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1.  Biosignals Analysis for Kidney Function Effect Analysis of Fennel Aromatherapy 
Human effort in order to enjoy a healthy life is diverse. IT technology to these analyzes, the results of development efforts, it has been applied. Therefore, I use the care and maintenance diagnostic health management and prevention than treatment. In particular, the aromatherapy treatment easy to use without the side effects there is no irritation, are widely used in modern society. In this paper, we measured the aroma effect by applying a biosignal analysis techniques; an experiment was performed to analyze. In particular, we design methods and processes of research based on the theory aroma that affect renal function. Therefore, in this paper, measuring the biosignals and after fennel aromatherapy treatment prior to the enforcement of the mutual comparison, through the analysis, studies were carried out to analyze the effect of fennel aromatherapy therapy on kidney function.
doi:10.1155/2015/267612
PMCID: PMC4419222  PMID: 25977696
2.  O-GlcNAcase Is an RNA Polymerase II Elongation Factor Coupled to Pausing Factors SPT5 and TIF1β* 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2016;291(43):22703-22713.
We describe here the identification and functional characterization of the enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) as an RNA polymerase II elongation factor. Using in vitro transcription elongation assays, we show that OGA activity is required for elongation in a crude nuclear extract system, whereas in a purified system devoid of OGA the addition of rOGA inhibited elongation. Furthermore, OGA is physically associated with the known RNA polymerase II (pol II) pausing/elongation factors SPT5 and TRIM28-KAP1-TIF1β, and a purified OGA-SPT5-TIF1β complex has elongation properties. Lastly, ChIP-seq experiments show that OGA maps to the transcriptional start site/5′ ends of genes, showing considerable overlap with RNA pol II, SPT5, TRIM28-KAP1-TIF1β, and O-GlcNAc itself. These data all point to OGA as a component of the RNA pol II elongation machinery regulating elongation genome-wide. Our results add a novel and unexpected dimension to the regulation of elongation by the insertion of O-GlcNAc cycling into the pol II elongation regulatory dynamics.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M116.751420
PMCID: PMC5077205  PMID: 27601472
metabolism; O-GlcNAcylation; RNA polymerase II; transcription; transcription elongation factor
4.  The work-relatedness at a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a radiation oncologist 
Background
Clinicians who perform radiation therapy (RT) are exposed to radiation, which may negatively affect their health. The present study reports a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a healthcare provider who was exposed to radiation at work; we also present a literature review of this topic.
Case presentation
A 45-year-old patient, who had been a radiation oncologist and had been exposed to radiation while performing brachytherapy 10 years ago, complained of chest pain and was suspected of having leukemia based on the results of a blood test in an outpatient clinic. He was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and subsequently underwent chemotherapy. However, the case died during treatment. Through epidemiological investigation, it was found that the case’s cumulative exposure dose based on personal exposure and spatial dose measured during the work period was in the range of 6.08–12.15 mSv.
Conclusions
Based on the following considerations, acute lymphoblastic leukemia was highly correlated with the level of radiation to which the case was exposed while performing brachytherapy on patients with cancer. Firstly, the latent period of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the case closely matched the latency time reported in previous published studies (5–10 years). In addition, numerous studies have reported significantly higher relative risks of cancer among clinicians who perform RT compared with the general population. The case was also atypically exposed to radiation through his hands, despite wearing protective equipment. Lastly, the case’s coworkers were also found to have been exposed to high levels of radiation. Investigation into the influence of radiation exposure through atypical routes during RT on the health of clinicians is recommended.
doi:10.1186/s40557-017-0186-8
PMCID: PMC5485618
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia; Radiation oncologist; Cesium; Brachytherapy
5.  A comparative study on the effects of systemic manual acupuncture, periauricular electroacupuncture, and digital electroacupuncture to treat tinnitus: A randomized, paralleled, open-labeled exploratory trial 
Background
Many previous studies of electroacupuncture used combined therapy of electroacupuncture and systemic manual acupuncture, so it was uncertain which treatment was effective. This study evaluated and compared the effects of systemic manual acupuncture, periauricular electroacupuncture and distal electroacupuncture for treating patients with tinnitus.
Methods
A randomized, parallel, open-labeled exploratory trial was conducted. Subjects aged 20–75 years who had suffered from idiopathic tinnitus for > 2 weeks were recruited from May 2013 to April 2014. The subjects were divided into three groups by systemic manual acupuncture group (MA), periauricular electroacupuncture group (PE), and distal electroacupuncture group (DE). The groups were selected by random drawing. Nine acupoints (TE 17, TE21, SI19, GB2, GB8, ST36, ST37, TE3 and TE9), two periauricular acupoints (TE17 and TE21), and four distal acupoints (TE3, TE9, ST36, and ST37) were selected. The treatment sessions were performed twice weekly for a total of eight sessions over 4 weeks. Outcomes were the tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) score and the loud and uncomfortable visual analogue scales (VAS). Demographic and clinical characteristics of all participants were compared between the groups upon admission using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate the THI, VAS loud, and VAS uncomfortable scores. The least significant difference test was used as a post-hoc test.
Results
Thirty-nine subjects were eligible and their data were analyzed. No difference in THI and VAS loudness scores was observed in between groups. The VAS uncomfortable scores decreased significantly in MA and DE compared with those in PE.
Within the group, all three treatments showed some effect on THI, VAS loudness scores and VAS uncomfortable scores after treatment except DE in THI.
Conclusions
There was no statistically significant difference between systemic manual acupuncture, periauricular electroacupuncture and distal electroacupuncture in tinnitus. However, all three treatments had some effect on tinnitus within the group before and after treatment. Systemic manual acupuncture and distal electroacupuncture have some effect on VAS uncomfortable.
Trial registration
KCT0001991 by CRIS (Clinical Research Information Service), 2016-8-1, retrospectively registered.
doi:10.1186/s12906-017-1589-3
PMCID: PMC5282839  PMID: 28143471
Tinnitus; Systemic manual acupuncture; Electroacupuncture; Periauricular acupoints; Distal acupoints
6.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part one 
Lundqvist, Andreas | van Hoef, Vincent | Zhang, Xiaonan | Wennerberg, Erik | Lorent, Julie | Witt, Kristina | Sanz, Laia Masvidal | Liang, Shuo | Murray, Shannon | Larsson, Ola | Kiessling, Rolf | Mao, Yumeng | Sidhom, John-William | Bessell, Catherine A. | Havel, Jonathan | Schneck, Jonathan | Chan, Timothy A. | Sachsenmeier, Eliot | Woods, David | Berglund, Anders | Ramakrishnan, Rupal | Sodre, Andressa | Weber, Jeffrey | Zappasodi, Roberta | Li, Yanyun | Qi, Jingjing | Wong, Philip | Sirard, Cynthia | Postow, Michael | Newman, Walter | Koon, Henry | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Callahan, Margaret K. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Lum, Lawrence G. | Choi, Minsig | Thakur, Archana | Deol, Abhinav | Dyson, Gregory | Shields, Anthony | Haymaker, Cara | Uemura, Marc | Murthy, Ravi | James, Marihella | Wang, Daqing | Brevard, Julie | Monaghan, Catherine | Swann, Suzanne | Geib, James | Cornfeld, Mark | Chunduru, Srinivas | Agrawal, Sudhir | Yee, Cassian | Wargo, Jennifer | Patel, Sapna P. | Amaria, Rodabe | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Woodman, Scott | Hwu, Wen-Jen | Davies, Michael A. | Hwu, Patrick | Overwijk, Willem W. | Bernatchez, Chantale | Diab, Adi | Massarelli, Erminia | Segal, Neil H. | Ribrag, Vincent | Melero, Ignacio | Gangadhar, Tara C. | Urba, Walter | Schadendorf, Dirk | Ferris, Robert L. | Houot, Roch | Morschhauser, Franck | Logan, Theodore | Luke, Jason J. | Sharfman, William | Barlesi, Fabrice | Ott, Patrick A. | Mansi, Laura | Kummar, Shivaani | Salles, Gilles | Carpio, Cecilia | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | McDonald, Dan | Maurer, Matthew | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Levy, Ronald | Khushalani, Nikhil | Wu, Jennifer | Zhang, Jinyu | Basher, Fahmin | Rubinstein, Mark | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | MacDonald, Cameron | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Chatterjee, Shilpak | Daenthanasanmak, Anusara | Chakraborty, Paramita | Toth, Kyle | Meek, Megan | Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth | Nishimura, Michael | Paulos, Chrystal | Beeson, Craig | Yu, Xuezhong | Mehrotra, Shikhar | Zhao, Fei | Evans, Kathy | Xiao, Christine | Holtzhausen, Alisha | Hanks, Brent A. | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Moreci, Rebecca | Whetstone, Ryan | Dadey, Rebekah | Watkins, Simon | Ferris, Robert | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Peled, Jonathan | Devlin, Sean | Staffas, Anna | Lumish, Melissa | Rodriguez, Kori Porosnicu | Ahr, Katya | Perales, Miguel | Giralt, Sergio | Taur, Ying | Pamer, Eric | van den Brink, Marcel R. M. | Jenq, Robert | Annels, Nicola | Pandha, Hardev | Simpson, Guy | Mostafid, Hugh | Harrington, Kevin | Melcher, Alan | Grose, Mark | Davies, Bronwyn | Au, Gough | Karpathy, Roberta | Shafren, Darren | Ricca, Jacob | Merghoub, Taha | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Zamarin, Dmitriy | Batista, Luciana | Marliot, Florence | Vasaturo, Angela | Carpentier, Sabrina | Poggionovo, Cécile | Frayssinet, Véronique | Fieschi, Jacques | Van den Eynde, Marc | Pagès, Franck | Galon, Jérôme | Hermitte, Fabienne | Smith, Sean G. | Nguyen, Khue | Ravindranathan, Sruthi | Koppolu, Bhanu | Zaharoff, David | Schvartsman, Gustavo | Bassett, Roland | McQuade, Jennifer L. | Haydu, Lauren E. | Davies, Michael A. | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Kline, Douglas | Chen, Xiufen | Fosco, Dominick | Kline, Justin | Overacre, Abigail | Chikina, Maria | Brunazzi, Erin | Shayan, Gulidanna | Horne, William | Kolls, Jay | Ferris, Robert L. | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Bruno, Tullia C. | Workman, Creg | Vignali, Dario | Adusumilli, Prasad S. | Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A | Li, Zihai | Gerry, Andrew | Sanderson, Joseph P. | Howe, Karen | Docta, Roslin | Gao, Qian | Bagg, Eleanor A. L. | Tribble, Nicholas | Maroto, Miguel | Betts, Gareth | Bath, Natalie | Melchiori, Luca | Lowther, Daniel E. | Ramachandran, Indu | Kari, Gabor | Basu, Samik | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Chagin, Karen | Pandite, Lini | Holdich, Tom | Amado, Rafael | Zhang, Hua | Glod, John | Bernstein, Donna | Jakobsen, Bent | Mackall, Crystal | Wong, Ryan | Silk, Jonathan D. | Adams, Katherine | Hamilton, Garth | Bennett, Alan D. | Brett, Sara | Jing, Junping | Quattrini, Adriano | Saini, Manoj | Wiedermann, Guy | Gerry, Andrew | Jakobsen, Bent | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Brewer, Joanna | Duong, MyLinh | Lu, An | Chang, Peter | Mahendravada, Aruna | Shinners, Nicholas | Slawin, Kevin | Spencer, David M. | Foster, Aaron E. | Bayle, J. Henri | Bergamaschi, Cristina | Ng, Sinnie Sin Man | Nagy, Bethany | Jensen, Shawn | Hu, Xintao | Alicea, Candido | Fox, Bernard | Felber, Barbara | Pavlakis, George | Chacon, Jessica | Yamamoto, Tori | Garrabrant, Thomas | Cortina, Luis | Powell, Daniel J. | Donia, Marco | Kjeldsen, Julie Westerlin | Andersen, Rikke | Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff | Bianchi, Valentina | Legut, Mateusz | Attaf, Meriem | Dolton, Garry | Szomolay, Barbara | Ott, Sascha | Lyngaa, Rikke | Hadrup, Sine Reker | Sewell, Andrew Kelvin | Svane, Inge Marie | Fan, Aaron | Kumai, Takumi | Celis, Esteban | Frank, Ian | Stramer, Amanda | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wardell, Seth | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Goff, Stephanie L. | Zacharakis, Nikolaos | Assadipour, Yasmine | Prickett, Todd D. | Gartner, Jared J. | Somerville, Robert | Black, Mary | Xu, Hui | Chinnasamy, Harshini | Kriley, Isaac | Lu, Lily | Wunderlich, John | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven | Feldman, Steven A. | Trebska-McGowan, Kasia | Kriley, Isaac | Malekzadeh, Parisa | Payabyab, Eden | Sherry, Richard | Rosenberg, Steven | Goff, Stephanie L. | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Kopits, Charlene | Rabinovich, Brian | Lotze, Michael T. | Green, Daniel S. | Kamenyeva, Olena | Zoon, Kathryn C. | Annunziata, Christina M. | Hammill, Joanne | Helsen, Christopher | Aarts, Craig | Bramson, Jonathan | Harada, Yui | Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu | Helsen, Christopher | Hammill, Joanne | Mwawasi, Kenneth | Denisova, Galina | Bramson, Jonathan | Giri, Rajanish | Jin, Benjamin | Campbell, Tracy | Draper, Lindsey M. | Stevanovic, Sanja | Yu, Zhiya | Weissbrich, Bianca | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Trimble, Cornelia L. | Rosenberg, Steven | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Tsang, Kwong | Fantini, Massimo | Hodge, James W. | Fujii, Rika | Fernando, Ingrid | Jochems, Caroline | Heery, Christopher | Gulley, James | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Schlom, Jeffrey | Jing, Weiqing | Gershan, Jill | Blitzer, Grace | Weber, James | McOlash, Laura | Johnson, Bryon D. | Kiany, Simin | Gangxiong, Huang | Kleinerman, Eugenie S. | Klichinsky, Michael | Ruella, Marco | Shestova, Olga | Kenderian, Saad | Kim, Miriam | Scholler, John | June, Carl H. | Gill, Saar | Moogk, Duane | Zhong, Shi | Yu, Zhiya | Liadi, Ivan | Rittase, William | Fang, Victoria | Dougherty, Janna | Perez-Garcia, Arianne | Osman, Iman | Zhu, Cheng | Varadarajan, Navin | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Frey, Alan | Krogsgaard, Michelle | Landi, Daniel | Fousek, Kristen | Mukherjee, Malini | Shree, Ankita | Joseph, Sujith | Bielamowicz, Kevin | Byrd, Tiara | Ahmed, Nabil | Hegde, Meenakshi | Lee, Sylvia | Byrd, David | Thompson, John | Bhatia, Shailender | Tykodi, Scott | Delismon, Judy | Chu, Liz | Abdul-Alim, Siddiq | Ohanian, Arpy | DeVito, Anna Marie | Riddell, Stanley | Margolin, Kim | Magalhaes, Isabelle | Mattsson, Jonas | Uhlin, Michael | Nemoto, Satoshi | Villarroel, Patricio Pérez | Nakagawa, Ryosuke | Mule, James J. | Mailloux, Adam W. | Mata, Melinda | Nguyen, Phuong | Gerken, Claudia | DeRenzo, Christopher | Spencer, David M. | Gottschalk, Stephen | Mathieu, Mélissa | Pelletier, Sandy | Stagg, John | Turcotte, Simon | Minutolo, Nicholas | Sharma, Prannda | Tsourkas, Andrew | Powell, Daniel J. | Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine | Mauer, Daniela | Drechsel, Katharina | Barth, Carola | Freese, Katharina | Kolrep, Ulrike | Schult, Silke | Assenmacher, Mario | Kaiser, Andrew | Mullinax, John | Hall, MacLean | Le, Julie | Kodumudi, Krithika | Royster, Erica | Richards, Allison | Gonzalez, Ricardo | Sarnaik, Amod | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Nielsen, Morten | Krarup-Hansen, Anders | Hovgaard, Dorrit | Petersen, Michael Mørk | Loya, Anand Chainsukh | Junker, Niels | Svane, Inge Marie | Rivas, Charlotte | Parihar, Robin | Gottschalk, Stephen | Rooney, Cliona M. | Qin, Haiying | Nguyen, Sang | Su, Paul | Burk, Chad | Duncan, Brynn | Kim, Bong-Hyun | Kohler, M. Eric | Fry, Terry | Rao, Arjun A. | Teyssier, Noam | Pfeil, Jacob | Sgourakis, Nikolaos | Salama, Sofie | Haussler, David | Richman, Sarah A. | Nunez-Cruz, Selene | Gershenson, Zack | Mourelatos, Zissimos | Barrett, David | Grupp, Stephan | Milone, Michael | Rodriguez-Garcia, Alba | Robinson, Matthew K. | Adams, Gregory P. | Powell, Daniel J. | Santos, João | Havunen, Riikka | Siurala, Mikko | Cervera-Carrascón, Víctor | Parviainen, Suvi | Antilla, Marjukka | Hemminki, Akseli | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Santiago, Laurelis | Chen, Jie Qing | Dai, Zhimin | Wardell, Seth | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Sha, Huizi | Su, Shu | Ding, Naiqing | Liu, Baorui | Stevanovic, Sanja | Pasetto, Anna | Helman, Sarah R. | Gartner, Jared J. | Prickett, Todd D. | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Bhatia, Shailender | Burgess, Melissa | Zhang, Hui | Lee, Tien | Klingemann, Hans | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Nghiem, Paul | Kirkwood, John M. | Rossi, John M. | Sherman, Marika | Xue, Allen | Shen, Yueh-wei | Navale, Lynn | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Kochenderfer, James N. | Bot, Adrian | Veerapathran, Anandaraman | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Stramer, Amanda | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wiener, Doris | Frank, Ian | Santiago, Laurelis | Rabinovich, Brian | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Waller, Edmund K. | Li, Jian-Ming | Petersen, Christopher | Blazar, Bruce R. | Li, Jingxia | Giver, Cynthia R. | Wang, Ziming | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Sturgill, Ian | Canter, Robert J. | Murphy, William J. | Zhang, Congcong | Burger, Michael C. | Jennewein, Lukas | Waldmann, Anja | Mittelbronn, Michel | Tonn, Torsten | Steinbach, Joachim P. | Wels, Winfried S. | Williams, Jason B. | Zha, Yuanyuan | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Williams, LaTerrica C. | Krenciute, Giedre | Kalra, Mamta | Louis, Chrystal | Gottschalk, Stephen | Xin, Gang | Schauder, David | Jiang, Aimin | Joshi, Nikhil | Cui, Weiguo | Zeng, Xue | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Zhao, Zeguo | Hamieh, Mohamad | Eyquem, Justin | Gunset, Gertrude | Bander, Neil | Sadelain, Michel | Askmyr, David | Abolhalaj, Milad | Lundberg, Kristina | Greiff, Lennart | Lindstedt, Malin | Angell, Helen K. | Kim, Kyoung-Mee | Kim, Seung-Tae | Kim, Sung | Sharpe, Alan D. | Ogden, Julia | Davenport, Anna | Hodgson, Darren R. | Barrett, Carl | Lee, Jeeyun | Kilgour, Elaine | Hanson, Jodi | Caspell, Richard | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ansari, Tameem | Schiller, Annemarie | Sundararaman, Srividya | Lehmann, Paul | Hanson, Jodi | Roen, Diana | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ayers, Mark | Levitan, Diane | Arreaza, Gladys | Liu, Fang | Mogg, Robin | Bang, Yung-Jue | O’Neil, Bert | Cristescu, Razvan | Friedlander, Philip | Wassman, Karl | Kyi, Chrisann | Oh, William | Bhardwaj, Nina | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gustafson, Michael P. | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Parney, Ian F. | Dietz, Allan B. | Carvajal-Hausdorf, Daniel | Mani, Nikita | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Schalper, Kurt | Rimm, David | Chang, Serena | Levy, Ronald | Kurland, John | Krishnan, Suba | Ahlers, Christoph Matthias | Jure-Kunkel, Maria | Cohen, Lewis | Maecker, Holden | Kohrt, Holbrook | Chen, Shuming | Crabill, George | Pritchard, Theresa | McMiller, Tracee | Pardoll, Drew | Pan, Fan | Topalian, Suzanne | Danaher, Patrick | Warren, Sarah | Dennis, Lucas | White, Andrew M. | D’Amico, Leonard | Geller, Melissa | Disis, Mary L. | Beechem, Joseph | Odunsi, Kunle | Fling, Steven | Derakhshandeh, Roshanak | Webb, Tonya J. | Dubois, Sigrid | Conlon, Kevin | Bryant, Bonita | Hsu, Jennifer | Beltran, Nancy | Müller, Jürgen | Waldmann, Thomas | Duhen, Rebekka | Duhen, Thomas | Thompson, Lucas | Montler, Ryan | Weinberg, Andrew | Kates, Max | Early, Brandon | Yusko, Erik | Schreiber, Taylor H. | Bivalacqua, Trinity J. | Ayers, Mark | Lunceford, Jared | Nebozhyn, Michael | Murphy, Erin | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Albright, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Kang, S. Peter | Shankaran, Veena | Piha-Paul, Sarina A. | Yearley, Jennifer | Seiwert, Tanguy | Ribas, Antoni | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Cristescu, Razvan | Mogg, Robin | Ayers, Mark | Albright, Andrew | Murphy, Erin | Yearley, Jennifer | Sher, Xinwei | Liu, Xiao Qiao | Nebozhyn, Michael | Lunceford, Jared | Joe, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Plimack, Elizabeth | Ott, Patrick A. | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Forrest-Hay, Alex | Guyre, Cheryl A. | Narumiya, Kohei | Delcommenne, Marc | Hirsch, Heather A. | Deshpande, Amit | Reeves, Jason | Shu, Jenny | Zi, Tong | Michaelson, Jennifer | Law, Debbie | Trehu, Elizabeth | Sathyanaryanan, Sriram | Hodkinson, Brendan P. | Hutnick, Natalie A. | Schaffer, Michael E. | Gormley, Michael | Hulett, Tyler | Jensen, Shawn | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Dubay, Christopher | Afentoulis, Michael | Reddy, Ashok | David, Larry | Fox, Bernard | Jayant, Kumar | Agrawal, Swati | Agrawal, Rajendra | Jeyakumar, Ghayathri | Kim, Seongho | Kim, Heejin | Silski, Cynthia | Suisham, Stacey | Heath, Elisabeth | Vaishampayan, Ulka | Vandeven, Natalie | Viller, Natasja Nielsen | O’Connor, Alison | Chen, Hui | Bossen, Bolette | Sievers, Eric | Uger, Robert | Nghiem, Paul | Johnson, Lisa | Kao, Hsiang-Fong | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Lai, Shu-Chuan | Wang, Chun-Wei | Ko, Jenq-Yuh | Lou, Pei-Jen | Lee, Tsai-Jan | Liu, Tsang-Wu | Hong, Ruey-Long | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Landis, Benjamin J. | Koegler, Sally | Hirsch, Brooke | Gianani, Roberto | Kim, Jeffrey | He, Ming-Xiao | Zhang, Bingqing | Su, Nan | Luo, Yuling | Ma, Xiao-Jun | Park, Emily | Kim, Dae Won | Copploa, Domenico | Kothari, Nishi | doo Chang, Young | Kim, Richard | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Knaus, Hanna A. | Berglund, Sofia | Hackl, Hubert | Karp, Judith E. | Gojo, Ivana | Luznik, Leo | Hong, Henoch S. | Koch, Sven D. | Scheel, Birgit | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Wiegand, Volker | Backert, Linus | Kohlbacher, Oliver | Hoerr, Ingmar | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Billingsley, James M. | Koguchi, Yoshinobu | Conrad, Valerie | Miller, William | Gonzalez, Iliana | Poplonski, Tomasz | Meeuwsen, Tanisha | Howells-Ferreira, Ana | Rattray, Rogan | Campbell, Mary | Bifulco, Carlo | Dubay, Christopher | Bahjat, Keith | Curti, Brendan | Urba, Walter | Vetsika, E-K | Kallergi, G. | Aggouraki, Despoina | Lyristi, Z. | Katsarlinos, P. | Koinis, Filippos | Georgoulias, V. | Kotsakis, Athanasios | Martin, Nathan T. | Aeffner, Famke | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Cerkovnik, Logan | Pratte, Luke | Kim, Rebecca | Hirsch, Brooke | Krueger, Joseph | Gianani, Roberto | Martínez-Usatorre, Amaia | Jandus, Camilla | Donda, Alena | Carretero-Iglesia, Laura | Speiser, Daniel E. | Zehn, Dietmar | Rufer, Nathalie | Romero, Pedro | Panda, Anshuman | Mehnert, Janice | Hirshfield, Kim M. | Riedlinger, Greg | Damare, Sherri | Saunders, Tracie | Sokol, Levi | Stein, Mark | Poplin, Elizabeth | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Silk, Ann | Chan, Nancy | Frankel, Melissa | Kane, Michael | Malhotra, Jyoti | Aisner, Joseph | Kaufman, Howard L. | Ali, Siraj | Ross, Jeffrey | White, Eileen | Bhanot, Gyan | Ganesan, Shridar | Monette, Anne | Bergeron, Derek | Amor, Amira Ben | Meunier, Liliane | Caron, Christine | Morou, Antigoni | Kaufmann, Daniel | Liberman, Moishe | Jurisica, Igor | Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie | Hamzaoui, Kamel | Lapointe, Rejean | Mongan, Ann | Ku, Yuan-Chieh | Tom, Warren | Sun, Yongming | Pankov, Alex | Looney, Tim | Au-Young, Janice | Hyland, Fiona | Conroy, Jeff | Morrison, Carl | Glenn, Sean | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Gardner, Mark | Mongan, Ann | Omilian, Angela R. | Conroy, Jeff | Bshara, Wiam | Angela, Omilian | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Glenn, Sean | Morrison, Carl | Mongan, Ann | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Smolkin, Mark E. | Deacon, Donna H. | Patterson, James W. | Chen, Lieping | Bullock, Timothy N. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Deacon, Donna H. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Bullock, Timothy N. | Loffredo, John T. | Vuyyuru, Raja | Beyer, Sophie | Spires, Vanessa M. | Fox, Maxine | Ehrmann, Jon M. | Taylor, Katrina A. | Korman, Alan J. | Graziano, Robert F. | Page, David | Sanchez, Katherine | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Martel, Maritza | Bifulco, Carlo | Urba, Walter | Fox, Bernard | Patel, Sapna P. | De Macedo, Mariana Petaccia | Qin, Yong | Reuben, Alex | Spencer, Christine | Guindani, Michele | Bassett, Roland | Wargo, Jennifer | Racolta, Adriana | Kelly, Brian | Jones, Tobin | Polaske, Nathan | Theiss, Noah | Robida, Mark | Meridew, Jeffrey | Habensus, Iva | Zhang, Liping | Pestic-Dragovich, Lidija | Tang, Lei | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Logan, Theodore | Khushalani, Nikhil | Margolin, Kim | Koon, Henry | Olencki, Thomas | Hutson, Thomas | Curti, Brendan | Roder, Joanna | Blackmon, Shauna | Roder, Heinrich | Stewart, John | Amin, Asim | Ernstoff, Marc S. | Clark, Joseph I. | Atkins, Michael B. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Sosman, Jeffrey | Weber, Jeffrey | McDermott, David F. | Weber, Jeffrey | Kluger, Harriet | Halaban, Ruth | Snzol, Mario | Roder, Heinrich | Roder, Joanna | Asmellash, Senait | Steingrimsson, Arni | Blackmon, Shauna | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Wang, Chichung | Roman, Kristin | Clement, Amanda | Downing, Sean | Hoyt, Clifford | Harder, Nathalie | Schmidt, Guenter | Schoenmeyer, Ralf | Brieu, Nicolas | Yigitsoy, Mehmet | Madonna, Gabriele | Botti, Gerardo | Grimaldi, Antonio | Ascierto, Paolo A. | Huss, Ralf | Athelogou, Maria | Hessel, Harald | Harder, Nathalie | Buchner, Alexander | Schmidt, Guenter | Stief, Christian | Huss, Ralf | Binnig, Gerd | Kirchner, Thomas | Sellappan, Shankar | Thyparambil, Sheeno | Schwartz, Sarit | Cecchi, Fabiola | Nguyen, Andrew | Vaske, Charles | Hembrough, Todd
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):1-106.
doi:10.1186/s40425-016-0172-7
PMCID: PMC5123387
7.  Discrimination between Distant Homologs and Structural Analogs: Lessons from Manually Constructed, Reliable Data Sets 
Journal of molecular biology  2008;377(4):1265-1278.
A natural way to study protein sequence, structure, and function is to put them in the context of evolution. Homologs inherit similarities from their common ancestor, while analogs converge to similar structures due to a limited number of energetically favorable ways to pack secondary structural elements. Using novel strategies, we previously assembled two reliable databases of homologs and analogs. In this study, we compare these two data sets and develop a support vector machine (SVM)-based classifier to discriminate between homologs and analogs. The classifier uses a number of well-known similarity scores. We observe that although both structure scores and sequence scores contribute to SVM performance, profile sequence scores computed based on structural alignments are the best discriminators between remote homologs and structural analogs. We apply our classifier to a representative set from the expert-constructed database, Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP). The SVM classifier recovers 76% of the remote homologs defined as domains in the same SCOP superfamily but from different families. More importantly, we also detect and discuss interesting homologous relationships between SCOP domains from different superfamilies, folds, and even classes.
doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2007.12.076
PMCID: PMC4494761  PMID: 18313074
homology; analogy; discrimination; protein structures; support vector machines
8.  ZDOCK server: interactive docking prediction of protein–protein complexes and symmetric multimers 
Bioinformatics  2014;30(12):1771-1773.
Summary: Protein–protein interactions are essential to cellular and immune function, and in many cases, because of the absence of an experimentally determined structure of the complex, these interactions must be modeled to obtain an understanding of their molecular basis. We present a user-friendly protein docking server, based on the rigid-body docking programs ZDOCK and M-ZDOCK, to predict structures of protein–protein complexes and symmetric multimers. With a goal of providing an accessible and intuitive interface, we provide options for users to guide the scoring and the selection of output models, in addition to dynamic visualization of input structures and output docking models. This server enables the research community to easily and quickly produce structural models of protein–protein complexes and symmetric multimers for their own analysis.
Availability: The ZDOCK server is freely available to all academic and non-profit users at: http://zdock.umassmed.edu. No registration is required.
Contact: brian.pierce@umassmed.edu or zhiping.weng@umassmed.edu
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu097
PMCID: PMC4058926  PMID: 24532726
9.  Principles Of Regulatory Information Conservation Between Mouse And Human 
Nature  2014;515(7527):371-375.
Summary
To broaden our understanding of the evolution of gene regulation mechanisms, we generated occupancy profiles for 34 orthologous transcription factors (TFs) in human-mouse erythroid progenitor, lymphoblast, and embryonic stem cell lines. By combining the genome-wide TF occupancy repertoires, associated epigenetic signals, and TF co-association patterns, we deduced several evolutionary principles of gene regulatory features operating since the mouse and human lineages diverged. The genomic distribution profiles, primary binding motifs, chromatin states, and DNA methylation preferences are well conserved for TF occupied sequences (TF OSs). However, the extent to which orthologous DNA segments are bound by orthologous TFs varies both among TFs and with genomic location: binding at promoters is more highly conserved than binding at distal elements. Importantly, occupancy conserved TF OSs tend to be pleiotropic; they function in multiple tissues and also co-associate with multiple TFs. Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) at sites with potential regulatory functions are enriched in occupancy conserved TF OSs.
doi:10.1038/nature13985
PMCID: PMC4343047  PMID: 25409826
10.  The effect of organisational system on self-rated depression in a panel of male municipal firefighters 
Objectives
The present study evaluated the effects of job stress, including organisational system to self-rated depression through a panel study of male municipal firefighters in the Republic of Korea.
Methods
A panel of 186 municipal firefighters reported self-rated depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The effects of job stress were evaluated using the Korea Occupational Stress Scale, taken one year earlier and classified by the median value. Panel members were classified into Depression or Control groups according to BDI scores, with a cut-off level of ‘over mild depression’ in a follow-up survey.
Results
The Depression group included 17 (9.1%) workers. Firefighters who scored high on occupational system had an 8.3 times greater risk of being assigned to the Depression group than those who had not (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 8.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [1.73–37.22]). In contrast, job stress from a ‘difficult physical environment’ revealed negative risks related to being classified in the Depression group (AOR = 0.20, 95% CI = [0.04–0.92]).
Conclusions
Although the healthy worker effect may be involved, job stress based on perceptions of organisational system was a strong risk factor for depression. A comprehensive approach should be considered that encompasses social issues when assessing or mental health in high-risk groups, as well as the practical issue of physiochemical hazards.
doi:10.1186/s40557-014-0044-x
PMCID: PMC4343070  PMID: 25729584
Depression; Organisational system; Municipality; Firefighter; Occupational stress
11.  ECOD: An Evolutionary Classification of Protein Domains 
PLoS Computational Biology  2014;10(12):e1003926.
Understanding the evolution of a protein, including both close and distant relationships, often reveals insight into its structure and function. Fast and easy access to such up-to-date information facilitates research. We have developed a hierarchical evolutionary classification of all proteins with experimentally determined spatial structures, and presented it as an interactive and updatable online database. ECOD (Evolutionary Classification of protein Domains) is distinct from other structural classifications in that it groups domains primarily by evolutionary relationships (homology), rather than topology (or “fold”). This distinction highlights cases of homology between domains of differing topology to aid in understanding of protein structure evolution. ECOD uniquely emphasizes distantly related homologs that are difficult to detect, and thus catalogs the largest number of evolutionary links among structural domain classifications. Placing distant homologs together underscores the ancestral similarities of these proteins and draws attention to the most important regions of sequence and structure, as well as conserved functional sites. ECOD also recognizes closer sequence-based relationships between protein domains. Currently, approximately 100,000 protein structures are classified in ECOD into 9,000 sequence families clustered into close to 2,000 evolutionary groups. The classification is assisted by an automated pipeline that quickly and consistently classifies weekly releases of PDB structures and allows for continual updates. This synchronization with PDB uniquely distinguishes ECOD among all protein classifications. Finally, we present several case studies of homologous proteins not recorded in other classifications, illustrating the potential of how ECOD can be used to further biological and evolutionary studies.
Author Summary
Protein structural domain databases offer a vital resource for structural bioinformatics. These databases provide functional inference for homologous structures, supply templates for structural prediction experiments, and differentiate between homologs and analogs. The rate of structure determination and deposition has increased dramatically over recent years, overwhelming the ability of current classifications to incorporate all new structures. We have developed a fast and reliable methodology for updating domain databases automatically, and created a revised hierarchy for domain classification that emphasizes evolutionary relationships. By classifying all known structures in our database with continuing automatic updates, we provide an up-to-date alternative to current resources. We illustrate several concepts that guided our classification scheme with examples of homology between domains in ECOD that are not observed in other resources.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003926
PMCID: PMC4256011  PMID: 25474468
12.  Discrete - Continuous Duality of Protein Structure Space 
Summary
Recently, the nature of protein structure space has been widely discussed in the literature. The traditional discrete view of protein universe as a set of separate folds has been criticized in the light of growing evidence that almost any arrangement of secondary structures is possible and the whole protein space can be traversed through a path of similar structures. Here we argue that the discrete and continuous descriptions are not mutually exclusive, but complementary: the space is largely discrete in evolutionary sense, but continuous geometrically when purely structural similarities are quantified. Evolutionary connections are mainly confined to separate structural prototypes corresponding to folds as islands of structural stability, with few remaining traceable links between the islands. However, for a geometric similarity measure, it is usually possible to find a reasonable cutoff that yields paths connecting any two structures through intermediates.
doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2009.04.009
PMCID: PMC3688466  PMID: 19482467
13.  Structure prediction for CASP8 with all-atom refinement using Rosetta 
Proteins  2009;77(0 9):89-99.
We describe predictions made using the Rosetta structure prediction methodology for the Eighth Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction. Aggressive sampling and all-atom refinement were carried out for nearly all targets. A combination of alignment methodologies was used to generate starting models from a range of templates, and the models were then subjected to Rosetta all atom refinement. For 50 targets with readily identified templates, the best submitted model was better than the best alignment to the best template in the Protein Data Bank for 24 domains, and improved over the best starting model for 43 domains. For 13 targets where only very distant sequence relationships to proteins of known structure were detected, models were generated using the Rosetta de novo structure prediction methodology followed by all-atom refinement; in several cases the submitted models were better than those based on the available templates. Of the 12 refinement challenges, the best submitted model improved on the starting model in 7 cases. These improvements over the starting template-based models and refinement tests demonstrate the power of Rosetta structure refinement in improving model accuracy.
doi:10.1002/prot.22540
PMCID: PMC3688471  PMID: 19701941
14.  Factorbook.org: a Wiki-based database for transcription factor-binding data generated by the ENCODE consortium 
Nucleic Acids Research  2012;41(Database issue):D171-D176.
The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) consortium aims to identify all functional elements in the human genome including transcripts, transcriptional regulatory regions, along with their chromatin states and DNA methylation patterns. The ENCODE project generates data utilizing a variety of techniques that can enrich for regulatory regions, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion and DNase I digestion, followed by deeply sequencing the resulting DNA. As part of the ENCODE project, we have developed a Web-accessible repository accessible at http://factorbook.org. In Wiki format, factorbook is a transcription factor (TF)-centric repository of all ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets on TF-binding regions, as well as the rich analysis results of these data. In the first release, factorbook contains 457 ChIP-seq datasets on 119 TFs in a number of human cell lines, the average profiles of histone modifications and nucleosome positioning around the TF-binding regions, sequence motifs enriched in the regions and the distance and orientation preferences between motif sites.
doi:10.1093/nar/gks1221
PMCID: PMC3531197  PMID: 23203885
15.  Self consistency grouping: a stringent clustering method 
BMC Bioinformatics  2012;13(Suppl 13):S3.
Background
Numerous types of clustering like single linkage and K-means have been widely studied and applied to a variety of scientific problems. However, the existing methods are not readily applicable for the problems that demand high stringency.
Methods
Our method, self consistency grouping, i.e. SCG, yields clusters whose members are closer in rank to each other than to any member outside the cluster. We do not define a distance metric; we use the best known distance metric and presume that it measures the correct distance. SCG does not impose any restriction on the size or the number of the clusters that it finds. The boundaries of clusters are determined by the inconsistencies in the ranks. In addition to the direct implementation that finds the complete structure of the (sub)clusters we implemented two faster versions. The fastest version is guaranteed to find only the clusters that are not subclusters of any other clusters and the other version yields the same output as the direct implementation but does so more efficiently.
Results
Our tests have demonstrated that SCG yields very few false positives. This was accomplished by introducing errors in the distance measurement. Clustering of protein domain representatives by structural similarity showed that SCG could recover homologous groups with high precision.
Conclusions
SCG has potential for finding biological relationships under stringent conditions.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-13-S13-S3
PMCID: PMC3426801  PMID: 23320864
16.  Predictive Sequence Analysis of the Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Proteome 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e41071.
Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Ca. L. asiaticus) is a parasitic Gram-negative bacterium that is closely associated with Huanglongbing (HLB), a worldwide citrus disease. Given the difficulty in culturing the bacterium and thus in its experimental characterization, computational analyses of the whole Ca. L. asiaticus proteome can provide much needed insights into the mechanisms of the disease and guide the development of treatment strategies. In this study, we applied state-of-the-art sequence analysis tools to every Ca. L. asiaticus protein. Our results are available as a public website at http://prodata.swmed.edu/liberibacter_asiaticus/. In particular, we manually curated the results to predict the subcellular localization, spatial structure and function of all Ca. L. asiaticus proteins (http://prodata.swmed.edu/liberibacter_asiaticus/curated/). This extensive information should facilitate the study of Ca. L. asiaticus proteome function and its relationship to disease. Pilot studies based on the information from our website have revealed several potential virulence factors, discussed herein.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041071
PMCID: PMC3399792  PMID: 22815919
17.  HangOut: generating clean PSI-BLAST profiles for domains with long insertions 
Bioinformatics  2010;26(12):1564-1565.
Summary: Profile-based similarity search is an essential step in structure-function studies of proteins. However, inclusion of non-homologous sequence segments into a profile causes its corruption and results in false positives. Profile corruption is common in multidomain proteins, and single domains with long insertions are a significant source of errors. We developed a procedure (HangOut) that, for a single domain with specified insertion position, cleans erroneously extended PSI-BLAST alignments to generate better profiles.
Availability: HangOut is implemented in Python 2.3 and runs on all Unix-compatible platforms. The source code is available under the GNU GPL license at http://prodata.swmed.edu/HangOut/
Contact: kim@chop.swmed.edu; grishin@chop.swmed.edu
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btq208
PMCID: PMC2881392  PMID: 20413635
18.  COMPASS server for homology detection: improved statistical accuracy, speed and functionality 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;37(Web Server issue):W90-W94.
COMPASS is a profile-based method for the detection of remote sequence similarity and the prediction of protein structure. Here we describe a recently improved public web server of COMPASS, http://prodata.swmed.edu/compass. The server features three major developments: (i) improved statistical accuracy; (ii) increased speed from parallel implementation; and (iii) new functional features facilitating structure prediction. These features include visualization tools that allow the user to quickly and effectively analyze specific local structural region predictions suggested by COMPASS alignments. As an application example, we describe the structural, evolutionary and functional analysis of a protein with unknown function that served as a target in the recent CASP8 (Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction round 8). URL: http://prodata.swmed.edu/compass
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp360
PMCID: PMC2703893  PMID: 19435884
19.  HorA web server to infer homology between proteins using sequence and structural similarity 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;37(Web Server issue):W532-W538.
The biological properties of proteins are often gleaned through comparative analysis of evolutionary relatives. Although protein structure similarity search methods detect more distant homologs than purely sequence-based methods, structural resemblance can result from either homology (common ancestry) or analogy (similarity without common ancestry). While many existing web servers detect structural neighbors, they do not explicitly address the question of homology versus analogy. Here, we present a web server named HorA (Homology or Analogy) that identifies likely homologs for a query protein structure. Unlike other servers, HorA combines sequence information from state-of-the-art profile methods with structure information from spatial similarity measures using an advanced computational technique. HorA aims to identify biologically meaningful connections rather than purely 3D-geometric similarities. The HorA method finds ∼90% of remote homologs defined in the manually curated database SCOP. HorA will be especially useful for finding remote homologs that might be overlooked by other sequence or structural similarity search servers. The HorA server is available at http://prodata.swmed.edu/horaserver.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp328
PMCID: PMC2703895  PMID: 19417074
20.  Analysis of CASP8 targets, predictions and assessment methods 
Results of the recent Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction, CASP8, present several valuable sources of information. First, CASP targets comprise a realistic sample of currently solved protein structures and exemplify the corresponding challenges for predictors. Second, the plethora of predictions by all possible methods provides an unusually rich material for evolutionary analysis of target proteins. Third, CASP results show the current state of the field and highlight specific problems in both predicting and assessing. Finally, these data can serve as grounds to develop and analyze methods for assessing prediction quality. Here we present results of our analysis in these areas. Our objective is not to duplicate CASP assessment, but to use our unique experience as former CASP5 assessors and CASP8 predictors to (i) offer more insights into CASP targets and predictions based on expert analysis, including invaluable analysis prior to target structure release; and (ii) develop an assessment methodology tailored towards current challenges in the field. Specifically, we discuss preparing target structures for assessment, parsing protein domains, balancing evaluations based on domains and on whole chains, dividing targets into categories and developing new evaluation scores. We also present evolutionary analysis of the most interesting and challenging targets.
Database URL: Our results are available as a comprehensive database of targets and predictions at http://prodata.swmed.edu/CASP8.
doi:10.1093/database/bap003
PMCID: PMC2794793  PMID: 20157476
21.  PROMALS3D: a tool for multiple protein sequence and structure alignments 
Nucleic Acids Research  2008;36(7):2295-2300.
Although multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) are essential for a wide range of applications from structure modeling to prediction of functional sites, construction of accurate MSAs for distantly related proteins remains a largely unsolved problem. The rapidly increasing database of spatial structures is a valuable source to improve alignment quality. We explore the use of 3D structural information to guide sequence alignments constructed by our MSA program PROMALS. The resulting tool, PROMALS3D, automatically identifies homologs with known 3D structures for the input sequences, derives structural constraints through structure-based alignments and combines them with sequence constraints to construct consistency-based multiple sequence alignments. The output is a consensus alignment that brings together sequence and structural information about input proteins and their homologs. PROMALS3D can also align sequences of multiple input structures, with the output representing a multiple structure-based alignment refined in combination with sequence constraints. The advantage of PROMALS3D is that it gives researchers an easy way to produce high-quality alignments consistent with both sequences and structures of proteins. PROMALS3D outperforms a number of existing methods for constructing multiple sequence or structural alignments using both reference-dependent and reference-independent evaluation methods.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkn072
PMCID: PMC2367709  PMID: 18287115
22.  Inhibitory Potencies of Several Iridoids on Cyclooxygenase-1, Cyclooxygnase-2 Enzymes Activities, Tumor Necrosis factor-α and Nitric Oxide Production In Vitro 
To verify the anti-inflammatory potency of iridoids, seven iridoid glucosides (aucubin, catalpol, gentiopicroside, swertiamarin, geniposide, geniposidic acid and loganin) and an iridoid aglycone (genipin) were investigated with in vitro testing model systems based on inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1/-2 enzymes, the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) formation and nitric oxide (NO) production. The hydrolyzed-iridoid products (H-iridoid) with β-gludosidase treatment only showed inhibitory activities, and revealed different potencies, depending on their chemical structures. Without the β-gludosidase treatment, no single iridoid glycoside exhibited any activities. The aglycone form (genipin) also did not show inhibitory activities. To compare anti-inflammatory potency, the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) in each testing system were measured. The hydrolyzed-aucubin product (H-aucubin) with β-gludosidase treatment showed a moderate inhibition on COX-2 with IC50 of 8.83 μM, but much less inhibition (IC50, 68.9 μM) on COX-1 was noted. Of the other H-iridoid products, the H-loganin and the H-geniposide exhibited higher inhibitory effects on COX-1, revealing IC50 values of 3.55 and 5.37 μM, respectively. In the case of TNF-α assay, four H-iridoid products: H-aucubin, H-catalpol, H-geniposide and H-loganin suppressed the TNF-α formation with IC50 values of 11.2, 33.3, 58.2 and 154.6 μM, respectively. But other H-iridoid products manifested no significant activity. Additional experiments on NO production were conducted. We observed that only the H-aucubin exhibited a significant suppression with IC50 value of 14.1 μM. Genipin, an agycone form, showed no inhibitory effects on all testing models, implying the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond of iridoid glycoside is a pre-requisite step to produce various biological activities.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nem129
PMCID: PMC2816382  PMID: 18955286
anti-inflammation; cyclooxygenase; iridoids –nitric oxide; tumor necrosis factor-α
23.  MALISAM: a database of structurally analogous motifs in proteins 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;36(Database issue):D211-D217.
MALISAM (manual alignments for structurally analogous motifs) represents the first database containing pairs of structural analogs and their alignments. To find reliable analogs, we developed an approach based on three ideas. First, an insertion together with a part of the evolutionary core of one domain family (a hybrid motif) is analogous to a similar motif contained within the core of another domain family. Second, a motif at an interface, formed by secondary structural elements (SSEs) contributed by two or more domains or subunits contacting along that interface, is analogous to a similar motif present in the core of a single domain. Third, an artificial protein obtained through selection from random peptides or in sequence design experiments not biased by sequences of a particular homologous family, is analogous to a structurally similar natural protein. Each analogous pair is superimposed and aligned manually, as well as by several commonly used programs. Applications of this database may range from protein evolution studies, e.g. development of remote homology inference tools and discriminators between homologs and analogs, to protein-folding research, since in the absence of evolutionary reasons, similarity between proteins is caused by structural and folding constraints. The database is publicly available at http://prodata.swmed.edu/malisam.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkm698
PMCID: PMC2238938  PMID: 17855399
24.  A comprehensive system for evaluation of remote sequence similarity detection 
BMC Bioinformatics  2007;8:314.
Background
Accurate and sensitive performance evaluation is crucial for both effective development of better structure prediction methods based on sequence similarity, and for the comparative analysis of existing methods. Up to date, there has been no satisfactory comprehensive evaluation method that (i) is based on a large and statistically unbiased set of proteins with clearly defined relationships; and (ii) covers all performance aspects of sequence-based structure predictors, such as sensitivity and specificity, alignment accuracy and coverage, and structure template quality.
Results
With the aim of designing such a method, we (i) select a statistically balanced set of divergent protein domains from SCOP, and define similarity relationships for the majority of these domains by complementing the best of information available in SCOP with a rigorous SVM-based algorithm; and (ii) develop protocols for the assessment of similarity detection and alignment quality from several complementary perspectives. The evaluation of similarity detection is based on ROC-like curves and includes several complementary approaches to the definition of true/false positives. Reference-dependent approaches use the 'gold standard' of pre-defined domain relationships and structure-based alignments. Reference-independent approaches assess the quality of structural match predicted by the sequence alignment, with respect to the whole domain length (global mode) or to the aligned region only (local mode). Similarly, the evaluation of alignment quality includes several reference-dependent and -independent measures, in global and local modes. As an illustration, we use our benchmark to compare the performance of several methods for the detection of remote sequence similarities, and show that different aspects of evaluation reveal different properties of the evaluated methods, highlighting their advantages, weaknesses, and potential for further development.
Conclusion
The presented benchmark provides a new tool for a statistically unbiased assessment of methods for remote sequence similarity detection, from various complementary perspectives. This tool should be useful both for users choosing the best method for a given purpose, and for developers designing new, more powerful methods. The benchmark set, reference alignments, and evaluation codes can be downloaded from .
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-8-314
PMCID: PMC2031906  PMID: 17725841
25.  COMPASS server for remote homology inference 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;35(Web Server issue):W653-W658.
COMPASS is a method for homology detection and local alignment construction based on the comparison of multiple sequence alignments (MSAs). The method derives numerical profiles from given MSAs, constructs local profile-profile alignments and analytically estimates E-values for the detected similarities. Until now, COMPASS was only available for download and local installation. Here, we present a new web server featuring the latest version of COMPASS, which provides (i) increased sensitivity and selectivity of homology detection; (ii) longer, more complete alignments; and (iii) faster computational speed. After submission of the query MSA or single sequence, the server performs searches versus a user-specified database. The server includes detailed and intuitive control of the search parameters. A flexible output format, structured similarly to BLAST and PSI-BLAST, provides an easy way to read and analyze the detected profile similarities. Brief help sections are available for all input parameters and output options, along with detailed documentation. To illustrate the value of this tool for protein structure-functional prediction, we present two examples of detecting distant homologs for uncharacterized protein families. Available at http://prodata.swmed.edu/compass
doi:10.1093/nar/gkm293
PMCID: PMC1933213  PMID: 17517780

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