PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (55)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
more »
1.  Molecular insights into desmoid tumors 
Oncotarget  2017;8(53):90608-90609.
doi:10.18632/oncotarget.21293
PMCID: PMC5710859
NICD; molecular insights
2.  LC-MS/MS assay for the quantitation of FdCyd and its metabolites FdUrd and FU in human plasma 
The hypomethylating agent 5-fluoro-2′-deoxycytidine (FdCyd, NSC 48006) is being evaluated clinically both via the intravenous route and via the oral route in combination with 3,4,5,6-tetrahydrouridine (THU), a potent inhibitor of FdCyd catabolism. To determine the pharmacokinetics of FdCyd and downstream metabolites, we developed and validated an LC-MS/MS assay for the quantitation of FdCyd, 5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine (FdUrd), and 5-fluorouracil (FU) in 0.2 mL human plasma. After acetonitrile protein precipitation, the sample was split and separate chromatography was achieved for FdCyd with a Synergi Polar-RP column and for FdUrd and FU with a Shodex Asahipak NH2P-50 2D column. Gradients of 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile and water were used. Detection with a Quattromicro quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization in positive-ion (FdCyd) or negative-ion (FdUrd and FU) multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The assay was linear from 5–3000 ng/mL for all three analytes and proved to be accurate (96.7–105.5%) and precise (<8.1%CV), and fulfilled FDA criteria for bioanalytical method validation. We demonstrated the suitability of this assay for measuring FdCyd and metabolites FdUrd and FU in plasma from a patient who was administered 120 mg PO FdCyd 30 min after 3000 mg THU. Our LC-MS/MS assay will be an essential tool to further define the pharmacology of FdCyd in ongoing and future studies.
Graphical abstract
doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2016.07.027
PMCID: PMC5003709  PMID: 27454087
FdCyd; tandem mass spectrometry; metabolites; assay; validation
3.  Dosimetry and first human experience with 89Zr-panitumumab 
89Zr-panitumumab is a novel immuno-PET radiotracer. A fully humanized IgG2 antibody, panitumumab binds with high affinity to the extracellular ligand binding domain of EGFR. Immuno-PET with radiolabeled panitumumab is a non-invasive method that could characterize EGFR expression in tumors and metastatic lesions. It might also assist in selecting patients likely to benefit from targeted therapy as well as monitor response and drug biodistribution for dosing guidance. Our objective was to calculate the maximum dosing for effective imaging with minimal radiation exposure in a small subset. Three patients with metastatic colon cancer were injected with approximately 1 mCi (37 MBq) of 89Zr-panitumumab IV. Whole body static images were then obtained at 2-6 hours, 1-3 days and 5-7 days post injection. Whole organ contours were applied to the liver, kidneys, spleen, stomach, lungs, bone, gut, heart, bladder and psoas muscle. From these contours, time activity curves were derived and used to calculate mean resident times which were used as input into OLINDA 1.1 software for dosimetry estimates. The whole body effective dose was estimated between 0.264 mSv/MBq (0.97 rem/mCi) and 0.330 mSv/MBq (1.22 rem/mCi). The organ which had the highest dose was the liver which OLINDA estimated between 1.9 mGy/MBq (7.2 rad/mCi) and 2.5 mGy/MBq (9 rad/mCi). The effective dose is within range of extrapolated estimates from mice studies. 89Zr-panitumumab appears safe and dosimetry estimates are reasonable for clinical imaging.
PMCID: PMC5596322  PMID: 28913158
89Zr-panitumumab; human dosimetry; PET
4.  Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Two Dosing Schedules of Indotecan (LMP400), a Novel Indenoisoquinoline, in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors 
Background
Indenoisoquinolines are non-camptothecin topoisomerase 1 (Top1) inhibitors with activity against camptothecin-resistant cell lines. Two dosing schedules of the novel indenoisoquinoline, indotecan (LMP400), were evaluated in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Methods
The maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicities, and pharmacokinetics of two indotecan drug administration schedules (daily for 5 days or weekly) were investigated. Modulation of Top1 and the phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX) were assessed in tumor biopsies; γH2AX levels were also evaluated in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and hair follicles to assess DNA damage response.
Results
An MTD of 60 mg/m2/day was established for the daily regimen, compared to 90 mg/m2 for the weekly regimen. The top1 response to drug showed target engagement in a subset of tumor biopsies. Dose-dependent decreases in total CTCs were measured in 7 patients. Formation of γH2AX-positive foci in CTCs (day 3) and hair follicles (4–6 hours) was observed following treatment.
Conclusions
We established the MTD of 2 dosing schedules for a novel Top1 inhibitor, indotecan. No objective responses were observed on either schedule. The principal toxicity of both schedules, myelosuppression, prevented further dose escalation. Increased DNA damage response was observed in CTCs, hair follicles, and a subset of tumor biopsies.
doi:10.1007/s00280-016-2998-6
PMCID: PMC5199138  PMID: 27169793
DNA Damage; DNA Topoisomerases; Type 1; TOP1 protein; human; NSC 724998; Isoquinolines; H2AFX protein; human; Neoplastic Cells; Circulating; Hair Follicle
5.  Randomized Phase II trial of Cyclophosphamide and the Oral Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitor Veliparib in Patients with Recurrent, Advanced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer 
Investigational new drugs  2016;34(3):355-363.
Background
In tumors carrying BRCA mutations, DNA damage caused by standard cytotoxic chemotherapy can be potentiated by poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, leading to increased cell death through synthetic lethality. Individuals carrying mutations in BRCA have an increased incidence of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). In order to assess the role of PARP inhibition in the treatment of TNBC, we conducted a randomized phase II trial of the combination of veliparib, a small molecule PARP inhibitor, with the cytotoxic agent cyclophosphamide versus cyclophosphamide alone in patients with refractory TNBC.
Methods
Adult patients with TNBC were randomized to receive oral cyclophosphamide 50 mg once daily with or without oral veliparib at 60 mg daily in 21-day cycles. Patients on the cyclophosphamide arm could crossover to the combination arm at disease progression.
Results
Forty-five patients were enrolled; 18 received cyclophosphamide alone and 21 received the combination as their initial treatment regimen. Lymphopenia was the most common grade 3/4 toxicity noted in both arms. One patient in the cyclophosphamide alone arm, and 2 in the combination arm had objective responses. Response rates and median progression free survival did not significantly differ between both treatment arms.
Conclusion
The addition of veliparib to cyclophosphamide, at the dose and schedule evaluated, did not improve the response rate over cyclophosphamide treatment alone in patients with heavily pre-treated triple-negative breast cancer.
doi:10.1007/s10637-016-0335-x
PMCID: PMC4860030  PMID: 26996385
metronomic cyclophosphamide; PARP inhibition; DNA damage repair; BRCA; HR defect
6.  A phase 2 study of vorinostat in locally advanced, recurrent, or metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma 
Oncotarget  2017;8(20):32918-32929.
Purpose
Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi). Based on a confirmed partial response (PR) in an adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) patient treated with vorinostat in a prior phase 1 trial, we initiated this phase 2 trial. Methods: Vorinostat was administered orally 400 mg daily, 28 day cycles. The primary objective was to evaluate response rate (RR). Exploratory studies included whole exome sequencing (WES) of selected patients.
Results
Thirty patients were enrolled. Median age of patients was 53 years (range 21–73). Median number of cycles was 5 (range 1-66). Lymphopenia (n = 5), hypertension (n = 3), oral pain (n = 2), thromboembolic events (n = 2) and fatigue (n = 2) were the only grade 3 adverse events (AEs) that occurred in more than 1 patient. Eleven patients were dose reduced secondary to drug-related AEs. Two patients had a partial response (PR), with response durations of 53 and 7.2 months. One patient had a minor response with a decrease in ascites (for 19 cycles). Stable disease was the best response in 27 patients. Targeted and WES of 8 patients in this trial identified mutations in chromatin remodeling genes highlighting the role of the epigenome in ACC. Conclusion: Vorinostat demonstrated efficacy in patients with ACC supporting the inclusion of HDACi in future studies to treat ACC.
doi:10.18632/oncotarget.16464
PMCID: PMC5464838  PMID: 28415633
adenoid cystic; salivary gland tumor; vorinostat; suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid; SAHA
7.  Antibody-independent capture of circulating tumor cells of non-epithelial origin with the ApoStream® system 
PLoS ONE  2017;12(4):e0175414.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are increasingly employed for research and clinical monitoring of cancer, though most current methods do not permit the isolation of non-epithelial tumor cells. Furthermore, CTCs isolated with antibody-dependent methods are not suitable for downstream experimental uses, including in vitro culturing and implantation in vivo. In the present study, we describe the development, validation, and transfer across laboratories of a new antibody-independent device for the enrichment of CTCs from blood samples of patients with various cancer diagnoses. The ApoStream® device uses dielectrophoresis (DEP) field-flow assist to separate non-hematopoietic cells from the peripheral blood mononuclear fraction by exposing cells in a laminar flow stream to a critical alternating current frequency. The ApoStream® device was calibrated and validated in a formal cross-laboratory protocol using 3 different cancer cell lines spanning a range of distinct phenotypes (A549, MDA-MB-231, and ASPS-1). In spike-recovery experiments, cancer cell recovery efficiencies appeared independent of spiking level and averaged between 68% and 55%, depending on the cell line. No inter-run carryover was detected in control samples. Moreover, the clinical-readiness of the device in the context of non-epithelial cancers was evaluated with blood specimens from fifteen patients with metastatic sarcoma. The ApoStream® device successfully isolated CTCs from all patients with sarcomas examined, and the phenotypic heterogeneity of the enriched cells was demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization or with multiplex immunophenotyping panels. Therefore, the ApoStream® technology expands the clinical utility of CTC evaluation to mesenchymal cancers.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0175414
PMCID: PMC5389826  PMID: 28403214
8.  Biological and Clinical Characteristics of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Colorectal Cancer, Breast Cancer, Melanoma and Sarcoma 
Cancer  2016;122(7):1017-1028.
Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients have not attained the same improvements in overall survival that either younger children or older adults have. One possible reason for this disparity may be that the AYA cancers exhibit unique biological characteristics resulting in differences in clinical and treatment resistance behaviors. This report from the biological component of the jointly sponsored NCI and Live Strong Foundation workshop entitled Next Steps in Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology” meeting summarizes the current status of biological and translational research progress for five AYA cancers; colorectal cancer (CRC) breast cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), melanoma and sarcoma. Conclusions from this meeting included the need for basic biological, genomic and model development for AYA cancers, as well as translational research studies to elucidate any fundamental differences between pediatric, AYA and adult cancers. The biological questions for future research are whether there are mutational or signaling pathway differences for example between adult and AYA colorectal cancer that can be clinically exploited to develop novel therapies for treating AYA cancers and to develop companion diagnostics.
doi:10.1002/cncr.29871
PMCID: PMC4803597  PMID: 26849082
ALL; breast; colorectal; melanoma; sarcoma
9.  Effect of a Smac Mimetic (TL32711, Birinapant) on the Apoptotic Program and Apoptosis Biomarkers Examined with Validated Multiplex Immunoassays Fit for Clinical Use 
Purpose
To support clinical pharmacodynamic evaluation of the Smac mimetic TL32711 (birinapant) and other apoptosis-targeting drugs, we describe the development, validation, and application of novel immunoassays for 15 cytosolic and membrane-associated proteins indicative of the induction, onset, and commitment to apoptosis in human tumors.
Experimental Design
The multiplex immunoassays were constructed on the Luminex platform with apoptosis biomarkers grouped into three panels. Panel 1 contains Bak, Bax, total caspase-3, total lamin-B (intact and 45 kDa fragment), and Smac; panel 2 contains Bad, Bax–Bcl-2 heterodimer, Bcl-xL, Bim, and Mcl1; and panel 3 contains active (cleaved) caspase-3, Bcl-xL–Bak heterodimer, Mcl1–Bak heterodimer, pS99-Bad, and survivin. Antibody specificity was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and Western analysis.
Results
Two laboratories analytically validated the multiplex immunoassays for application with core needle biopsy samples processed to control pre-analytical variables; the biological variability for each biomarker was estimated from xenograft measurements. Studies of TL32711 in xenograft models confirmed a dose-dependent increase in activated caspase-3 6 hours after dosing and provided assay fit-for-purpose confirmation. Coincident changes in cytosolic lamin-B and subsequent changes in Bcl-xL provided correlative evidence of caspase-3 activation. The validated assay is suitable for use with clinical specimens; 14 of 15 biomarkers were quantifiable in patient core needle biopsies.
Conclusions
The validated multiplex immunoassays developed for this study provided proof of mechanism data for TL32711 and are suitable for quantifying apoptotic biomarkers in clinical trials.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-3156
PMCID: PMC4755826  PMID: 26446940
Apoptosis; pharmacodynamic assay; birinapant; multiplex immunoassays; Smac mimetic
10.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part one 
Lundqvist, Andreas | van Hoef, Vincent | Zhang, Xiaonan | Wennerberg, Erik | Lorent, Julie | Witt, Kristina | Sanz, Laia Masvidal | Liang, Shuo | Murray, Shannon | Larsson, Ola | Kiessling, Rolf | Mao, Yumeng | Sidhom, John-William | Bessell, Catherine A. | Havel, Jonathan | Schneck, Jonathan | Chan, Timothy A. | Sachsenmeier, Eliot | Woods, David | Berglund, Anders | Ramakrishnan, Rupal | Sodre, Andressa | Weber, Jeffrey | Zappasodi, Roberta | Li, Yanyun | Qi, Jingjing | Wong, Philip | Sirard, Cynthia | Postow, Michael | Newman, Walter | Koon, Henry | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Callahan, Margaret K. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Lum, Lawrence G. | Choi, Minsig | Thakur, Archana | Deol, Abhinav | Dyson, Gregory | Shields, Anthony | Haymaker, Cara | Uemura, Marc | Murthy, Ravi | James, Marihella | Wang, Daqing | Brevard, Julie | Monaghan, Catherine | Swann, Suzanne | Geib, James | Cornfeld, Mark | Chunduru, Srinivas | Agrawal, Sudhir | Yee, Cassian | Wargo, Jennifer | Patel, Sapna P. | Amaria, Rodabe | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Woodman, Scott | Hwu, Wen-Jen | Davies, Michael A. | Hwu, Patrick | Overwijk, Willem W. | Bernatchez, Chantale | Diab, Adi | Massarelli, Erminia | Segal, Neil H. | Ribrag, Vincent | Melero, Ignacio | Gangadhar, Tara C. | Urba, Walter | Schadendorf, Dirk | Ferris, Robert L. | Houot, Roch | Morschhauser, Franck | Logan, Theodore | Luke, Jason J. | Sharfman, William | Barlesi, Fabrice | Ott, Patrick A. | Mansi, Laura | Kummar, Shivaani | Salles, Gilles | Carpio, Cecilia | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | McDonald, Dan | Maurer, Matthew | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Levy, Ronald | Khushalani, Nikhil | Wu, Jennifer | Zhang, Jinyu | Basher, Fahmin | Rubinstein, Mark | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | MacDonald, Cameron | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Chatterjee, Shilpak | Daenthanasanmak, Anusara | Chakraborty, Paramita | Toth, Kyle | Meek, Megan | Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth | Nishimura, Michael | Paulos, Chrystal | Beeson, Craig | Yu, Xuezhong | Mehrotra, Shikhar | Zhao, Fei | Evans, Kathy | Xiao, Christine | Holtzhausen, Alisha | Hanks, Brent A. | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Moreci, Rebecca | Whetstone, Ryan | Dadey, Rebekah | Watkins, Simon | Ferris, Robert | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Peled, Jonathan | Devlin, Sean | Staffas, Anna | Lumish, Melissa | Rodriguez, Kori Porosnicu | Ahr, Katya | Perales, Miguel | Giralt, Sergio | Taur, Ying | Pamer, Eric | van den Brink, Marcel R. M. | Jenq, Robert | Annels, Nicola | Pandha, Hardev | Simpson, Guy | Mostafid, Hugh | Harrington, Kevin | Melcher, Alan | Grose, Mark | Davies, Bronwyn | Au, Gough | Karpathy, Roberta | Shafren, Darren | Ricca, Jacob | Merghoub, Taha | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Zamarin, Dmitriy | Batista, Luciana | Marliot, Florence | Vasaturo, Angela | Carpentier, Sabrina | Poggionovo, Cécile | Frayssinet, Véronique | Fieschi, Jacques | Van den Eynde, Marc | Pagès, Franck | Galon, Jérôme | Hermitte, Fabienne | Smith, Sean G. | Nguyen, Khue | Ravindranathan, Sruthi | Koppolu, Bhanu | Zaharoff, David | Schvartsman, Gustavo | Bassett, Roland | McQuade, Jennifer L. | Haydu, Lauren E. | Davies, Michael A. | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Kline, Douglas | Chen, Xiufen | Fosco, Dominick | Kline, Justin | Overacre, Abigail | Chikina, Maria | Brunazzi, Erin | Shayan, Gulidanna | Horne, William | Kolls, Jay | Ferris, Robert L. | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Bruno, Tullia C. | Workman, Creg | Vignali, Dario | Adusumilli, Prasad S. | Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A | Li, Zihai | Gerry, Andrew | Sanderson, Joseph P. | Howe, Karen | Docta, Roslin | Gao, Qian | Bagg, Eleanor A. L. | Tribble, Nicholas | Maroto, Miguel | Betts, Gareth | Bath, Natalie | Melchiori, Luca | Lowther, Daniel E. | Ramachandran, Indu | Kari, Gabor | Basu, Samik | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Chagin, Karen | Pandite, Lini | Holdich, Tom | Amado, Rafael | Zhang, Hua | Glod, John | Bernstein, Donna | Jakobsen, Bent | Mackall, Crystal | Wong, Ryan | Silk, Jonathan D. | Adams, Katherine | Hamilton, Garth | Bennett, Alan D. | Brett, Sara | Jing, Junping | Quattrini, Adriano | Saini, Manoj | Wiedermann, Guy | Gerry, Andrew | Jakobsen, Bent | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Brewer, Joanna | Duong, MyLinh | Lu, An | Chang, Peter | Mahendravada, Aruna | Shinners, Nicholas | Slawin, Kevin | Spencer, David M. | Foster, Aaron E. | Bayle, J. Henri | Bergamaschi, Cristina | Ng, Sinnie Sin Man | Nagy, Bethany | Jensen, Shawn | Hu, Xintao | Alicea, Candido | Fox, Bernard | Felber, Barbara | Pavlakis, George | Chacon, Jessica | Yamamoto, Tori | Garrabrant, Thomas | Cortina, Luis | Powell, Daniel J. | Donia, Marco | Kjeldsen, Julie Westerlin | Andersen, Rikke | Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff | Bianchi, Valentina | Legut, Mateusz | Attaf, Meriem | Dolton, Garry | Szomolay, Barbara | Ott, Sascha | Lyngaa, Rikke | Hadrup, Sine Reker | Sewell, Andrew Kelvin | Svane, Inge Marie | Fan, Aaron | Kumai, Takumi | Celis, Esteban | Frank, Ian | Stramer, Amanda | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wardell, Seth | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Goff, Stephanie L. | Zacharakis, Nikolaos | Assadipour, Yasmine | Prickett, Todd D. | Gartner, Jared J. | Somerville, Robert | Black, Mary | Xu, Hui | Chinnasamy, Harshini | Kriley, Isaac | Lu, Lily | Wunderlich, John | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven | Feldman, Steven A. | Trebska-McGowan, Kasia | Kriley, Isaac | Malekzadeh, Parisa | Payabyab, Eden | Sherry, Richard | Rosenberg, Steven | Goff, Stephanie L. | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Kopits, Charlene | Rabinovich, Brian | Lotze, Michael T. | Green, Daniel S. | Kamenyeva, Olena | Zoon, Kathryn C. | Annunziata, Christina M. | Hammill, Joanne | Helsen, Christopher | Aarts, Craig | Bramson, Jonathan | Harada, Yui | Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu | Helsen, Christopher | Hammill, Joanne | Mwawasi, Kenneth | Denisova, Galina | Bramson, Jonathan | Giri, Rajanish | Jin, Benjamin | Campbell, Tracy | Draper, Lindsey M. | Stevanovic, Sanja | Yu, Zhiya | Weissbrich, Bianca | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Trimble, Cornelia L. | Rosenberg, Steven | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Tsang, Kwong | Fantini, Massimo | Hodge, James W. | Fujii, Rika | Fernando, Ingrid | Jochems, Caroline | Heery, Christopher | Gulley, James | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Schlom, Jeffrey | Jing, Weiqing | Gershan, Jill | Blitzer, Grace | Weber, James | McOlash, Laura | Johnson, Bryon D. | Kiany, Simin | Gangxiong, Huang | Kleinerman, Eugenie S. | Klichinsky, Michael | Ruella, Marco | Shestova, Olga | Kenderian, Saad | Kim, Miriam | Scholler, John | June, Carl H. | Gill, Saar | Moogk, Duane | Zhong, Shi | Yu, Zhiya | Liadi, Ivan | Rittase, William | Fang, Victoria | Dougherty, Janna | Perez-Garcia, Arianne | Osman, Iman | Zhu, Cheng | Varadarajan, Navin | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Frey, Alan | Krogsgaard, Michelle | Landi, Daniel | Fousek, Kristen | Mukherjee, Malini | Shree, Ankita | Joseph, Sujith | Bielamowicz, Kevin | Byrd, Tiara | Ahmed, Nabil | Hegde, Meenakshi | Lee, Sylvia | Byrd, David | Thompson, John | Bhatia, Shailender | Tykodi, Scott | Delismon, Judy | Chu, Liz | Abdul-Alim, Siddiq | Ohanian, Arpy | DeVito, Anna Marie | Riddell, Stanley | Margolin, Kim | Magalhaes, Isabelle | Mattsson, Jonas | Uhlin, Michael | Nemoto, Satoshi | Villarroel, Patricio Pérez | Nakagawa, Ryosuke | Mule, James J. | Mailloux, Adam W. | Mata, Melinda | Nguyen, Phuong | Gerken, Claudia | DeRenzo, Christopher | Spencer, David M. | Gottschalk, Stephen | Mathieu, Mélissa | Pelletier, Sandy | Stagg, John | Turcotte, Simon | Minutolo, Nicholas | Sharma, Prannda | Tsourkas, Andrew | Powell, Daniel J. | Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine | Mauer, Daniela | Drechsel, Katharina | Barth, Carola | Freese, Katharina | Kolrep, Ulrike | Schult, Silke | Assenmacher, Mario | Kaiser, Andrew | Mullinax, John | Hall, MacLean | Le, Julie | Kodumudi, Krithika | Royster, Erica | Richards, Allison | Gonzalez, Ricardo | Sarnaik, Amod | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Nielsen, Morten | Krarup-Hansen, Anders | Hovgaard, Dorrit | Petersen, Michael Mørk | Loya, Anand Chainsukh | Junker, Niels | Svane, Inge Marie | Rivas, Charlotte | Parihar, Robin | Gottschalk, Stephen | Rooney, Cliona M. | Qin, Haiying | Nguyen, Sang | Su, Paul | Burk, Chad | Duncan, Brynn | Kim, Bong-Hyun | Kohler, M. Eric | Fry, Terry | Rao, Arjun A. | Teyssier, Noam | Pfeil, Jacob | Sgourakis, Nikolaos | Salama, Sofie | Haussler, David | Richman, Sarah A. | Nunez-Cruz, Selene | Gershenson, Zack | Mourelatos, Zissimos | Barrett, David | Grupp, Stephan | Milone, Michael | Rodriguez-Garcia, Alba | Robinson, Matthew K. | Adams, Gregory P. | Powell, Daniel J. | Santos, João | Havunen, Riikka | Siurala, Mikko | Cervera-Carrascón, Víctor | Parviainen, Suvi | Antilla, Marjukka | Hemminki, Akseli | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Santiago, Laurelis | Chen, Jie Qing | Dai, Zhimin | Wardell, Seth | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Sha, Huizi | Su, Shu | Ding, Naiqing | Liu, Baorui | Stevanovic, Sanja | Pasetto, Anna | Helman, Sarah R. | Gartner, Jared J. | Prickett, Todd D. | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Bhatia, Shailender | Burgess, Melissa | Zhang, Hui | Lee, Tien | Klingemann, Hans | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Nghiem, Paul | Kirkwood, John M. | Rossi, John M. | Sherman, Marika | Xue, Allen | Shen, Yueh-wei | Navale, Lynn | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Kochenderfer, James N. | Bot, Adrian | Veerapathran, Anandaraman | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Stramer, Amanda | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wiener, Doris | Frank, Ian | Santiago, Laurelis | Rabinovich, Brian | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Waller, Edmund K. | Li, Jian-Ming | Petersen, Christopher | Blazar, Bruce R. | Li, Jingxia | Giver, Cynthia R. | Wang, Ziming | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Sturgill, Ian | Canter, Robert J. | Murphy, William J. | Zhang, Congcong | Burger, Michael C. | Jennewein, Lukas | Waldmann, Anja | Mittelbronn, Michel | Tonn, Torsten | Steinbach, Joachim P. | Wels, Winfried S. | Williams, Jason B. | Zha, Yuanyuan | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Williams, LaTerrica C. | Krenciute, Giedre | Kalra, Mamta | Louis, Chrystal | Gottschalk, Stephen | Xin, Gang | Schauder, David | Jiang, Aimin | Joshi, Nikhil | Cui, Weiguo | Zeng, Xue | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Zhao, Zeguo | Hamieh, Mohamad | Eyquem, Justin | Gunset, Gertrude | Bander, Neil | Sadelain, Michel | Askmyr, David | Abolhalaj, Milad | Lundberg, Kristina | Greiff, Lennart | Lindstedt, Malin | Angell, Helen K. | Kim, Kyoung-Mee | Kim, Seung-Tae | Kim, Sung | Sharpe, Alan D. | Ogden, Julia | Davenport, Anna | Hodgson, Darren R. | Barrett, Carl | Lee, Jeeyun | Kilgour, Elaine | Hanson, Jodi | Caspell, Richard | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ansari, Tameem | Schiller, Annemarie | Sundararaman, Srividya | Lehmann, Paul | Hanson, Jodi | Roen, Diana | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ayers, Mark | Levitan, Diane | Arreaza, Gladys | Liu, Fang | Mogg, Robin | Bang, Yung-Jue | O’Neil, Bert | Cristescu, Razvan | Friedlander, Philip | Wassman, Karl | Kyi, Chrisann | Oh, William | Bhardwaj, Nina | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gustafson, Michael P. | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Parney, Ian F. | Dietz, Allan B. | Carvajal-Hausdorf, Daniel | Mani, Nikita | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Schalper, Kurt | Rimm, David | Chang, Serena | Levy, Ronald | Kurland, John | Krishnan, Suba | Ahlers, Christoph Matthias | Jure-Kunkel, Maria | Cohen, Lewis | Maecker, Holden | Kohrt, Holbrook | Chen, Shuming | Crabill, George | Pritchard, Theresa | McMiller, Tracee | Pardoll, Drew | Pan, Fan | Topalian, Suzanne | Danaher, Patrick | Warren, Sarah | Dennis, Lucas | White, Andrew M. | D’Amico, Leonard | Geller, Melissa | Disis, Mary L. | Beechem, Joseph | Odunsi, Kunle | Fling, Steven | Derakhshandeh, Roshanak | Webb, Tonya J. | Dubois, Sigrid | Conlon, Kevin | Bryant, Bonita | Hsu, Jennifer | Beltran, Nancy | Müller, Jürgen | Waldmann, Thomas | Duhen, Rebekka | Duhen, Thomas | Thompson, Lucas | Montler, Ryan | Weinberg, Andrew | Kates, Max | Early, Brandon | Yusko, Erik | Schreiber, Taylor H. | Bivalacqua, Trinity J. | Ayers, Mark | Lunceford, Jared | Nebozhyn, Michael | Murphy, Erin | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Albright, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Kang, S. Peter | Shankaran, Veena | Piha-Paul, Sarina A. | Yearley, Jennifer | Seiwert, Tanguy | Ribas, Antoni | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Cristescu, Razvan | Mogg, Robin | Ayers, Mark | Albright, Andrew | Murphy, Erin | Yearley, Jennifer | Sher, Xinwei | Liu, Xiao Qiao | Nebozhyn, Michael | Lunceford, Jared | Joe, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Plimack, Elizabeth | Ott, Patrick A. | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Forrest-Hay, Alex | Guyre, Cheryl A. | Narumiya, Kohei | Delcommenne, Marc | Hirsch, Heather A. | Deshpande, Amit | Reeves, Jason | Shu, Jenny | Zi, Tong | Michaelson, Jennifer | Law, Debbie | Trehu, Elizabeth | Sathyanaryanan, Sriram | Hodkinson, Brendan P. | Hutnick, Natalie A. | Schaffer, Michael E. | Gormley, Michael | Hulett, Tyler | Jensen, Shawn | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Dubay, Christopher | Afentoulis, Michael | Reddy, Ashok | David, Larry | Fox, Bernard | Jayant, Kumar | Agrawal, Swati | Agrawal, Rajendra | Jeyakumar, Ghayathri | Kim, Seongho | Kim, Heejin | Silski, Cynthia | Suisham, Stacey | Heath, Elisabeth | Vaishampayan, Ulka | Vandeven, Natalie | Viller, Natasja Nielsen | O’Connor, Alison | Chen, Hui | Bossen, Bolette | Sievers, Eric | Uger, Robert | Nghiem, Paul | Johnson, Lisa | Kao, Hsiang-Fong | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Lai, Shu-Chuan | Wang, Chun-Wei | Ko, Jenq-Yuh | Lou, Pei-Jen | Lee, Tsai-Jan | Liu, Tsang-Wu | Hong, Ruey-Long | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Landis, Benjamin J. | Koegler, Sally | Hirsch, Brooke | Gianani, Roberto | Kim, Jeffrey | He, Ming-Xiao | Zhang, Bingqing | Su, Nan | Luo, Yuling | Ma, Xiao-Jun | Park, Emily | Kim, Dae Won | Copploa, Domenico | Kothari, Nishi | doo Chang, Young | Kim, Richard | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Knaus, Hanna A. | Berglund, Sofia | Hackl, Hubert | Karp, Judith E. | Gojo, Ivana | Luznik, Leo | Hong, Henoch S. | Koch, Sven D. | Scheel, Birgit | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Wiegand, Volker | Backert, Linus | Kohlbacher, Oliver | Hoerr, Ingmar | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Billingsley, James M. | Koguchi, Yoshinobu | Conrad, Valerie | Miller, William | Gonzalez, Iliana | Poplonski, Tomasz | Meeuwsen, Tanisha | Howells-Ferreira, Ana | Rattray, Rogan | Campbell, Mary | Bifulco, Carlo | Dubay, Christopher | Bahjat, Keith | Curti, Brendan | Urba, Walter | Vetsika, E-K | Kallergi, G. | Aggouraki, Despoina | Lyristi, Z. | Katsarlinos, P. | Koinis, Filippos | Georgoulias, V. | Kotsakis, Athanasios | Martin, Nathan T. | Aeffner, Famke | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Cerkovnik, Logan | Pratte, Luke | Kim, Rebecca | Hirsch, Brooke | Krueger, Joseph | Gianani, Roberto | Martínez-Usatorre, Amaia | Jandus, Camilla | Donda, Alena | Carretero-Iglesia, Laura | Speiser, Daniel E. | Zehn, Dietmar | Rufer, Nathalie | Romero, Pedro | Panda, Anshuman | Mehnert, Janice | Hirshfield, Kim M. | Riedlinger, Greg | Damare, Sherri | Saunders, Tracie | Sokol, Levi | Stein, Mark | Poplin, Elizabeth | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Silk, Ann | Chan, Nancy | Frankel, Melissa | Kane, Michael | Malhotra, Jyoti | Aisner, Joseph | Kaufman, Howard L. | Ali, Siraj | Ross, Jeffrey | White, Eileen | Bhanot, Gyan | Ganesan, Shridar | Monette, Anne | Bergeron, Derek | Amor, Amira Ben | Meunier, Liliane | Caron, Christine | Morou, Antigoni | Kaufmann, Daniel | Liberman, Moishe | Jurisica, Igor | Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie | Hamzaoui, Kamel | Lapointe, Rejean | Mongan, Ann | Ku, Yuan-Chieh | Tom, Warren | Sun, Yongming | Pankov, Alex | Looney, Tim | Au-Young, Janice | Hyland, Fiona | Conroy, Jeff | Morrison, Carl | Glenn, Sean | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Gardner, Mark | Mongan, Ann | Omilian, Angela R. | Conroy, Jeff | Bshara, Wiam | Angela, Omilian | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Glenn, Sean | Morrison, Carl | Mongan, Ann | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Smolkin, Mark E. | Deacon, Donna H. | Patterson, James W. | Chen, Lieping | Bullock, Timothy N. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Deacon, Donna H. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Bullock, Timothy N. | Loffredo, John T. | Vuyyuru, Raja | Beyer, Sophie | Spires, Vanessa M. | Fox, Maxine | Ehrmann, Jon M. | Taylor, Katrina A. | Korman, Alan J. | Graziano, Robert F. | Page, David | Sanchez, Katherine | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Martel, Maritza | Bifulco, Carlo | Urba, Walter | Fox, Bernard | Patel, Sapna P. | De Macedo, Mariana Petaccia | Qin, Yong | Reuben, Alex | Spencer, Christine | Guindani, Michele | Bassett, Roland | Wargo, Jennifer | Racolta, Adriana | Kelly, Brian | Jones, Tobin | Polaske, Nathan | Theiss, Noah | Robida, Mark | Meridew, Jeffrey | Habensus, Iva | Zhang, Liping | Pestic-Dragovich, Lidija | Tang, Lei | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Logan, Theodore | Khushalani, Nikhil | Margolin, Kim | Koon, Henry | Olencki, Thomas | Hutson, Thomas | Curti, Brendan | Roder, Joanna | Blackmon, Shauna | Roder, Heinrich | Stewart, John | Amin, Asim | Ernstoff, Marc S. | Clark, Joseph I. | Atkins, Michael B. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Sosman, Jeffrey | Weber, Jeffrey | McDermott, David F. | Weber, Jeffrey | Kluger, Harriet | Halaban, Ruth | Snzol, Mario | Roder, Heinrich | Roder, Joanna | Asmellash, Senait | Steingrimsson, Arni | Blackmon, Shauna | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Wang, Chichung | Roman, Kristin | Clement, Amanda | Downing, Sean | Hoyt, Clifford | Harder, Nathalie | Schmidt, Guenter | Schoenmeyer, Ralf | Brieu, Nicolas | Yigitsoy, Mehmet | Madonna, Gabriele | Botti, Gerardo | Grimaldi, Antonio | Ascierto, Paolo A. | Huss, Ralf | Athelogou, Maria | Hessel, Harald | Harder, Nathalie | Buchner, Alexander | Schmidt, Guenter | Stief, Christian | Huss, Ralf | Binnig, Gerd | Kirchner, Thomas | Sellappan, Shankar | Thyparambil, Sheeno | Schwartz, Sarit | Cecchi, Fabiola | Nguyen, Andrew | Vaske, Charles | Hembrough, Todd
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):1-106.
doi:10.1186/s40425-016-0172-7
PMCID: PMC5123387
11.  Delivering on the promise: PARP inhibition as targeted anti-cancer therapy 
Current opinion in oncology  2015;27(6):475-481.
Purpose of the review
Authors present the rationale, clinical development, and current status of Poly (adenosine diphospohate [ADP]) ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi) as anticancer agents.
Recent Findings
The recent approval of olaparib in heavily pre-treated patients with advanced ovarian cancer carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation represents a significant therapeutic advance for patients with this difficult to treat disease. Though olaparib is the first agent in this class to be approved, multiple PARPis are in various stages of clinical development, including in combination with other treatment modalities such as radiation, anti-angiogenic agents, and cytotoxic chemotherapies.
Summary
Clinical benefit has been observed with PARPis in patients with advanced BRCA1/2 mutant ovarian and breast cancers. Various PARPis, either as single agents or in combination, are being evaluated in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant and metastatic settings.
doi:10.1097/CCO.0000000000000238
PMCID: PMC4636335  PMID: 26447876
BRCA 1/2; ovarian cancer; DNA damage repair; combination strategies; chemopotentiation; radiation sensitizer
12.  Phase I Study of Single-Agent AZD1775 (MK-1775), a Wee1 Kinase Inhibitor, in Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2015;33(30):3409-3415.
Purpose
Wee1 tyrosine kinase phosphorylates and inactivates cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 1/2 in response to DNA damage. AZD1775 is a first-in-class inhibitor of Wee1 kinase with single-agent antitumor activity in preclinical models. We conducted a phase I study of single-agent AZD1775 in adult patients with refractory solid tumors to determine its maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and modulation of phosphorylated Tyr15-Cdk (pY15-Cdk) and phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) levels in paired tumor biopsies.
Patients and Methods
AZD1775 was administered orally twice per day over 2.5 days per week for up to 2 weeks per 21-day cycle (3 + 3 design). At the MTD, paired tumor biopsies were obtained at baseline and after the fifth dose to determine pY15-Cdk and γH2AX levels. Six patients with BRCA-mutant solid tumors were also enrolled at the MTD.
Results
Twenty-five patients were enrolled. The MTD was established as 225 mg twice per day orally over 2.5 days per week for 2 weeks per 21-day cycle. Confirmed partial responses were observed in two patients carrying BRCA mutations: one with head and neck cancer and one with ovarian cancer. Common toxicities were myelosuppression and diarrhea. Dose-limiting toxicities were supraventricular tachyarrhythmia and myelosuppression. Accumulation of drug (t1/2 approximately 11 hours) was observed. Reduction in pY15-Cdk levels (two of five paired biopsies) and increases in γH2AX levels (three of five paired biopsies) were demonstrated.
Conclusion
This is the first report of AZD1775 single-agent activity in patients carrying BRCA mutations. Proof-of-mechanism was demonstrated by target modulation and DNA damage response in paired tumor biopsies.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2014.60.4009
PMCID: PMC4606059  PMID: 25964244
13.  Oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics of 5-fluoro-2’-deoxycytidine and THU in cynomolgus monkeys and humans 
Introduction
5-Fluoro-2’-deoxycytidine (FdCyd; NSC48006), a fluoropyrimidine nucleoside inhibitor of DNA methylation, is degraded by cytidine deaminase (CD). Pharmacokinetic evaluation was carried out in cynomolgus monkeys in support of an ongoing phase I study of the PO combination of FdCyd and the CD inhibitor tetrahydrouridine (THU; NSC112907).
Methods
Animals were dosed intravenously (IV) or per os (PO). Plasma samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for FdCyd, metabolites and THU. Clinical chemistry and hematology were performed at various times after dosing. A pilot pharmacokinetic study was performed in humans to assess FdCyd bioavailability.
Results
After IV FdCyd and THU administration, FdCyd Cmax and AUC increased with dose. FdCyd half-life ranged between 22–56 min, clearance was approximately 15 mL/min/kg. FdCyd PO bioavailability after THU ranged between 9–25% and increased with increasing THU dose. PO bioavailability of THU was less than 5%, but did result in plasma concentrations associated with inhibition of its target CD. Human pilot studies showed comparable bioavailability for FdCyd (10%) and THU (4.1%).
Conclusion
Administration of THU with FdCyd increased the exposure to FdCyd and improved PO FdCyd bioavailability from <1% to 24%. Concentrations of THU and FdCyd achieved after PO administration are associated with CD inhibition and hypomethylation, respectively. The schedule currently studied in phase I studies of PO FdCyd and THU is daily times 3 at the beginning of the first and second weeks of a 28 day cycle.
doi:10.1007/s00280-015-2857-x
PMCID: PMC4573928  PMID: 26321472
fluorodeoxycytidine; tetrahydouridine; toxicokinetics; toxicity; monkeys; DNA methylation inhibitor
14.  Application of Molecular Profiling in Clinical Trials for Advanced Metastatic Cancers 
There is growing interest in the application of molecular profiling, including sequencing, genotyping, and/or mRNA expression profiling, to the analysis of patient tumors with the objective of applying these data to inform therapeutic choices for patients with advanced cancers. Multiple clinical trials that are attempting to validate this personalized or precision medicine approach are in various stages of development and execution. Although preliminary data from some of these efforts have fueled excitement about the value and utility of these studies, their execution has also provoked many questions about the best way to approach complicating factors such as tumor heterogeneity and the choice of which genetic mutations to target. This commentary highlights some of the challenges confronting the clinical application of molecular tumor profiling and the various trial designs being utilized to address these challenges. Randomized trials that rigorously test patient response to molecularly targeted agents assigned based on the presence of a defined set of mutations in putative cancer-driving pathways are required to address some of the current challenges and to identify patients likely to benefit from this approach.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djv003
PMCID: PMC4334817  PMID: 25663694
15.  Randomized trial of oral cyclophosphamide and veliparib in high-grade serous ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancers, or BRCA-mutant ovarian cancer 
Purpose
Veliparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, demonstrated clinical activity in combination with oral cyclophosphamide in patients with BRCA-mutant solid tumors in a phase 1 trial. To define the relative contribution of PARP inhibition to the observed clinical activity, we conducted a randomized phase 2 trial to determine the response rate of veliparib in combination with cyclophosphamide compared to cyclophosphamide alone in patients with pretreated BRCA-mutant ovarian cancer or in patients with pretreated primary peritoneal, fallopian tube, or high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC).
Methods
Adult patients were randomized to receive cyclophosphamide alone (50 mg orally once daily) or with veliparib (60 mg orally once daily) in 21-day cycles. Crossover to the combination was allowed at disease progression.
Results
Seventy-five patients were enrolled and 72 were evaluable for response; 38 received cyclophosphamide alone and 37 the combination as their initial treatment regimen. Treatment was well tolerated. One complete response was observed in each arm, with three partial responses (PR) in the combination arm and six PRs in the cyclophosphamide alone arm. Genetic sequence and expression analyses were performed for 211 genes involved in DNA repair; none of the detected genetic alterations were significantly associated with treatment benefit.
Conclusion
This is the first trial that evaluated single agent, low dose cyclophosphamide in HGSOC, peritoneal, fallopian tube, and BRCA-mutant ovarian cancers. It was well tolerated and clinical activity was observed; the addition of veliparib at 60 mg daily did not improve either the response rate or the median progression free survival.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2565
PMCID: PMC4383665  PMID: 25589624
DNA damage repair; PARP; homologous recombination; chemopotentiation
16.  Validation of a Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Specimen Collection Procedure and Quantitative ELISA in Solid Tumor Tissues 
Analytical biochemistry  2014;459:1-11.
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is an important marker of hypoxia in human tumors and has been implicated in tumor progression. Drugs targeting HIF-1α are being developed, but the ability to measure drug-induced changes in HIF-1α is limited by the lability of the protein in normoxia. Our goal was to devise methods for specimen collection and processing that preserve HIF-1α in solid tumor tissues and to develop and validate a two-site chemiluminescent quantitative ELISA for HIF-1α. We tested various strategies for HIF-1α stabilization in solid tumors including nitrogen gas-purged lysis buffer, addition of proteasome inhibitors, or the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor 2-hydroxyglutarate, and bead homogenization. Degassing and addition of 2-hydroxyglutarate to the collection buffer significantly increased HIF-1α recovery, while bead-homogenization in sealed tubes improved HIF-1α recovery and reduced sample variability. Validation of the ELISA demonstrated intra- and inter-assay variability of less than 15% and accuracy of 99.8% ± 8.3% as assessed by spike recovery. Inter-laboratory reproducibility was also demonstrated (R2 = 0.999). Careful sample handling techniques allow us to quantitatively detect HIF-1α in samples as small as 2.5 µg of total protein extract, and this method is currently being applied to analyze tumor biopsy specimens in early-phase clinical trials.
doi:10.1016/j.ab.2014.04.025
PMCID: PMC4810780  PMID: 24799347
Hypoxia-inducible factor; HIF-1 alpha; quantitative ELISA; pharmacodynamics; solid tumors
17.  A phase I, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic evaluation of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-fuoro-2′-deoxycytidine, administered with tetrahydrouridine 
Purpose
Inhibitors of DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferases (DNMT) are active antineoplastic agents. We conducted the first-in-human phase I trial of 5-fluoro-2′-deoxycytidine (FdCyd), a DNMT inhibitor stable in aqueous solution, in patients with advanced solid tumors. Objectives were to establish the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of FdCyd + tetrahydrouridine (THU).
Methods
FdCyd + THU were administered by 3 h IV infusion on days 1–5 every 3 weeks, or days 1–5 and 8–12 every 4 weeks. FdCyd was administered IV with a fixed 350 mg/m2/day dose of THU to inhibit deamination of FdCyd. Pharmacokinetics of FdCyd, downstream metabolites and THU were assessed by LC–MS/MS. RBC γ-globin expression was evaluated as a pharmacodynamics biomarker.
Results
Patients were enrolled on the 3-week schedule at doses up to 80 mg/m2/day without dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) prior to transitioning to the 4-week schedule, which resulted in an MTD of 134 mg/m2/day; one of six patients had a first-cycle DLT (grade 3 colitis). FdCyd ≥40 mg/m2/day produced peak plasma concentrations >1 μM. Although there was inter-patient variability, γ-globin mRNA increased during the first two treatment cycles. One refractory breast cancer patient experienced a partial response (PR) of >90 % decrease in tumor size, lasting over a year.
Conclusions
The MTD was established at 134 mg/m2 FdCyd + 350 mg/m2 THU days 1–5 and 8–12 every 4 weeks. Based on toxicities observed over multiple cycles, good plasma exposures, and the sustained PR observed at 67 mg/m2/day, the phase II dose for our ongoing multi-histology trial is 100 mg/m2/day FdCyd with 350 mg/m2/day THU.
doi:10.1007/s00280-014-2674-7
PMCID: PMC4344391  PMID: 25567350
Fluorodeoxycytidine; DNA methylation; First-in-human; Phase I clinical trial; Pharmacokinetics; Pharmacodynamics
18.  New, Tolerable γ-Secretase Inhibitor Takes Desmoid Down a Notch 
A phase I trial of PF-03084014, an oral reversible γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI), in solid tumor malignancies shows drug tolerability in patients. Evidence of Notch pathway inhibition was demonstrated in peripheral blood. A surprisingly high rate of response was seen in desmoid tumors, a rare but often locally aggressive sarcoma.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-1660
PMCID: PMC4306586  PMID: 25336699
19.  Cabozantinib-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction: A Review of Two Ongoing Trials for Metastatic Bladder Cancer and Sarcoma 
Thyroid  2014;24(8):1223-1231.
Background: Thyroid dysfunction is a common adverse event associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), but its underlying pathophysiology is unclear. Cabozantinib is a novel TKI currently Food and Drug Administration approved for advanced medullary thyroid cancer and tested in clinical trials on solid tumors including prostate, liver, bladder, breast, and ovarian cancer.
Methods: We analyzed the thyroid function of patients enrolled in two phase 2 clinical trials using cabozantinib at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Two cases of thyroiditis associated with cabozantinib therapy are presented in detail, and a systematic review of the literature on TKI-associated thyroid dysfunction is also discussed.
Results: Between September 2012 and September 2013, 33 patients were treated with cabozantinib, and follow-up thyroid function tests were available for 31 (20 males, 11 females; age 59±1 years). Thyroid dysfunction was recorded in the majority of patients (93.1%), with a predominance of subclinical hypothyroidism. Two cases showed a biphasic pattern of thyroid dysfunction characterized by a transient thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism. Color Doppler demonstrated an increase in vascularization during the thyrotoxic phase, but no uptake was visualized on nuclear medicine imaging. A systematic review of the literature resulted in the identification of 40 original manuscripts, of which 13 were case series and 6 were case reports describing TKI-associated thyroid dysfunction.
Conclusion: TKI therapy often results in clinically significant thyroid dysfunction. Cabozantinib treatment commonly results in thyroid dysfunction varying from subclinical hypothyroidism to symptomatic thyrotoxicosis. Early detection and characterization of cabozantinib-associated thyroid dysfunction and close follow-up are essential to provide adequate management of this common adverse event.
doi:10.1089/thy.2013.0621
PMCID: PMC4106376  PMID: 24724719
20.  Phase I Study of the Synthetic Triterpenoid, 2-Cyano-3, 12-Dioxoolean-1, 9-Dien-28-Oic Acid (CDDO), in Advanced Solid Tumors 
Background
The triterpenoid 2-Cyano-3, 12-Dioxoolean-1, 9-Dien-28-Oic Acid (CDDO, previously RTA-401) is a multifunctional molecule that controls cellular growth and differentiation. It is capable of activating the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-γ (PPARγ) and inducing apoptosis in malignant cells in vitro and in vivo. We conducted a phase I dose-escalation study to determine the toxicity, the maximum tolerated dose, and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CDDO, administered as a 5-day continuous infusion every 28 days in patients with advanced cancers.
Methods
An accelerated titration design was followed, with one patient per cohort entered, and doses ranging from 0.6 mg/m2/hr to 38.4 mg/m2/hr. Pharmacokinetics of CDDO was assessed and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (c-PARP), as a marker of apoptosis, was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells to assess drug effect.
Results
Seven patients, one patient per dose level up to dose level 7 (38.4 mg/m2/hr), were enrolled and received a total of 11 courses of treatment. Cmax increased proportionally with dose. Preclinically determined efficacious blood level (1 μM) of drug was attained at the highest dose level. One patient, at dose level 6, experienced grade 2 mucositis, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia. Four patients, on different dose levels, developed thromboembolic events subsequently considered as dose-limiting toxicity. No anti-tumor activity was noted.
Conclusion
A causal relationship of observed thromboembolic events to CDDO was considered possible but could not be established. Because of the adverse events and the development of an orally bioavailable derivative compound, CDDO methyl ester, this trial was terminated.
doi:10.1007/s00280-011-1712-y
PMCID: PMC4490274  PMID: 21805353
Triterpenoid; CDDO; Adverse event; Thrombosis
21.  A multi-histology trial of fostamatinib in patients with advanced colorectal, non-small cell lung, head and neck, thyroid, and renal cell carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas 
Purpose
A multi-cohort phase II study of fostamatinib, an oral multi-kinase inhibitor, was conducted to determine the response rate in patients with advanced colorectal (CRC), thyroid, non-small-cell lung, head and neck, and renal cell carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas.
Methods
Patients received 200 mg fostamatinib BID in 4-week cycles with response assessed every 2 cycles. Blood was collected for pharmacokinetic analysis and measurements of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating endothelial (progenitor) cells (CE(P)Cs).
Results
A total of 37 patients (22 CRC), median of 4 prior therapies, were enrolled. Due to toxicities in four of the first five patients, the study was amended to incorporate a dose escalation phase for each histology. The maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) was established at 50 mg BID in CRC but was not established for the other cancers. Common grade 3/4 toxicities included transaminitis, hyperbilirubinemia, and hypertension. Pharmacokinetic profile was similar to previous reports. Seventy-three percent of CRC patients had liver involvement and 91% had prior anti-angiogenic therapy. Patients with abnormal liver tests at baseline were more likely to experience grade ≥2 hepatotoxicity than those with normal tests (44% versus 0%). No responses were observed; disease stabilization rate was 27% in CRC. Reduction in CECs following treatment was associated with a better disease stabilization rate (75% versus 0%) in CRC.
Conclusion
Fostamatinib had limited anti-tumor activity in this first clinical trial in patients with advanced refractory solid tumors; reduction in CECs and CEPs was indicative of anti-angiogenic effects. Abnormal liver testing at baseline appeared to influence drug tolerability.
doi:10.1007/s00280-013-2091-3
PMCID: PMC4457312  PMID: 23404627
Fostamatinib; R406; R935788; solid tumors; angiogenesis
22.  GeneMed: An Informatics Hub for the Coordination of Next-Generation Sequencing Studies that Support Precision Oncology Clinical Trials 
Cancer Informatics  2015;14(Suppl 2):45-55.
We have developed an informatics system, GeneMed, for the National Cancer Institute (NCI) molecular profiling-based assignment of cancer therapy (MPACT) clinical trial (NCT01827384) being conducted in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center. This trial is one of the first to use a randomized design to examine whether assigning treatment based on genomic tumor screening can improve the rate and duration of response in patients with advanced solid tumors. An analytically validated next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay is applied to DNA from patients’ tumors to identify mutations in a panel of genes that are thought likely to affect the utility of targeted therapies available for use in the clinical trial. The patients are randomized to a treatment selected to target a somatic mutation in the tumor or with a control treatment. The GeneMed system streamlines the workflow of the clinical trial and serves as a communications hub among the sequencing lab, the treatment selection team, and clinical personnel. It automates the annotation of the genomic variants identified by sequencing, predicts the functional impact of mutations, identifies the actionable mutations, and facilitates quality control by the molecular characterization lab in the review of variants. The GeneMed system collects baseline information about the patients from the clinic team to determine eligibility for the panel of drugs available. The system performs randomized treatment assignments under the oversight of a supervising treatment selection team and generates a patient report containing detected genomic alterations. NCI is planning to expand the MPACT trial to multiple cancer centers soon. In summary, the GeneMed system has been proven to be an efficient and successful informatics hub for coordinating the reliable application of NGS to precision medicine studies.
doi:10.4137/CIN.S17282
PMCID: PMC4368061  PMID: 25861217
GeneMed; MPACT; next-generation sequencing; precision medicine; informatics system; clinical trial
23.  Wee1 kinase as a target for cancer therapy 
Cell Cycle  2013;12(19):3159-3164.
Wee1, a protein kinase, regulates the G2 checkpoint in response to DNA damage. Preclinical studies have elucidated the role of wee1 in DNA damage repair and the stabilization of replication forks, supporting the validity of wee1 inhibition as a viable therapeutic target in cancer. MK-1775, a selective and potent small-molecule inhibitor of wee1, is under clinical development as a potentiator of DNA damage caused by cytotoxic chemotherapies. We present a review of the role of wee1 in the cell cycle and DNA replication and summarize the clinical development to date of this novel class of anticancer agents.
doi:10.4161/cc.26062
PMCID: PMC3865011  PMID: 24013427
cyclin-dependent kinase; G2 checkpoint; cell cycle; DNA damage; MK 1775
24.  Phase 1 Study of Pazopanib in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors and Hepatic Dysfunction: A National Cancer Institute Organ Dysfunction Working Group Study 
Purpose
Pazopanib is a potent, multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor; however, there is limited information regarding the effects of liver function on pazopanib metabolism and pharmacokinetics (PK). The objective of this study was to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and PK profile of pazopanib in patients with varying degrees of hepatic dysfunction.
Experimental Design
Patients with any solid tumors or lymphoma were stratified into four groups based on the degree of hepatic dysfunction according to the National Cancer Institute Organ Dysfunction Working Group (NCI ODWG) criteria. Pazopanib was given orally once a day on a 21-day cycle. A modified 3+3 design was used.
Results
Ninety eight patients were enrolled. Patients in the mild group tolerated 800 mg per day. The moderate and severe groups tolerated 200 mg per day. Pharmacokinetic data in the mild group were similar to the data in the normal group. Comparison of the median Cmax and AUC(0–24) in the moderate or severe groups at 200 mg per day to the values in the normal and mild groups at 800 mg per day indicated less than dose-proportional systemic exposures in patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment. This suggests that the lower MTD in the moderate and severe group is not due to a decrease in drug clearance or alteration in the proportion of metabolites.
Conclusions
In patients with mild liver dysfunction, pazopanib is well tolerated at the FDA-approved dose of 800 mg per day. Patients with moderate and severe liver dysfunction tolerated 200 mg per day.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-3214
PMCID: PMC3700623  PMID: 23653147
25.  LC-MS/MS assay for the quantitation of the HDAC inhibitor belinostat and five major metabolites in human plasma 
The histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat is being evaluated clinically as a single agent in the treatment of Peripheral T-cell lymphomas and in combination with other anticancer agents to treat a wide range of human cancers including acute leukemias and solid tumors. To determine the pharmacokinetics of belinostat in the NCI ODWG liver dysfunction study, we developed and validated an LC-MS/MS assay for the quantitation of belinostat and five major metabolites in 0.05 mL human plasma. After protein precipitation, chromatographic separation was achieved with a Waters Acquity BEH C18 column and a linear gradient of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and water. Detection with an ABI 4000Q mass spectrometer utilized both electrospray positive and negative mode ionization. The assay was linear from 30–5000 ng/mL for all six analytes and proved to be accurate (92.0–104.4%) and precise (<13.7%CV), and fulfilled FDA criteria for bioanalytical method validation. We demonstrated the suitability of this assay for measuring parent drug and five major metabolites in plasma from a patient who was administered belinostat IV at a dose of 400 mg/m2. The LC-MS/MS assay that has been developed will be an essential tool to further define the metabolism and pharmacology of belinostat in the ongoing liver organ dysfunction as well as other studies that investigate belinostat with other anticancer agents.
doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2013.03.025
PMCID: PMC3663884  PMID: 23644904
HDAC; belinostat; tandem mass spectrometry; metabolites; assay; validation

Results 1-25 (55)