | Katsarlinos, P. | Koinis, Filippos | Georgoulias, V. | Kotsakis, Athanasios | Martin, Nathan T. | Aeffner, Famke | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Cerkovnik, Logan | Pratte, Luke | Kim, Rebecca | Hirsch, Brooke | Krueger, Joseph | Gianani, Roberto | Martínez-Usatorre, Amaia | Jandus, Camilla | Donda, Alena | Carretero-Iglesia, Laura | Speiser, Daniel E. | Zehn, Dietmar | Rufer, Nathalie | Romero, Pedro | Panda, Anshuman | Mehnert, Janice | Hirshfield, Kim M. | Riedlinger, Greg | Damare, Sherri | Saunders, Tracie | Sokol, Levi | Stein, Mark | Poplin, Elizabeth | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Silk, Ann | Chan, Nancy | Frankel, Melissa | Kane, Michael | Malhotra, Jyoti | Aisner, Joseph | Kaufman, Howard L. | Ali, Siraj | Ross, Jeffrey | White, Eileen | Bhanot, Gyan | Ganesan, Shridar | Monette, Anne | Bergeron, Derek | Amor, Amira Ben | Meunier, Liliane | Caron, Christine | Morou, Antigoni | Kaufmann, Daniel | Liberman, Moishe | Jurisica, Igor | Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie | Hamzaoui, Kamel | Lapointe, Rejean | Mongan, Ann | Ku, Yuan-Chieh | Tom, Warren | Sun, Yongming | Pankov, Alex | Looney, Tim | Au-Young, Janice | Hyland, Fiona | Conroy, Jeff | Morrison, Carl | Glenn, Sean | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Gardner, Mark | Mongan, Ann | Omilian, Angela R. | Conroy, Jeff | Bshara, Wiam | Angela, Omilian | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Glenn, Sean | Morrison, Carl | Mongan, Ann | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Smolkin, Mark E. | Deacon, Donna H. | Patterson, James W. | Chen, Lieping | Bullock, Timothy N. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Deacon, Donna H. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Bullock, Timothy N. | Loffredo, John T. | Vuyyuru, Raja | Beyer, Sophie | Spires, Vanessa M. | Fox, Maxine | Ehrmann, Jon M. | Taylor, Katrina A. | Korman, Alan J. | Graziano, Robert F. | Page, David | Sanchez, Katherine | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Martel, Maritza | Bifulco, Carlo | Urba, Walter | Fox, Bernard | Patel, Sapna P. | De Macedo, Mariana Petaccia | Qin, Yong | Reuben, Alex | Spencer, Christine | Guindani, Michele | Bassett, Roland | Wargo, Jennifer | Racolta, Adriana | Kelly, Brian | Jones, Tobin | Polaske, Nathan | Theiss, Noah | Robida, Mark | Meridew, Jeffrey | Habensus, Iva | Zhang, Liping | Pestic-Dragovich, Lidija | Tang, Lei | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Logan, Theodore | Khushalani, Nikhil | Margolin, Kim | Koon, Henry | Olencki, Thomas | Hutson, Thomas | Curti, Brendan | Roder, Joanna | Blackmon, Shauna | Roder, Heinrich | Stewart, John | Amin, Asim | Ernstoff, Marc S. | Clark, Joseph I. | Atkins, Michael B. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Sosman, Jeffrey | Weber, Jeffrey | McDermott, David F. | Weber, Jeffrey | Kluger, Harriet | Halaban, Ruth | Snzol, Mario | Roder, Heinrich | Roder, Joanna | Asmellash, Senait | Steingrimsson, Arni | Blackmon, Shauna | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Wang, Chichung | Roman, Kristin | Clement, Amanda | Downing, Sean | Hoyt, Clifford | Harder, Nathalie | Schmidt, Guenter | Schoenmeyer, Ralf | Brieu, Nicolas | Yigitsoy, Mehmet | Madonna, Gabriele | Botti, Gerardo | Grimaldi, Antonio | Ascierto, Paolo A. | Huss, Ralf | Athelogou, Maria | Hessel, Harald | Harder, Nathalie | Buchner, Alexander | Schmidt, Guenter | Stief, Christian | Huss, Ralf | Binnig, Gerd | Kirchner, Thomas | Sellappan, Shankar | Thyparambil, Sheeno | Schwartz, Sarit | Cecchi, Fabiola | Nguyen, Andrew | Vaske, Charles | Hembrough, Todd
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):1-106.
doi:10.1186/s40425-016-0172-7
PMCID: PMC5123387
7.  Presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis in esophagus and its association with the clinicopathological characteristics and survival in patients with esophageal cancer 
Background
Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship between specific bacterial infections and the development of certain malignancies. However, the possible role of the keystone periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the presence of P. gingivalis in esophageal mucosa, and the relationship between P. gingivalis infection and the diagnosis and prognosis of ESCC.
Methods
The presence of P. gingivalis in the esophageal tissues from ESCC patients and normal controls was examined by immunohistochemistry using antibodies targeting whole bacteria and its unique secreted protease, the gingipain Kgp. qRT-PCR was used as a confirmatory approach to detect P. gingivalis 16S rDNA. Clinicopathologic characteristics were collected to analyze the relationship between P. gingivalis infection and development of ESCC.
Results
P. gingivalis was detected immunohistochemically in 61 % of cancerous tissues, 12 % of adjacent tissues and was undetected in normal esophageal mucosa. A similar distribution of lysine-specific gingipain, a catalytic endoprotease uniquely secreted by P. gingivalis, and P. gingivalis 16S rDNA was also observed. Moreover, statistic correlations showed P. gingivalis infection was positively associated with multiple clinicopathologic characteristics, including differentiation status, metastasis, and overall survival rate.
Conclusion
These findings demonstrate for the first time that P. gingivalis infects the epithelium of the esophagus of ESCC patients, establish an association between infection with P. gingivalis and the progression of ESCC, and suggest P. gingivalis infection could be a biomarker for this disease. More importantly, these data, if confirmed, indicate that eradication of a common oral pathogen could potentially contribute to a reduction in the overall ESCC burden.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13027-016-0049-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13027-016-0049-x
PMCID: PMC4717526  PMID: 26788120
Porphyromonas gingivalis; ESCC; Lys-gingipain; 16S rDNA; Oral pathogen; Differentiation; Metastasis; Overall survival rate; Prognoses
8.  Developing an integrated framework of problem-based learning and coaching psychology for medical education: a participatory research 
Background
Medical schools have been making efforts to develop their own problem-based learning (PBL) approaches based on their educational conditions, human resources and existing curriculum structures. This study aimed to explore a new framework by integrating the essential features of PBL and coaching psychology applicable to the undergraduate medical education context.
Methods
A participatory research design was employed. Four educational psychology researchers, eight undergraduate medical school students and two accredited PBL tutors participated in a four-month research programme. Data were collected through participatory observation, focus groups, semi-structured interviews, workshop documents and feedback surveys and then subjected to thematic content analysis. The triangulation of sources and member checking were used to ensure the credibility and trustworthiness of the research process.
Results
Five themes emerged from the analysis: current experience of PBL curriculum; the roles of and relationships between tutors and students; student group dynamics; development of self-directed learning; and coaching in PBL facilitation. On the basis of this empirical data, a systematic model of PBL and coaching psychology was developed.
Conclusions
The findings highlighted that coaching psychology could be incorporated into the facilitation system in PBL. The integrated framework of PBL and coaching psychology in undergraduate medical education has the potential to promote the development of the learning goals of cultivating clinical reasoning ability, lifelong learning capacities and medical humanity. Challenges, benefits and future directions for implementing the framework are discussed in this paper.
doi:10.1186/s12909-015-0516-x
PMCID: PMC4700604  PMID: 26728028
9.  A New Scale to Assess the Severity and Prognosis of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis 
Canadian Respiratory Journal  2016;2016:3412836.
Background. Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) is a syndrome characterized by pulmonary surfactant accumulation. Small proportion of PAP patients experienced spontaneous remission. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the severity and prognosis of PAP using various indexes. Methods. Characteristics, PaO2, lung function parameters, and HRCT score of 101 patients with PAP were retrospectively analyzed. Many indexes were explored and integrated into a scale. Results. PaO2 was lower among smokers than among never-smokers. PaO2 differed between each pair of patient groups stratified according to HRCT score or DLCO, % predicted, which differed between any two groups stratified according to PaO2. The PAP patients who died presented with more symptoms, a higher HRCT score, and lower DLCO, % predicted, than survivors. Smoking status, symptoms, PaO2, HRCT score, and DLCO, % predicted, were integrated into a scale (severity and prognosis score of PAP (SPSP)). SPSP correlated positively with PaO2, FVC, % predicted, FEV1, % predicted, and DLCO, % predicted, and negatively with HRCT score. The patients who died displayed a higher SPSP than survivors. Conclusion. Smoking status, symptoms, PaO2, HRCT score, and DLCO, % predicted, were integrated into a scale (SPSP) that can be used to assess the severity and prognosis of PAP to some degree.
doi:10.1155/2016/3412836
PMCID: PMC5007332  PMID: 27635117
10.  Proteomic Analysis of the Uterosacral Ligament in Postmenopausal Women with and without Pelvic Organ Prolapse 
Chinese Medical Journal  2015;128(23):3191-3196.
Background:
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a major health problem in adult women that involves many factors. No proteomic analysis has been conducted exclusively in POP patients. This study aimed to identify the differential expression of proteins that may be involved in POP by proteomic analysis.
Methods:
Samples of the uterosacral ligament (USL) were collected from five POP patients and five non-POP patients matched according to age, parity, and menopausal status and analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to verify the mRNA expression of proteins that showed differential expression in the proteomic analyses.
Results:
Proteins differentially expressed between POP and non-POP patients were detected. Eight proteins that were down-regulated in the POP group were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. These proteins included electron transfer flavoprotein, apolipoprotein A-I, actin, transgelin, cofilin-1, cyclophilin A, myosin, and galectin-1, and their expression was verified by qRT-PCR.
Conclusion:
Using comparative proteomics, we identified eight differentially expressed proteins (including four cytoskeleton proteins and three proteins related to apoptosis) in the USL that may be involved in apoptosis associated with the tissue effects in POP pathophysiology.
doi:10.4103/0366-6999.170262
PMCID: PMC4794882  PMID: 26612295
Apoptosis; Cytoskeleton; Pelvic Organ Prolapse; Proteomics; Uterosacral Ligament
11.  Efficiency and safety of surgical intervention to patients with Non-Cystic Fibrosis bronchiectasis: a meta-analysis 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:17382.
No quantitative systematic review was found to report the efficiency and safety of surgical resection in the management of non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effects of operative intervention to patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. PubMed, the Cochrane library and Web of Science databases were searched up to July 8th, 2015. The pooled mortality from 34 studies recruiting 4788 patients was 1.5% (95% CI, 0.9–2.5%). The pooled morbidity from 33 studies consisting of 4583 patients was 16.7% (95% CI, 14.8–18.6%). The pooled proportion of patients from 35 studies, consisting of 4614 patients who were free of symptoms was 66.5% (95% CI, 61.3–71.7%) after surgery. The summary proportion of patients from 35 articles including 4279 participants who were improved was 27.5% (95% CI, 22.5–32.5%), and 9.1% (95% CI, 7.3–11.5%) showed no clinical improvement. In conclusion, our analysis indicated that lung resection in the management of non-CF bronchiectasis is associated with significant improvements in symptoms, low risk of mortality and acceptable morbidity.
doi:10.1038/srep17382
PMCID: PMC4667173  PMID: 26627202
12.  Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Complicating Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation 
Medicine  2015;94(34):e1346.
Abstract
The aim of this study is to characterize the clinical manifestations and features of pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) by retrospectively analyzing clinical data of patients in addition to reviewing the literature simultaneously to improve the understanding of PVS complicating radiofrequency catheter ablation and to provide evidence for early diagnosis and timely treatment.
Clinical, imaging, and follow-up data of 5 patients with PVS-complicating radiofrequency catheter ablation were retrospectively analyzed between January 2012 and December 2014 in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Relevant studies previously reported were also reviewed.
Three out of 5 patients received pulmonary angiography. The initial symptoms were not specific, presenting chest pain in 3 cases, hemoptysis in 2 cases. The average duration between radiofrequency ablation to the onset of symptoms was 5.8 months. The chest image results were consolidation and pleural effusion mainly. Veins distributed in the left lungs were mostly influenced in 4 patients, and the inferior veins in 3 patients. Cardiac ultrasound examinations showed pulmonary arterial hypertension in 2 patients. Two patients received selective bronchial artery embolization after bronchial artery radiography because of hemoptysis. One patient underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy because of the suspicion of tumor.
PVS is a condition mostly undetected because of its silent manifestations and inconsistent follow-up. The accurate clinical diagnosis is very difficult. A careful review of medical history and follow-up observation may be useful for all the patients who received the radiofrequency catheter ablation to recognize PVS in the early stage.
doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000001346
PMCID: PMC4602907  PMID: 26313772
13.  Castleman's disease presenting in the lungs: A report of two cases 
Oncology Letters  2015;10(2):1041-1043.
Castleman's disease (CD) is a rare disease that most commonly occurs in the mediastinum. The lung is a rare site in which CD may occur. The current study reported 2 cases of CD localized in the lungs. Computed tomography imaging identified a high-density mass in the lungs of the two patients. Biopsy and pathological examinations indicated that one case presented features of two CD types (hyaline-vascular and plasma cell types), while the other case suffered from multicentric CD. The present study highlighted the typical clinical features of CD in the lungs. In addition, it is proposed that a diagnosis of CD should be considered for certain patients with masses in the lungs, and a biopsy should be performed to facilitate diagnosis and treatment.
doi:10.3892/ol.2015.3354
PMCID: PMC4509385  PMID: 26622622
Castleman's disease; lung; plasma cell type; hyaline vascular type
14.  Effects of long-term use of macrolides in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2015;15:160.
Background
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefits and safety of the long-term use of macrolides in patients with non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis.
Methods
Embase, Pubmed, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases were searched from inception up to March 2014. The primary outcome was the improvement of exacerbations of bronchiectasis. Secondary endpoints included changes of microbiology, lung function, quality of life, sputum volume, adverse events and macrolide resistance.
Results
The literature search yielded 139 studies, ten of which containing 601 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Macrolides showed a statistically-significant improvement in reducing acute exacerbations per patient during follow-up treatment (RR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.47, 0.64, P < 0.001), increasing the number of patients free from exacerbations (OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 1.85, 4.26, P < 0.001), and prolonging time to a first exacerbation (HR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.53, P < 0.001). Macrolides maintenance treatment was superior to control with respect to attenuating FEV1 decline (p = 0.02), improving sputum volume (p = 0.009) and SGRQ total scores (p = 0.02), but showed a higher risk of adverse events, especially diarrhea (OR = 5.36; 95% CI: 2.06, 13.98, P = 0.0006). Eradication of pathogens was improved in the macrolide group (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.91, 3.41, P = 0.09), while pathogen resistance caused by macrolides dramatically increased (OR = 16.83, 95% CI: 7.26, 38.99, P < 0.001). The new appearance of a microbiologic profile or participant withdrawal due to adverse events showed no significant differences between the two groups.
Conclusion
In patients with non-CF bronchiectasis, macrolide maintenance treatment can effectively reduce frequency of exacerbations, attenuate lung function decline, decrease sputum volume, improve quality of life, but may be accompanied with increased adverse events (especially diarrhea) and pathogen resistance.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12879-015-0872-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12879-015-0872-5
PMCID: PMC4464873  PMID: 25888483
15.  Manometric Comparison of Anorectal Function after Posterior Vaginal Compartment Repair with and without Mesh 
Chinese Medical Journal  2015;128(4):438-442.
Background:
Although repair augmented with mesh has been proved its priority in anatomical and functional recovery after anterior compartment reconstruction, the data about posterior compartment are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare bowel functional outcome of posterior vaginal compartment repair with and without mesh in patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP).
Methods:
This was a prospective, double-blind, clinical pilot study of 22 postmenopausal women with symptomatic POP (overall POP-quantification [POP-Q] Stage III-IV) who underwent total pelvic floor reconstruction. Patients were grouped according to the use of mesh for posterior vaginal compartment repair: A mesh group and a nonmesh group. POP-Q stage, the pelvic floor impact questionnaire short form-7 (PFIQ-7) and anorectal manometry were evaluated before and 3 months after surgery. Anatomical success was defined as POP-Q Stage II or less. A t-test was used to compare preoperative with postoperative data in the two groups.
Results:
Totally, 17 (71%) were available for the follow-up. POP-Q measurements improved significantly compared to baseline (P < 0.05) in both groups. No recurrence was observed. Subjects in both groups reported improvement in pelvic floor symptoms, and there was no significant difference in the PFIQ-7 score between groups at follow-up (P > 0.05). Compared with baseline, the nonmesh group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in anal residual pressure, a significant increase in the anorectal pressure difference during bowel movement, and a reduced rate of dyssynergia defecation pattern (P < 0.05).
Conclusions:
Provided there is sufficient support for the anterior wall and apex of vagina with mesh, posterior compartment repair without mesh may be as effective as repair with mesh for anatomical recovery while providing better anorectal motor function.
doi:10.4103/0366-6999.151065
PMCID: PMC4836243  PMID: 25673442
Anorectal Manometry; Constipation; Mesh; Pelvic Organ Prolapse; Posterior Vaginal Compartment Repair
16.  MicroRNA-645, up-regulated in human adencarcinoma of gastric esophageal junction, inhibits apoptosis by targeting tumor suppressor IFIT2 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:633.
Background
An increasing body of evidence indicates that miRNAs have a critical role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression; however, the role of miRNAs in the tumorigenesis of adencarcinoma of gastric esophageal junction (AGEJ) remains largely unclear.
Methods
The SGC7901 and BGC-823 gastric cancer cell lines were used. The expressions of miR-645 and IFIT2 (Interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 2) were examined by qRT-PCR, The expressions of IFIT2 was examined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry assay. The cell apoptosis was determined by FACS. MiR-645 inhibitor, mimics and plasmid-IFIT2 transfections were performed to study the loss- and gain-function. Caspase-3/7 activity was examined by caspase-3/7 assay.
Results
In the present study, we have reported an increased expression of miR-645 in AGEJ clinical specimens compared with paired non-cancerous tissues. We also observed a significant miR-645 up-regulation in two gastric cancer (GC) cell lines, SGC7901 and BGC-823, which were used as cell models because there was no available AGEJ cell lines established to date. We found that inhibition of miR-645 could sensitize dramatically SGC7901 and BGC-823 cells to both serum starvation– and chemotherapeutic drug–induced apoptosis by up-regulating IFIT2, a mediator of apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway, with a potential binding site for miR-645 in its mRNA’s 3′UTR. Further investigation exhibited that IFIT2 expression decreases in SGC7901 and BGC-823 cells and AGEJ tissues. IFIT2 ectopic expression leads to promotion of cell apoptosis, indicating that IFIT2 may function as a suppressor in the development of AGEJ. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-645 induces up-regulation of IFIT2 and increased caspase-3/7 activity compared with control groups.
Conclusions
Our data suggest that miR-645 functions as an oncogene in human AGEJ by, at least partially through, targeting IFIT2.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-633) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-633
PMCID: PMC4161885  PMID: 25174799
Adencarcinoma of gastric esophageal junction; microRNA-645; IFIT2; Apoptosis
17.  Hypoxia- and radiation-induced overexpression of Smac by an adenoviral vector and its effects on cell cycle and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells 
A conditionally replicative adenoviral (CRAd) vector, designated as CRAd.pEgr-1-Smac, that promotes the overexpression of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) when stimulated by hypoxia and radiation was constructed. MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with CRAd.pEgr-1-Smac and treated with 4-Gy X-rays. The hypoxic status in cancer cells was mimicked with the chemical reagent CoCl2. Smac protein expression was measured by a western blotting assay and cell proliferation was detected with the MTT assay. The cell cycle progression and apoptotic percentage were measured by flow cytometry with PI and Annexin V-FITC staining kits, respectively, following the irradiation of the transfected cells with 4-Gy X-rays. The results showed that CRAd.pEgr-1-Smac was able to increase the Smac protein expression induced by hypoxia and radiation, inhibit cell proliferation and promote apoptosis. Therefore, this method of gene-radiotherapy is indicated to be an ideal strategy for the treatment of breast cancer.
doi:10.3892/etm.2013.1351
PMCID: PMC3829727  PMID: 24255691
hypoxia; radiation; second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase; breast cancer; apoptosis
18.  CyclinD1, a prominent prognostic marker for endometrial diseases 
Diagnostic Pathology  2013;8:138.
Purpose
Alteration of CyclinD1 was suggested to relate with development of endometrial carcinogenesis before, however CyclinD1 expression is not well defined in endometrial hyperplasia lesions. We checked the relationship between its expression and clinic-pathological variables of endometrial lesions to explore the possibility for CyclinD1 as a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker.
Methods
Cyclin D1 immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) was used to evaluate 201 fixed, paraffin-embedded endometrial samples which included simple hyperplasia (n = 27), atypical complex hyperplasia (ACH) (n = 41), endometrioid carcinoma (n = 103), endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC) (n = 21) and clear cell carcinoma (CCC) (n = 9). A breast cancer with known CyclinD1 expression was selected as a positive control in each immunohistochemistry run. We also performed follow-up study to estimate patients’ prognosis.
Results
CyclinD1 was significantly overexpressed in atypical complex hyperplasia (ACH), endometrioid carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma (CCC). The positive signaling of CyclinD1 was showed less than 40% in simple hyperplasia and endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC). The high expression of CyclinD1 was observed in metastasis carcinoma group more significantly than non-metastasis carcinoma group. Kaplan Meier analysis demonstrated that patients with high CyclinD1 expression had an obviously poor prognosis than patients without CyclinD1 staining (p < 0.05). Moreover, according to multivariate Cox regression analysis, CyclinD1 expression, as crucial as metastasis, was a risk marker for overall survival rate.
Conclusion
CyclinD1 exhibited a promising potential to predict the prognosis of patients with endometrial carcinoma. However, the statistical analysis demonstrated that CyclinD1 exhibited a poor ability to differentiate neoplastic lesions from non-neoplastic lesions; thus, the application of CyclinD1 only is not so credible for differentiation between benign and malignant lesions.
Virtual slides
The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1871063048950173.
doi:10.1186/1746-1596-8-138
PMCID: PMC3846687  PMID: 23947899
Endometrial cancer; CyclinD1; Prognostic markers; Survival analysis
19.  Correction: Meta-Analysis of Cytochrome P-450 2C9 Polymorphism and Colorectal Cancer Risk 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):10.1371/annotation/405a8737-be71-4ff1-8755-a3ccf11cb67f.
doi:10.1371/annotation/405a8737-be71-4ff1-8755-a3ccf11cb67f
PMCID: PMC3651333
20.  Current concepts on the role of nitric oxide in portal hypertension 
Portal hypertension (PHT) is defined as a pathological increase in portal venous pressure and frequently accompanies cirrhosis. Portal pressure can be increased by a rise in portal blood flow, an increase in vascular resistance, or the combination. In cirrhosis, the primary factor leading to PHT is an increase in intra-hepatic resistance to blood flow. Although much of this increase is a mechanical consequence of architectural disturbances, there is a dynamic and reversible component that represents up to a third of the increased vascular resistance in cirrhosis. Many vasoactive substances contribute to the development of PHT. Among these, nitric oxide (NO) is the key mediator that paradoxically regulates the sinusoidal (intra-hepatic) and systemic/splanchnic circulations. NO deficiency in the liver leads to increased intra-hepatic resistance while increased NO in the circulation contributes to the hyperdynamic systemic/splanchnic circulation. NO mediated-angiogenesis also plays a role in splanchnic vasodilation and collateral circulation formation. NO donors reduce PHT in animals models but the key clinical challenge is the development of an NO donor or drug delivery system that selectively targets the liver.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i11.1707
PMCID: PMC3607747  PMID: 23555159
Nitric oxide; Portal hypertension; Hepatic stellate cell; Liver cirrhosis
21.  Meta-Analysis of Cytochrome P-450 2C9 Polymorphism and Colorectal Cancer Risk 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e49134.
Background
CYP2C9 encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes which play a central role in activating and detoxifying many carcinogens and endogenous compounds thought to be involved in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the past decade, the relationship between CYP2C9 common polymorphisms (R144C and I359L) and CRC has been reported in various ethnic groups; however, these studies have yielded contradictory results. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed this meta-analysis.
Methods
Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association.
Results
A total of 13 articles involving 9,463 cases and 11,416 controls were included. Overall, the summary odds ratio of CRC was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.89−1.06) and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87−1.14) for CYP2C9 144C and 359L alleles, respectively. No significant results were observed using dominant or recessive genetic model for these polymorphisms. In the stratified analyses according to ethnicity and sex, no evidence of any gene-disease association was obtained.
Conclusions
This meta-analysis suggests that the CYP2C9 may not be associated with colorectal cancer development.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049134
PMCID: PMC3492323  PMID: 23145098
22.  Research and control of well water pollution in high esophageal cancer areas 
AIM: In order to detect risk factors for esophageal cancer, a national research program was carried out during the Eighth Five-Year Plan (from 1991 to 1995).
METHODS: Cixian County and Chichen County in Hebei Province were selected as the index and the control for the study fields with higher or lower incidence of esophagus cancer in China, respectively. In these areas, we investigated the pollution of three nitrogenous compounds in well water for drinking and the use of nitrogen fertilizer in farming.
RESULTS: In well water, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen were 8.77 mg/L, 0.014 mg/L and 0.009 mg/L in Cixian County in 1993, respectively. They were significantly higher than their levels (3.84 mg/L, 0.004 mg/L and 0.004 mg/L) in Chichen County (P < 0.01, t = 6.281, t = 3.784, t = 3.775). There was a trend that the nitrogenous compounds in well water increased from 1993 to 1996. The amount of nitrogen fertilizer used in farming was 787.6 kg per hectare land in Cixian County in 1991, significantly higher than 186 kg per hectare in Chichen County (t = 9.603, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: These investigations indicate that the pollution of nitrogenous compounds in well water for drinking is closely related to the use of nitrogen fertilizer in farming, and there is a significantly positive correlation between the level of three nitrogenous compounds in well water and the mortality of esophageal cancer (correlation coefficient = 0.5992). We suggest that improvement of well system for drinking water quality should be an effective measure for esophageal cancer prevention and control in rural areas.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v9.i6.1187
PMCID: PMC4611781  PMID: 12800221

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