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1.  IL-15, TIM-3 and NK cells subsets predict responsiveness to anti-CTLA-4 treatment in melanoma patients 
Oncoimmunology  2016;6(2):e1261242.
ABSTRACT
Despite the success of immune checkpoint blockade in melanoma, the majority of patients do not respond. We hypothesized that the T and NK cell subset frequencies and expression levels of their receptors may predict responses and clinical outcome of anti-CTLA-4 treatment. We thus characterized the NK and T cell phenotype, as well as serum levels of several cytokines in 67 melanoma patients recruited in Italy and Sweden, using samples drawn prior to and during treatment. Survival correlated with low expression of the inhibitory receptor TIM-3 on circulating T and NK cells prior to and during treatment and with the increased frequency of mature circulating NK cells (defined as CD3−CD56dim CD16+) during treatment. Survival also correlated with low levels of IL-15 in the serum. Functional experiments in vitro demonstrated that sustained exposure to IL-15 enhanced the expression of PD-1 and TIM-3 on both T and NK cells, indicating a causative link between high IL-15 levels and enhanced expression of TIM-3 on these cells. Receptor blockade of TIM-3 improved NK cell-mediated elimination of melanoma metastasis cell lines in vitro. These observations may lead to the development of novel biomarkers to predict patient response to checkpoint blockade treatment. They also suggest that induction of additional checkpoints is a possibility that needs to be considered when treating melanoma patients with IL-15.
doi:10.1080/2162402X.2016.1261242
PMCID: PMC5353942  PMID: 28344869
Anti-CTLA-4; IL-15; melanoma; NK cells; PD-1; TIM-3
2.  Linking CREB function with altered metabolism in murine fibroblast-based model cell lines 
Oncotarget  2017;8(57):97439-97463.
The cAMP-responsive element binding protein CREB is frequently overexpressed and activated in tumors of distinct histology, leading to enhanced proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis as well as reduced apoptosis. The de-regulated expression of CREB might be linked with transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional regulation mechanisms. We show here that altered CREB expression levels and function are associated with changes in the cellular metabolism. Using comparative proteome-based analysis an altered expression pattern of proteins involved in the cellular metabolism in particular in glycolysis was found upon CREB down-regulation in HER-2/neu-transfected cell lines. This was associated with diminished expression levels of the glucose transporter 1, reduced glucose uptake and reduced glycolytic activity in HER-2/neu-transfected cells with down-regulated CREB when compared to HER-2/neu+ cells. Furthermore, hypoxia-induced CREB activity resulted in changes of the metabolism in HER-2/neu transfected cells. Low pH values in the supernatant of HER-2/neu transformants were restored by CREB down-regulation, but further decreased by hypoxia. The altered intracellular pH values were associated with a distinct expression of lactate dehydrogenase, and its substrate lactate. Moreover, enhanced phosphorylation of CREB on residue Ser133 was accompanied by a down-regulation of pERK and an up-regulation of pAKT. CREB promotes the detoxification of ROS by catalase, therefore protecting the mitochondrial activity under oxidative stress. These data suggest that there might exists a link between CREB function and the altered metabolism in HER-2/neu-transformed cells. Thus, targeting these altered metabolic pathways might represent an attractive therapeutic approach at least for the treatment of patients with HER-2/neu overexpressing tumors.
doi:10.18632/oncotarget.22135
PMCID: PMC5722575
CREB; HER-2/neu; metabolism; mitochondria; ROS
3.  Intratumorally injected pro-inflammatory allogeneic dendritic cells as immune enhancers: a first-in-human study in unfavourable risk patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma 
Background
Accumulating pre-clinical data indicate that the efficient induction of antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells characterizing viral infections is caused by cross-priming where initially infected DCs produce an unique set of inflammatory factors that recruit and activate non-infected bystander DCs. Our DC-based immunotherapy concept is guided by such bystander view and accordingly, we have developed a cellular adjuvant consisting of pre-activated allogeneic DCs producing high levels of DC-recruiting and DC-activating factors. This concept doesn’t require MHC-compatibility between injected cells and the patient and therefore introduces the possibility of using pre-produced and freeze-stored DCs from healthy blood donors as an off- the-shelf immune enhancer. The use of MHC-incompatible allogeneic DCs will further induce a local rejection process at the injection site that is expected to further enhance recruitment and maturation of endogenous bystander DCs.
Methods
Twelve intermediate and poor risk patients with newly diagnosed metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) where included in a phase I/II study. Pro-inflammatory allogeneic DCs were produced from a leukapheresis product collected from one healthy blood donor and subsequently deep-frozen. A dose of 5–20 × 106 DCs (INTUVAX) was injected into the renal tumor twice with 2 weeks interval before planned nephrectomy and subsequent standard of care.
Results
No INTUVAX-related severe adverse events were observed. A massive infiltration of CD8+ T cells was found in 5 out of 12 removed kidney tumors. No objective tumor response was observed and 6 out of 11 evaluable patients have subsequently received additional treatment with standard tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Three of these 6 patients experienced an objective tumor response including one sunitinib-treated patient who responded with a complete and durable regression of 4 brain metastases. Median overall survival (mOS) is still not reached (currently 42.5 months) but has already passed historical mOS in patients with unfavourable risk mRCC on standard TKI therapy.
Conclusions
Our findings indicate that intratumoral administration of proinflammatory allogeneic DCs induces an anti-tumor immune response that may prolong survival in unfavourable risk mRCC-patients given subsequent standard of care. A randomized, multi-center, phase II mRCC trial (MERECA) with INTUVAX in conjuction with sunitinib has been initiated.
Trial registration
Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01525017.
doi:10.1186/s40425-017-0255-0
PMCID: PMC5477104
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma; Phase I/II study; Intratumoral administration; Vaccine; Allogeneic dendritic cells; Anti-tumor response; INTUVAX; Sunitinib
4.  Enhanced stimulation of human tumor-specific T cells by dendritic cells matured in the presence of interferon-γ and multiple toll-like receptor agonists 
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy  2017;66(10):1333-1344.
Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines have been demonstrated to elicit immunological responses in numerous cancer immunotherapy trials. However, long-lasting clinical effects are infrequent. We therefore sought to establish a protocol to generate DC with greater immunostimulatory capacity. Immature DC were generated from healthy donor monocytes by culturing in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF and were further differentiated into mature DC by the addition of cocktails containing different cytokines and toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. Overall, addition of IFNγ and the TLR7/8 agonist R848 during maturation was essential for the production of high levels of IL-12p70 which was further augmented by adding the TLR3 agonist poly I:C. In addition, the DC matured with IFNγ, R848, and poly I:C also induced upregulation of several other pro-inflammatory and Th1-skewing cytokines/chemokines, co-stimulatory receptors, and the chemokine receptor CCR7. For most cytokines and chemokines the production was even further potentiated by addition of the TLR4 agonist LPS. Concurrently, upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was modest. Most importantly, DC matured with IFNγ, R848, and poly I:C had the ability to activate IFNγ production in allogeneic T cells and this was further enhanced by adding LPS to the cocktail. Furthermore, epitope-specific stimulation of TCR-transduced T cells by peptide- or whole tumor lysate-loaded DC was efficiently stimulated only by DC matured in the full maturation cocktail containing IFNγ and the three TLR ligands R848, poly I:C, and LPS. We suggest that this cocktail is used for future clinical trials of anti-cancer DC vaccines.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00262-017-2029-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00262-017-2029-4
PMCID: PMC5626805  PMID: 28601925
Cancer; Dendritic cell-vaccine; IFNγ; R848; Poly I:C; LPS
5.  Ipilimumab treatment decreases monocytic MDSCs and increases CD8 effector memory T cells in long-term survivors with advanced melanoma 
Oncotarget  2017;8(13):21539-21553.
Ipilimumab has revolutionized malignant melanoma therapy, but a better understanding of the mechanisms behind treatment response and adverse effects is needed. In this work, the immune system of ipilimumab treated patients was monitored to investigate potential mechanisms of action that may correlate with treatment outcome. Blood samples from 43 advanced melanoma patients were taken before, during and at the end of treatment. Hematological parameters were measured and flow cytometry analysis was performed in fresh samples within two hours of sample collection. Strong differences in markers CD45RA, CCR7, HLA-DR and CD15 between fresh and cryopreserved samples were observed. Ipilimumab treatment increased absolute lymphocyte counts, eosinophils, effector T cells and their activation status, whilst diminishing the suppressive side of the immune response, acting on regulatory T cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These effects were visible after one ipilimumab infusion and, regarding eosinophil counts, correlated with onset of adverse events. Monocytic MDSCs were decreased in response to treatment only in patients with clinical benefit; additionally, patients with a lower frequency of these cells after the first ipilimumab infusion experienced increased overall survival. CD8 effector memory T cell frequencies at the end of treatment were higher in patients with clinical benefit and positively correlated with survival. These data show that a clinical response to ipilimumab not only requires reshaping T cell populations, but additionally involves a reduction in suppressive cells such as monocytic MDSCs. Our work could provide insight on predicting treatment outcome, assisting clinicians in offering the best personalized therapeutic approach.
doi:10.18632/oncotarget.15368
PMCID: PMC5400604  PMID: 28423487
melanoma; checkpoint blockade; CD8 effector memory T cells; ipilimumab; MDSC
6.  TAP-ing into TIEPPs for cancer immunotherapy 
Cancer immunotherapy in which cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) target tumor-specific antigens complexed to MHC-I molecules has been used successfully for several types of cancer; however, MHC-I is frequently downregulated in tumors, resulting in CTL evasion. Recently, it has been shown that MHC-Ilo tumors produce a set of T cell epitopes associated with impaired peptide processing (TEIPP) that have potential to be exploited for immunotherapy. TEIPP-specific CTLs recognize tumors defective in antigen presentation machinery (APM) but not those with intact APM. In this issue of the JCI, Doorduljn et al. evaluated thymus selection and peripheral behavior of TEIPP-specific T cells, using a unique T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mouse model. They demonstrated that TEIPP-specific T cells in TAP-deficient mice have largely been deleted by central tolerance, while the same T cells in WT mice are naive and sustained. The results of this study suggest that TIEPPs have potential to be successful targets for elimination of MHC-Ilo tumors.
doi:10.1172/JCI86119
PMCID: PMC4731182  PMID: 26784539
7.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part one 
Lundqvist, Andreas | van Hoef, Vincent | Zhang, Xiaonan | Wennerberg, Erik | Lorent, Julie | Witt, Kristina | Sanz, Laia Masvidal | Liang, Shuo | Murray, Shannon | Larsson, Ola | Kiessling, Rolf | Mao, Yumeng | Sidhom, John-William | Bessell, Catherine A. | Havel, Jonathan | Schneck, Jonathan | Chan, Timothy A. | Sachsenmeier, Eliot | Woods, David | Berglund, Anders | Ramakrishnan, Rupal | Sodre, Andressa | Weber, Jeffrey | Zappasodi, Roberta | Li, Yanyun | Qi, Jingjing | Wong, Philip | Sirard, Cynthia | Postow, Michael | Newman, Walter | Koon, Henry | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Callahan, Margaret K. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Lum, Lawrence G. | Choi, Minsig | Thakur, Archana | Deol, Abhinav | Dyson, Gregory | Shields, Anthony | Haymaker, Cara | Uemura, Marc | Murthy, Ravi | James, Marihella | Wang, Daqing | Brevard, Julie | Monaghan, Catherine | Swann, Suzanne | Geib, James | Cornfeld, Mark | Chunduru, Srinivas | Agrawal, Sudhir | Yee, Cassian | Wargo, Jennifer | Patel, Sapna P. | Amaria, Rodabe | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Woodman, Scott | Hwu, Wen-Jen | Davies, Michael A. | Hwu, Patrick | Overwijk, Willem W. | Bernatchez, Chantale | Diab, Adi | Massarelli, Erminia | Segal, Neil H. | Ribrag, Vincent | Melero, Ignacio | Gangadhar, Tara C. | Urba, Walter | Schadendorf, Dirk | Ferris, Robert L. | Houot, Roch | Morschhauser, Franck | Logan, Theodore | Luke, Jason J. | Sharfman, William | Barlesi, Fabrice | Ott, Patrick A. | Mansi, Laura | Kummar, Shivaani | Salles, Gilles | Carpio, Cecilia | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | McDonald, Dan | Maurer, Matthew | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Levy, Ronald | Khushalani, Nikhil | Wu, Jennifer | Zhang, Jinyu | Basher, Fahmin | Rubinstein, Mark | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | MacDonald, Cameron | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Chatterjee, Shilpak | Daenthanasanmak, Anusara | Chakraborty, Paramita | Toth, Kyle | Meek, Megan | Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth | Nishimura, Michael | Paulos, Chrystal | Beeson, Craig | Yu, Xuezhong | Mehrotra, Shikhar | Zhao, Fei | Evans, Kathy | Xiao, Christine | Holtzhausen, Alisha | Hanks, Brent A. | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Moreci, Rebecca | Whetstone, Ryan | Dadey, Rebekah | Watkins, Simon | Ferris, Robert | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Peled, Jonathan | Devlin, Sean | Staffas, Anna | Lumish, Melissa | Rodriguez, Kori Porosnicu | Ahr, Katya | Perales, Miguel | Giralt, Sergio | Taur, Ying | Pamer, Eric | van den Brink, Marcel R. M. | Jenq, Robert | Annels, Nicola | Pandha, Hardev | Simpson, Guy | Mostafid, Hugh | Harrington, Kevin | Melcher, Alan | Grose, Mark | Davies, Bronwyn | Au, Gough | Karpathy, Roberta | Shafren, Darren | Ricca, Jacob | Merghoub, Taha | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Zamarin, Dmitriy | Batista, Luciana | Marliot, Florence | Vasaturo, Angela | Carpentier, Sabrina | Poggionovo, Cécile | Frayssinet, Véronique | Fieschi, Jacques | Van den Eynde, Marc | Pagès, Franck | Galon, Jérôme | Hermitte, Fabienne | Smith, Sean G. | Nguyen, Khue | Ravindranathan, Sruthi | Koppolu, Bhanu | Zaharoff, David | Schvartsman, Gustavo | Bassett, Roland | McQuade, Jennifer L. | Haydu, Lauren E. | Davies, Michael A. | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Kline, Douglas | Chen, Xiufen | Fosco, Dominick | Kline, Justin | Overacre, Abigail | Chikina, Maria | Brunazzi, Erin | Shayan, Gulidanna | Horne, William | Kolls, Jay | Ferris, Robert L. | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Bruno, Tullia C. | Workman, Creg | Vignali, Dario | Adusumilli, Prasad S. | Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A | Li, Zihai | Gerry, Andrew | Sanderson, Joseph P. | Howe, Karen | Docta, Roslin | Gao, Qian | Bagg, Eleanor A. L. | Tribble, Nicholas | Maroto, Miguel | Betts, Gareth | Bath, Natalie | Melchiori, Luca | Lowther, Daniel E. | Ramachandran, Indu | Kari, Gabor | Basu, Samik | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Chagin, Karen | Pandite, Lini | Holdich, Tom | Amado, Rafael | Zhang, Hua | Glod, John | Bernstein, Donna | Jakobsen, Bent | Mackall, Crystal | Wong, Ryan | Silk, Jonathan D. | Adams, Katherine | Hamilton, Garth | Bennett, Alan D. | Brett, Sara | Jing, Junping | Quattrini, Adriano | Saini, Manoj | Wiedermann, Guy | Gerry, Andrew | Jakobsen, Bent | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Brewer, Joanna | Duong, MyLinh | Lu, An | Chang, Peter | Mahendravada, Aruna | Shinners, Nicholas | Slawin, Kevin | Spencer, David M. | Foster, Aaron E. | Bayle, J. Henri | Bergamaschi, Cristina | Ng, Sinnie Sin Man | Nagy, Bethany | Jensen, Shawn | Hu, Xintao | Alicea, Candido | Fox, Bernard | Felber, Barbara | Pavlakis, George | Chacon, Jessica | Yamamoto, Tori | Garrabrant, Thomas | Cortina, Luis | Powell, Daniel J. | Donia, Marco | Kjeldsen, Julie Westerlin | Andersen, Rikke | Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff | Bianchi, Valentina | Legut, Mateusz | Attaf, Meriem | Dolton, Garry | Szomolay, Barbara | Ott, Sascha | Lyngaa, Rikke | Hadrup, Sine Reker | Sewell, Andrew Kelvin | Svane, Inge Marie | Fan, Aaron | Kumai, Takumi | Celis, Esteban | Frank, Ian | Stramer, Amanda | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wardell, Seth | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Goff, Stephanie L. | Zacharakis, Nikolaos | Assadipour, Yasmine | Prickett, Todd D. | Gartner, Jared J. | Somerville, Robert | Black, Mary | Xu, Hui | Chinnasamy, Harshini | Kriley, Isaac | Lu, Lily | Wunderlich, John | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven | Feldman, Steven A. | Trebska-McGowan, Kasia | Kriley, Isaac | Malekzadeh, Parisa | Payabyab, Eden | Sherry, Richard | Rosenberg, Steven | Goff, Stephanie L. | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Kopits, Charlene | Rabinovich, Brian | Lotze, Michael T. | Green, Daniel S. | Kamenyeva, Olena | Zoon, Kathryn C. | Annunziata, Christina M. | Hammill, Joanne | Helsen, Christopher | Aarts, Craig | Bramson, Jonathan | Harada, Yui | Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu | Helsen, Christopher | Hammill, Joanne | Mwawasi, Kenneth | Denisova, Galina | Bramson, Jonathan | Giri, Rajanish | Jin, Benjamin | Campbell, Tracy | Draper, Lindsey M. | Stevanovic, Sanja | Yu, Zhiya | Weissbrich, Bianca | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Trimble, Cornelia L. | Rosenberg, Steven | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Tsang, Kwong | Fantini, Massimo | Hodge, James W. | Fujii, Rika | Fernando, Ingrid | Jochems, Caroline | Heery, Christopher | Gulley, James | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Schlom, Jeffrey | Jing, Weiqing | Gershan, Jill | Blitzer, Grace | Weber, James | McOlash, Laura | Johnson, Bryon D. | Kiany, Simin | Gangxiong, Huang | Kleinerman, Eugenie S. | Klichinsky, Michael | Ruella, Marco | Shestova, Olga | Kenderian, Saad | Kim, Miriam | Scholler, John | June, Carl H. | Gill, Saar | Moogk, Duane | Zhong, Shi | Yu, Zhiya | Liadi, Ivan | Rittase, William | Fang, Victoria | Dougherty, Janna | Perez-Garcia, Arianne | Osman, Iman | Zhu, Cheng | Varadarajan, Navin | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Frey, Alan | Krogsgaard, Michelle | Landi, Daniel | Fousek, Kristen | Mukherjee, Malini | Shree, Ankita | Joseph, Sujith | Bielamowicz, Kevin | Byrd, Tiara | Ahmed, Nabil | Hegde, Meenakshi | Lee, Sylvia | Byrd, David | Thompson, John | Bhatia, Shailender | Tykodi, Scott | Delismon, Judy | Chu, Liz | Abdul-Alim, Siddiq | Ohanian, Arpy | DeVito, Anna Marie | Riddell, Stanley | Margolin, Kim | Magalhaes, Isabelle | Mattsson, Jonas | Uhlin, Michael | Nemoto, Satoshi | Villarroel, Patricio Pérez | Nakagawa, Ryosuke | Mule, James J. | Mailloux, Adam W. | Mata, Melinda | Nguyen, Phuong | Gerken, Claudia | DeRenzo, Christopher | Spencer, David M. | Gottschalk, Stephen | Mathieu, Mélissa | Pelletier, Sandy | Stagg, John | Turcotte, Simon | Minutolo, Nicholas | Sharma, Prannda | Tsourkas, Andrew | Powell, Daniel J. | Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine | Mauer, Daniela | Drechsel, Katharina | Barth, Carola | Freese, Katharina | Kolrep, Ulrike | Schult, Silke | Assenmacher, Mario | Kaiser, Andrew | Mullinax, John | Hall, MacLean | Le, Julie | Kodumudi, Krithika | Royster, Erica | Richards, Allison | Gonzalez, Ricardo | Sarnaik, Amod | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Nielsen, Morten | Krarup-Hansen, Anders | Hovgaard, Dorrit | Petersen, Michael Mørk | Loya, Anand Chainsukh | Junker, Niels | Svane, Inge Marie | Rivas, Charlotte | Parihar, Robin | Gottschalk, Stephen | Rooney, Cliona M. | Qin, Haiying | Nguyen, Sang | Su, Paul | Burk, Chad | Duncan, Brynn | Kim, Bong-Hyun | Kohler, M. Eric | Fry, Terry | Rao, Arjun A. | Teyssier, Noam | Pfeil, Jacob | Sgourakis, Nikolaos | Salama, Sofie | Haussler, David | Richman, Sarah A. | Nunez-Cruz, Selene | Gershenson, Zack | Mourelatos, Zissimos | Barrett, David | Grupp, Stephan | Milone, Michael | Rodriguez-Garcia, Alba | Robinson, Matthew K. | Adams, Gregory P. | Powell, Daniel J. | Santos, João | Havunen, Riikka | Siurala, Mikko | Cervera-Carrascón, Víctor | Parviainen, Suvi | Antilla, Marjukka | Hemminki, Akseli | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Santiago, Laurelis | Chen, Jie Qing | Dai, Zhimin | Wardell, Seth | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Sha, Huizi | Su, Shu | Ding, Naiqing | Liu, Baorui | Stevanovic, Sanja | Pasetto, Anna | Helman, Sarah R. | Gartner, Jared J. | Prickett, Todd D. | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Bhatia, Shailender | Burgess, Melissa | Zhang, Hui | Lee, Tien | Klingemann, Hans | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Nghiem, Paul | Kirkwood, John M. | Rossi, John M. | Sherman, Marika | Xue, Allen | Shen, Yueh-wei | Navale, Lynn | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Kochenderfer, James N. | Bot, Adrian | Veerapathran, Anandaraman | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Stramer, Amanda | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wiener, Doris | Frank, Ian | Santiago, Laurelis | Rabinovich, Brian | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Waller, Edmund K. | Li, Jian-Ming | Petersen, Christopher | Blazar, Bruce R. | Li, Jingxia | Giver, Cynthia R. | Wang, Ziming | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Sturgill, Ian | Canter, Robert J. | Murphy, William J. | Zhang, Congcong | Burger, Michael C. | Jennewein, Lukas | Waldmann, Anja | Mittelbronn, Michel | Tonn, Torsten | Steinbach, Joachim P. | Wels, Winfried S. | Williams, Jason B. | Zha, Yuanyuan | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Williams, LaTerrica C. | Krenciute, Giedre | Kalra, Mamta | Louis, Chrystal | Gottschalk, Stephen | Xin, Gang | Schauder, David | Jiang, Aimin | Joshi, Nikhil | Cui, Weiguo | Zeng, Xue | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Zhao, Zeguo | Hamieh, Mohamad | Eyquem, Justin | Gunset, Gertrude | Bander, Neil | Sadelain, Michel | Askmyr, David | Abolhalaj, Milad | Lundberg, Kristina | Greiff, Lennart | Lindstedt, Malin | Angell, Helen K. | Kim, Kyoung-Mee | Kim, Seung-Tae | Kim, Sung | Sharpe, Alan D. | Ogden, Julia | Davenport, Anna | Hodgson, Darren R. | Barrett, Carl | Lee, Jeeyun | Kilgour, Elaine | Hanson, Jodi | Caspell, Richard | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ansari, Tameem | Schiller, Annemarie | Sundararaman, Srividya | Lehmann, Paul | Hanson, Jodi | Roen, Diana | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ayers, Mark | Levitan, Diane | Arreaza, Gladys | Liu, Fang | Mogg, Robin | Bang, Yung-Jue | O’Neil, Bert | Cristescu, Razvan | Friedlander, Philip | Wassman, Karl | Kyi, Chrisann | Oh, William | Bhardwaj, Nina | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gustafson, Michael P. | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Parney, Ian F. | Dietz, Allan B. | Carvajal-Hausdorf, Daniel | Mani, Nikita | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Schalper, Kurt | Rimm, David | Chang, Serena | Levy, Ronald | Kurland, John | Krishnan, Suba | Ahlers, Christoph Matthias | Jure-Kunkel, Maria | Cohen, Lewis | Maecker, Holden | Kohrt, Holbrook | Chen, Shuming | Crabill, George | Pritchard, Theresa | McMiller, Tracee | Pardoll, Drew | Pan, Fan | Topalian, Suzanne | Danaher, Patrick | Warren, Sarah | Dennis, Lucas | White, Andrew M. | D’Amico, Leonard | Geller, Melissa | Disis, Mary L. | Beechem, Joseph | Odunsi, Kunle | Fling, Steven | Derakhshandeh, Roshanak | Webb, Tonya J. | Dubois, Sigrid | Conlon, Kevin | Bryant, Bonita | Hsu, Jennifer | Beltran, Nancy | Müller, Jürgen | Waldmann, Thomas | Duhen, Rebekka | Duhen, Thomas | Thompson, Lucas | Montler, Ryan | Weinberg, Andrew | Kates, Max | Early, Brandon | Yusko, Erik | Schreiber, Taylor H. | Bivalacqua, Trinity J. | Ayers, Mark | Lunceford, Jared | Nebozhyn, Michael | Murphy, Erin | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Albright, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Kang, S. Peter | Shankaran, Veena | Piha-Paul, Sarina A. | Yearley, Jennifer | Seiwert, Tanguy | Ribas, Antoni | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Cristescu, Razvan | Mogg, Robin | Ayers, Mark | Albright, Andrew | Murphy, Erin | Yearley, Jennifer | Sher, Xinwei | Liu, Xiao Qiao | Nebozhyn, Michael | Lunceford, Jared | Joe, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Plimack, Elizabeth | Ott, Patrick A. | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Forrest-Hay, Alex | Guyre, Cheryl A. | Narumiya, Kohei | Delcommenne, Marc | Hirsch, Heather A. | Deshpande, Amit | Reeves, Jason | Shu, Jenny | Zi, Tong | Michaelson, Jennifer | Law, Debbie | Trehu, Elizabeth | Sathyanaryanan, Sriram | Hodkinson, Brendan P. | Hutnick, Natalie A. | Schaffer, Michael E. | Gormley, Michael | Hulett, Tyler | Jensen, Shawn | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Dubay, Christopher | Afentoulis, Michael | Reddy, Ashok | David, Larry | Fox, Bernard | Jayant, Kumar | Agrawal, Swati | Agrawal, Rajendra | Jeyakumar, Ghayathri | Kim, Seongho | Kim, Heejin | Silski, Cynthia | Suisham, Stacey | Heath, Elisabeth | Vaishampayan, Ulka | Vandeven, Natalie | Viller, Natasja Nielsen | O’Connor, Alison | Chen, Hui | Bossen, Bolette | Sievers, Eric | Uger, Robert | Nghiem, Paul | Johnson, Lisa | Kao, Hsiang-Fong | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Lai, Shu-Chuan | Wang, Chun-Wei | Ko, Jenq-Yuh | Lou, Pei-Jen | Lee, Tsai-Jan | Liu, Tsang-Wu | Hong, Ruey-Long | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Landis, Benjamin J. | Koegler, Sally | Hirsch, Brooke | Gianani, Roberto | Kim, Jeffrey | He, Ming-Xiao | Zhang, Bingqing | Su, Nan | Luo, Yuling | Ma, Xiao-Jun | Park, Emily | Kim, Dae Won | Copploa, Domenico | Kothari, Nishi | doo Chang, Young | Kim, Richard | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Knaus, Hanna A. | Berglund, Sofia | Hackl, Hubert | Karp, Judith E. | Gojo, Ivana | Luznik, Leo | Hong, Henoch S. | Koch, Sven D. | Scheel, Birgit | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Wiegand, Volker | Backert, Linus | Kohlbacher, Oliver | Hoerr, Ingmar | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Billingsley, James M. | Koguchi, Yoshinobu | Conrad, Valerie | Miller, William | Gonzalez, Iliana | Poplonski, Tomasz | Meeuwsen, Tanisha | Howells-Ferreira, Ana | Rattray, Rogan | Campbell, Mary | Bifulco, Carlo | Dubay, Christopher | Bahjat, Keith | Curti, Brendan | Urba, Walter | Vetsika, E-K | Kallergi, G. | Aggouraki, Despoina | Lyristi, Z. | Katsarlinos, P. | Koinis, Filippos | Georgoulias, V. | Kotsakis, Athanasios | Martin, Nathan T. | Aeffner, Famke | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Cerkovnik, Logan | Pratte, Luke | Kim, Rebecca | Hirsch, Brooke | Krueger, Joseph | Gianani, Roberto | Martínez-Usatorre, Amaia | Jandus, Camilla | Donda, Alena | Carretero-Iglesia, Laura | Speiser, Daniel E. | Zehn, Dietmar | Rufer, Nathalie | Romero, Pedro | Panda, Anshuman | Mehnert, Janice | Hirshfield, Kim M. | Riedlinger, Greg | Damare, Sherri | Saunders, Tracie | Sokol, Levi | Stein, Mark | Poplin, Elizabeth | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Silk, Ann | Chan, Nancy | Frankel, Melissa | Kane, Michael | Malhotra, Jyoti | Aisner, Joseph | Kaufman, Howard L. | Ali, Siraj | Ross, Jeffrey | White, Eileen | Bhanot, Gyan | Ganesan, Shridar | Monette, Anne | Bergeron, Derek | Amor, Amira Ben | Meunier, Liliane | Caron, Christine | Morou, Antigoni | Kaufmann, Daniel | Liberman, Moishe | Jurisica, Igor | Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie | Hamzaoui, Kamel | Lapointe, Rejean | Mongan, Ann | Ku, Yuan-Chieh | Tom, Warren | Sun, Yongming | Pankov, Alex | Looney, Tim | Au-Young, Janice | Hyland, Fiona | Conroy, Jeff | Morrison, Carl | Glenn, Sean | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Gardner, Mark | Mongan, Ann | Omilian, Angela R. | Conroy, Jeff | Bshara, Wiam | Angela, Omilian | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Glenn, Sean | Morrison, Carl | Mongan, Ann | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Smolkin, Mark E. | Deacon, Donna H. | Patterson, James W. | Chen, Lieping | Bullock, Timothy N. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Deacon, Donna H. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Bullock, Timothy N. | Loffredo, John T. | Vuyyuru, Raja | Beyer, Sophie | Spires, Vanessa M. | Fox, Maxine | Ehrmann, Jon M. | Taylor, Katrina A. | Korman, Alan J. | Graziano, Robert F. | Page, David | Sanchez, Katherine | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Martel, Maritza | Bifulco, Carlo | Urba, Walter | Fox, Bernard | Patel, Sapna P. | De Macedo, Mariana Petaccia | Qin, Yong | Reuben, Alex | Spencer, Christine | Guindani, Michele | Bassett, Roland | Wargo, Jennifer | Racolta, Adriana | Kelly, Brian | Jones, Tobin | Polaske, Nathan | Theiss, Noah | Robida, Mark | Meridew, Jeffrey | Habensus, Iva | Zhang, Liping | Pestic-Dragovich, Lidija | Tang, Lei | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Logan, Theodore | Khushalani, Nikhil | Margolin, Kim | Koon, Henry | Olencki, Thomas | Hutson, Thomas | Curti, Brendan | Roder, Joanna | Blackmon, Shauna | Roder, Heinrich | Stewart, John | Amin, Asim | Ernstoff, Marc S. | Clark, Joseph I. | Atkins, Michael B. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Sosman, Jeffrey | Weber, Jeffrey | McDermott, David F. | Weber, Jeffrey | Kluger, Harriet | Halaban, Ruth | Snzol, Mario | Roder, Heinrich | Roder, Joanna | Asmellash, Senait | Steingrimsson, Arni | Blackmon, Shauna | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Wang, Chichung | Roman, Kristin | Clement, Amanda | Downing, Sean | Hoyt, Clifford | Harder, Nathalie | Schmidt, Guenter | Schoenmeyer, Ralf | Brieu, Nicolas | Yigitsoy, Mehmet | Madonna, Gabriele | Botti, Gerardo | Grimaldi, Antonio | Ascierto, Paolo A. | Huss, Ralf | Athelogou, Maria | Hessel, Harald | Harder, Nathalie | Buchner, Alexander | Schmidt, Guenter | Stief, Christian | Huss, Ralf | Binnig, Gerd | Kirchner, Thomas | Sellappan, Shankar | Thyparambil, Sheeno | Schwartz, Sarit | Cecchi, Fabiola | Nguyen, Andrew | Vaske, Charles | Hembrough, Todd
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):1-106.
doi:10.1186/s40425-016-0172-7
PMCID: PMC5123387
8.  Perspectives in immunotherapy: meeting report from the “Immunotherapy Bridge”, Napoli, December 5th 2015 
Harnessing the immune system and preventing immune escape, the immunotherapy of cancer provides great potential for clinical application, in broad patient populations, achieving both conventional and unconventional clinical responses. After the substantial advances in melanoma, the focus of cancer immunotherapy has expanded to include many other cancers. Targeting immune checkpoints and further mechanisms used by tumors to avoid anticancer immunity, different approaches are under evaluation, including combination therapies.
The first Immunotherapy Bridge meeting focused on various cancer types including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell, breast and ovarian carcinoma, and discussed mechanisms of action of single agents and combination strategies, and the prediction of clinical responses.
doi:10.1186/s40425-016-0168-3
PMCID: PMC5067891
9.  Regulation of myeloid cells by activated T cells determines the efficacy of PD-1 blockade 
Oncoimmunology  2016;5(12):e1232222.
ABSTRACT
Removal of immuno-suppression has been reported to enhance antitumor immunity primed by checkpoint inhibitors. Although PD-1 blockade failed to control tumor growth in a transgenic murine neuroblastoma model, concurrent inhibition of colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) by BLZ945 reprogrammed suppressive myeloid cells and significantly enhanced therapeutic effects. Microarray analysis of tumor tissues identified a significant increase of T-cell infiltration guided by myeloid cell-derived chemokines CXCL9, 10, and 11. Blocking the responsible chemokine receptor CXCR3 hampered T-cell infiltration and reduced antitumor efficacy of the combination therapy. Multivariate analysis of 59 immune-cell parameters in tumors and spleens detected the correlation between PD-L1-expressing myeloid cells and tumor burden. In vitro, anti-PD-1 antibody Nivolumab in combination with BLZ945 increased the activation of primary human T and NK cells. Importantly, we revealed a previously uncharacterized pathway, in which T cells secreted M-CSF upon PD-1 blockade, leading to enhanced suppressive capacity of monocytes by upregulation of PD-L1 and purinergic enzymes. In multiple datasets of neuroblastoma patients, gene expression of CD73 correlated strongly with myeloid cell markers CD163 and CSF-1R in neuroblastoma tumors, and associated with worse survival in high-risk patients. Altogether, our data reveal the dual role of activated T cells on myeloid cell functions and provide a rationale for the combination therapy of anti-PD-1 antibody with CSF-1R inhibitor.
doi:10.1080/2162402X.2016.1232222
PMCID: PMC5214950  PMID: 28123870
Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) inhibition; myeloid cell repolarization; neuroblastoma; PD-1 checkpoint blockade; purinergic enzymes
10.  Hypoxia-mediated alterations and their role in the HER-2/neuregulated CREB status and localization 
Oncotarget  2016;7(32):52061-52084.
The cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in the tumorigenicity of HER-2/neu-overexpressing murine and human tumor cells, but a link between the HER-2/neu-mediated CREB activation, its posttranslational modification and localization and changes in the cellular metabolism, due to an altered (tumor) microenvironment remains to be established. The present study demonstrated that shRNA-mediated silencing of CREB in HER-2/neu-transformed cells resulted in decreased tumor formation, which was associated with reduced angiogenesis, but increased necrotic and hypoxic areas in the tumor. Hypoxia induced pCREBSer133, but not pCREBSer121 expression in HER-2/neu-transformed cells. This was accompanied by upregulation of the hypoxia-inducible genes GLUT1 and VEGF, increased cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase-mediated invasion. Treatment of HER-2/neu+ cells with signal transduction inhibitors targeting in particular HER-2/neu was able to revert hypoxia-controlled CREB activation. In addition to changes in the phosphorylation, hypoxic response of HER-2/neu+ cells caused a transient ubiquitination and SUMOylation as well as a co-localization of nuclear CREB to the mitochondrial matrix. A mitochondrial localization of CREB was also demonstrated in hypoxic areas of HER-2/neu+ mammary carcinoma lesions. This was accompanied by an altered gene expression pattern, activity and metabolism of mitochondria leading to an increased respiratory rate, oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial membrane potential and consequently to an enhanced apoptosis and reduced cell viability. These data suggest that the HER-2/neu-mediated CREB activation caused by a hypoxic tumor microenvironment contributes to the neoplastic phenotype of HER-2/neu+ cells at various levels.
doi:10.18632/oncotarget.10474
PMCID: PMC5239535  PMID: 27409833
CREB; HER-2/neu; hypoxia; angiogenesis; mitochondria
11.  Melanoma and immunotherapy bridge 2015 
Nanda, Vashisht G. Y. | Peng, Weiyi | Hwu, Patrick | Davies, Michael A. | Ciliberto, Gennaro | Fattore, Luigi | Malpicci, Debora | Aurisicchio, Luigi | Ascierto, Paolo Antonio | Croce, Carlo M. | Mancini, Rita | Spranger, Stefani | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Wang, Yangyang | Ferrone, Soldano | Vanpouille-Box, Claire | Wennerberg, Erik | Pilones, Karsten A. | Formenti, Silvia C. | Demaria, Sandra | Tang, Haidong | Wang, Yang | Fu, Yang-Xin | Dummer, Reinhard | Puzanov, Igor | Tarhini, Ahmad | Chauvin, Joe-Marc | Pagliano, Ornella | Fourcade, Julien | Sun, Zhaojun | Wang, Hong | Sanders, Cindy | Kirkwood, John M. | Chen, Tseng-hui Timothy | Maurer, Mark | Korman, Alan J. | Zarour, Hassane M. | Stroncek, David F. | Huber, Veronica | Rivoltini, Licia | Thurin, Magdalena | Rau, Tilman | Lugli, Alessandro | Pagès, Franck | Camarero, Jorge | Sancho, Arantxa | Jommi, Claudio | de Coaña, Yago Pico | Wolodarski, Maria | Yoshimoto, Yuya | Gentilcore, Giusy | Poschke, Isabel | Masucci, Giuseppe V. | Hansson, Johan | Kiessling, Rolf | Scognamiglio, Giosuè | Sabbatino, Francesco | Marino, Federica Zito | Anniciello, Anna Maria | Cantile, Monica | Cerrone, Margherita | Scala, Stefania | D’alterio, Crescenzo | Ianaro, Angela | Cirin, Giuseppe | Liguori, Giuseppina | Bott, Gerardo | Chapman, Paul B. | Robert, Caroline | Larkin, James | Haanen, John B. | Ribas, Antoni | Hogg, David | Hamid, Omid | Testori, Alessandro | Lorigan, Paul | Sosman, Jeffrey A. | Flaherty, Keith T. | Yue, Huibin | Coleman, Shelley | Caro, Ivor | Hauschild, Axel | McArthur, Grant A. | Sznol, Mario | Callahan, Margaret K. | Kluger, Harriet | Postow, Michael A. | Gordan, RuthAnn | Segal, Neil H. | Rizvi, Naiyer A. | Lesokhin, Alexander | Atkins, Michael B. | Burke, Matthew M. | Ralabate, Amanda | Rivera, Angel | Kronenberg, Stephanie A. | Agunwamba, Blessing | Ruisi, Mary | Horak, Christine | Jiang, Joel | Wolchok, Jedd | Ascierto, Paolo A. | Liszkay, Gabriella | Maio, Michele | Mandalà, Mario | Demidov, Lev | Stoyakovskiy, Daniil | Thomas, Luc | de la Cruz-Merino, Luis | Atkinson, Victoria | Dutriaux, Caroline | Garbe, Claus | Wongchenko, Matthew | Chang, Ilsung | Koralek, Daniel O. | Rooney, Isabelle | Yan, Yibing | Dréno, Brigitte | Sullivan, Ryan | Patel, Manish | Hodi, Stephen | Amaria, Rodabe | Boasberg, Peter | Wallin, Jeffrey | He, Xian | Cha, Edward | Richie, Nicole | Ballinger, Marcus | Smith, David C. | Bauer, Todd M. | Wasser, Jeffrey S. | Luke, Jason J. | Balmanoukian, Ani S. | Kaufman, David R. | Zhao, Yufan | Maleski, Janet | Leopold, Lance | Gangadhar, Tara C. | Long, Georgina V. | Michielin, Olivier | VanderWalde, Ari | Andtbacka, Robert H. I. | Cebon, Jonathan | Fernandez, Eugenio | Malvehy, Josep | Olszanski, Anthony J. | Gause, Christine | Chen, Lisa | Chou, Jeffrey | Stephen Hodi, F. | Brady, Benjamin | Mortier, Laurent | Hassel, Jessica C. | Rutkowski, Piotr | McNeil, Catriona | Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa | Lebbé, Celeste | Ny, Lars | Chacon, Matias | Queirolo, Paola | Loquai, Carmen | Cheema, Parneet | Berrocal, Alfonso | Eizmendi, Karmele Mujika | Bar-Sela, Gil | Horak, Christine | Hardy, Helene | Weber, Jeffrey S. | Grob, Jean-Jacques | Marquez-Rodas, Ivan | Schmidt, Henrik | Briscoe, Karen | Baurain, Jean-François | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Pinto, Rosamaria | De Summa, Simona | Garrisi, Vito Michele | Strippoli, Sabino | Azzariti, Amalia | Guida, Gabriella | Guida, Michele | Tommasi, Stefania | Jacquelot, Nicolas | Enot, David | Flament, Caroline | Pitt, Jonathan M. | Vimond, Nadège | Blattner, Carolin | Yamazaki, Takahiro | Roberti, Maria-Paula | Vetizou, Marie | Daillere, Romain | Poirier-Colame, Vichnou | la Semeraro, Michaë | Caignard, Anne | Slingluff, Craig L | Sallusto, Federica | Rusakiewicz, Sylvie | Weide, Benjamin | Marabelle, Aurélien | Kohrt, Holbrook | Dalle, Stéphane | Cavalcanti, Andréa | Kroemer, Guido | Di Giacomo, Anna Maria | Maio, Michaele | Wong, Phillip | Yuan, Jianda | Umansky, Viktor | Eggermont, Alexander | Zitvogel, Laurence | Anna, Passarelli | Marco, Tucci | Stefania, Stucci | Francesco, Mannavola | Mariaelena, Capone | Gabriele, Madonna | Antonio, Ascierto Paolo | Franco, Silvestris | Roberti, María Paula | Enot, David P. | Semeraro, Michaela | Jégou, Sarah | Flores, Camila | Chen, Tseng-hui Timothy | Kwon, Byoung S. | Anderson, Ana Carrizossa | Borg, Christophe | Aubin, François | Ayyoub, Maha | De Presbiteris, Anna Lisa | Cordaro, Fabiola Gilda | Camerlingo, Rosa | Fratangelo, Federica | Mozzillo, Nicola | Pirozzi, Giuseppe | Patriarca, Eduardo J. | Caputo, Emilia | Motti, Maria Letizia | Falcon, Rosaria | Miceli, Roberta | Capone, Mariaelena | Madonna, Gabriele | Mallardo, Domenico | Carrier, Maria Vincenza | Panza, Elisabetta | De Cicco, Paola | Armogida, Chiara | Ercolano, Giuseppe | Botti, Gerardo | Cirino, Giuseppe | Sandru, Angela | Blank, Miri | Balatoni, Timea | Olasz, Judit | Farkas, Emil | Szollar, Andras | Savolt, Akos | Godeny, Maria | Csuka, Orsolya | Horvath, Szabolcs | Eles, Klara | Shoenfeld, Yehuda | Kasler, Miklos | Costantini, Susan | Capone, Francesca | Moradi, Farnaz | Berglund, Pontus | Leandersson, Karin | Linnskog, Rickard | Andersson, Tommy | Prasad, Chandra Prakash | Nigro, Cristiana Lo | Lattanzio, Laura | Wang, Hexiao | Proby, Charlotte | Syed, Nelofer | Occelli, Marcella | Cauchi, Carolina | Merlano, Marco | Harwood, Catherine | Thompson, Alastair | Crook, Tim | Bifulco, Katia | Ingangi, Vincenzo | Minopoli, Michele | Ragone, Concetta | Pessi, Antonello | Mannavola, Francesco | D’Oronzo, Stella | Felici, Claudia | Tucci, Marco | Doronzo, Antonio | Silvestris, Franco | Ferretta, Anna | Guida, Stefania | Maida, Imma | Cocco, Tiziana | Passarelli, Anna | Quaresmini, Davide | Franzese, Ornella | Palermo, Belinda | Di Donna, Cosmo | Sperduti, Isabella | Foddai, MariaLaura | Stabile, Helena | Gismondi, Angela | Santoni, Angela | Nisticò, Paola | Sponghini, Andrea P. | Platini, Francesca | Marra, Elena | Rondonotti, David | Alabiso, Oscar | Fierro, Maria T. | Savoia, Paola | Stratica, Florian | Quaglino, Pietro |  Di Monta, Gianluca | Corrado, Caracò |  Di Marzo, Massimiliano | Ugo, Marone |  Di Cecilia, Maria Luisa | Nicola, Mozzillo | Fusciello, Celeste | Marra, Antonio | Guarrasi, Rosario | Baldi, Carlo | Russo, Rosa |  Di Giulio, Giovanni | Faiola, Vincenzo | Zeppa, Pio | Pepe, Stefano | Gambale, Elisabetta | Carella, Consiglia | Di Paolo, Alessandra | De Tursi, Michele | Marra, Laura | De Murtas, Fara | Sorrentino, Valeria | Voinea, Silviu | Panaitescu, Eugenia | Bolovan, Madalina | Stanciu, Adina | Cinca, Sabin | Botti, Chiara | Aquino, Gabriella | Anniciello, Annamaria | Fortes, Cristina | Mastroeni, Simona | Caggiati, Alessio | Passarelli, Francesca | Zappalà, Alba | Capuano, Maria | Bono, Riccardo | Nudo, Maurizio | Marino, Claudia | Michelozzi, Paola | De Biasio, Valeria | Battarra, Vincenzo C. | Formenti, Silvia | Ascierto, Maria Libera | McMiller, Tracee L. | Berger, Alan E. | Danilova, Ludmila | Anders, Robert A. | Netto, George J. | Xu, Haiying | Pritchard, Theresa S. | Fan, Jinshui | Cheadle, Chris | Cope, Leslie | Drake, Charles G. | Pardoll, Drew M. | Taube, Janis M. | Topalian, Suzanne L. | Gnjatic, Sacha | Nataraj, Sarah | Imai, Naoko | Rahman, Adeeb | Jungbluth, Achim A. | Pan, Linda | Venhaus, Ralph | Park, Andrew | Lehmann, Frédéric F. | Lendvai, Nikoletta | Cohen, Adam D. | Cho, Hearn J. | Daniel, Speiser | Hirsh, Vera
Journal of Translational Medicine  2016;14(Suppl 1):65.
Table of contents
MELANOMA BRIDGE 2015
KEYNOTE SPEAKER PRESENTATIONS
Molecular and immuno-advances
K1 Immunologic and metabolic consequences of PI3K/AKT/mTOR activation in melanoma
Vashisht G. Y. Nanda, Weiyi Peng, Patrick Hwu, Michael A. Davies
K2 Non-mutational adaptive changes in melanoma cells exposed to BRAF and MEK inhibitors help the establishment of drug resistance
Gennaro Ciliberto, Luigi Fattore, Debora Malpicci, Luigi Aurisicchio, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Carlo M. Croce, Rita Mancini
K3 Tumor-intrinsic beta-catenin signaling mediates tumor-immune avoidance
Stefani Spranger, Thomas F. Gajewski
K4 Intracellular tumor antigens as a source of targets of antibody-based immunotherapy of melanoma
Yangyang Wang, Soldano Ferrone
Combination therapies
K5 Harnessing radiotherapy to improve responses to immunotherapy in cancer
Claire Vanpouille-Box, Erik Wennerberg, Karsten A. Pilones, Silvia C. Formenti, Sandra Demaria
K6 Creating a T cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment overcomes resistance to checkpoint blockade
Haidong Tang, Yang Wang, Yang-Xin Fu
K7 Biomarkers for treatment decisions?
Reinhard Dummer
K8 Combining oncolytic therapies in the era of checkpoint inhibitors
Igor Puzanov
K9 Immune checkpoint blockade for melanoma: should we combine or sequence ipilimumab and PD-1 antibody therapy?
Michael A. Postow
News in immunotherapy
K10 An update on adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy for melanom
Ahmad Tarhini
K11 Targeting multiple inhibitory receptors in melanoma
Joe-Marc Chauvin, Ornella Pagliano, Julien Fourcade, Zhaojun Sun, Hong Wang, Cindy Sanders, John M. Kirkwood, Tseng-hui Timothy Chen, Mark Maurer, Alan J. Korman, Hassane M. Zarour
K12 Improving adoptive immune therapy using genetically engineered T cells
David F. Stroncek
Tumor microenvironment and biomarkers
K13 Myeloid cells and tumor exosomes: a crosstalk for assessing immunosuppression?
Veronica Huber, Licia Rivoltini
K14 Update on the SITC biomarker taskforce: progress and challenges
Magdalena Thurin
World-wide immunoscore task force: an update
K15 The immunoscore in colorectal cancer highlights the importance of digital scoring systems in surgical pathology
Tilman Rau, Alessandro Lugli
K16 The immunoscore: toward an integrated immunomonitoring from the diagnosis to the follow up of cancer’s patients
Franck Pagès
Economic sustainability of melanoma treatments: regulatory, health technology assessment and market access issues
K17 Nivolumab, the regulatory experience in immunotherapy
Jorge Camarero, Arantxa Sancho
K18 Evidence to optimize access for immunotherapies
Claudio Jommi
ORAL PRESENTATIONS
Molecular and immuno-advances
O1 Ipilimumab treatment results in CD4 T cell activation that is concomitant with a reduction in Tregs and MDSCs
Yago Pico de Coaña, Maria Wolodarski, Yuya Yoshimoto, Giusy Gentilcore, Isabel Poschke, Giuseppe V. Masucci, Johan Hansson, Rolf Kiessling
O2 Evaluation of prognostic and therapeutic potential of COX-2 and PD-L1 in primary and metastatic melanoma
Giosuè Scognamiglio, Francesco Sabbatino, Federica Zito Marino, Anna Maria Anniciello, Monica Cantile, Margherita Cerrone, Stefania Scala, Crescenzo D’alterio, Angela Ianaro, Giuseppe Cirino, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Giuseppina Liguori, Gerardo Botti
O3 Vemurafenib in patients with BRAFV600 mutation–positive metastatic melanoma: final overall survival results of the BRIM-3 study
Paul B. Chapman, Caroline Robert, James Larkin, John B. Haanen, Antoni Ribas, David Hogg, Omid Hamid, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Alessandro Testori, Paul Lorigan, Reinhard Dummer, Jeffrey A. Sosman, Keith T. Flaherty, Huibin Yue, Shelley Coleman, Ivor Caro, Axel Hauschild, Grant A. McArthur
O4 Updated survival, response and safety data in a phase 1 dose-finding study (CA209-004) of concurrent nivolumab (NIVO) and ipilimumab (IPI) in advanced melanoma
Mario Sznol, Margaret K. Callahan, Harriet Kluger, Michael A. Postow, RuthAnn Gordan, Neil H. Segal, Naiyer A. Rizvi, Alexander Lesokhin, Michael B. Atkins, John M. Kirkwood, Matthew M. Burke, Amanda Ralabate, Angel Rivera, Stephanie A. Kronenberg, Blessing Agunwamba, Mary Ruisi, Christine Horak, Joel Jiang, Jedd Wolchok
Combination therapies
O5 Efficacy and correlative biomarker analysis of the coBRIM study comparing cobimetinib (COBI) + vemurafenib (VEM) vs placebo (PBO) + VEM in advanced BRAF-mutated melanoma patients (pts)
Paolo A. Ascierto, Grant A. McArthur, James Larkin, Gabriella Liszkay, Michele Maio, Mario Mandalà, Lev Demidov, Daniil Stoyakovskiy, Luc Thomas, Luis de la Cruz-Merino, Victoria Atkinson, Caroline Dutriaux, Claus Garbe, Matthew Wongchenko, Ilsung Chang, Daniel O. Koralek, Isabelle Rooney, Yibing Yan, Antoni Ribas, Brigitte Dréno
O6 Preliminary clinical safety, tolerability and activity results from a Phase Ib study of atezolizumab (anti-PDL1) combined with vemurafenib in BRAFV600-mutant metastatic melanoma
Ryan Sullivan, Omid Hamid, Manish Patel, Stephen Hodi, Rodabe Amaria, Peter Boasberg, Jeffrey Wallin, Xian He, Edward Cha, Nicole Richie, Marcus Ballinger, Patrick Hwu
O7 Preliminary safety and efficacy data from a phase 1/2 study of epacadostat (INCB024360) in combination with pembrolizumab in patients with advanced/metastatic melanoma
Thomas F. Gajewski, Omid Hamid, David C. Smith, Todd M. Bauer, Jeffrey S. Wasser, Jason J. Luke, Ani S. Balmanoukian, David R. Kaufman, Yufan Zhao, Janet Maleski, Lance Leopold, Tara C. Gangadhar
O8 Primary analysis of MASTERKEY-265 phase 1b study of talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) and pembrolizumab (pembro) for unresectable stage IIIB-IV melanoma
Reinhard Dummer, Georgina V. Long, Antoni Ribas, Igor Puzanov, Olivier Michielin, Ari VanderWalde, Robert H.I. Andtbacka, Jonathan Cebon, Eugenio Fernandez, Josep Malvehy, Anthony J. Olszanski, Thomas F. Gajewski, John M. Kirkwood, Christine Gause, Lisa Chen, David R. Kaufman, Jeffrey Chou, F. Stephen Hodi
News in immunotherapy
O9 Two-year survival and safety update in patients (pts) with treatment-naïve advanced melanoma (MEL) receiving nivolumab (NIVO) or dacarbazine (DTIC) in CheckMate 066
Victoria Atkinson, Paolo A. Ascierto, Georgina V. Long, Benjamin Brady, Caroline Dutriaux, Michele Maio, Laurent Mortier, Jessica C. Hassel, Piotr Rutkowski, Catriona McNeil, Ewa Kalinka-Warzocha, Celeste Lebbé, Lars Ny, Matias Chacon, Paola Queirolo, Carmen Loquai, Parneet Cheema, Alfonso Berrocal, Karmele Mujika Eizmendi, Luis De La Cruz-Merino, Gil Bar-Sela, Christine Horak, Joel Jiang, Helene Hardy, Caroline Robert
O10 Efficacy and safety of nivolumab (NIVO) in patients (pts) with advanced melanoma (MEL) who were treated beyond progression in CheckMate 066/067
Georgina V. Long, Jeffrey S. Weber, James Larkin, Victoria Atkinson, Jean-Jacques Grob, Reinhard Dummer, Caroline Robert, Ivan Marquez-Rodas, Catriona McNeil, Henrik Schmidt, Karen Briscoe, Jean-François Baurain, F. Stephen Hodi, Jedd D. Wolchok
Tumor microenvironment and biomarkers
O11 New biomarkers for response/resistance to BRAF inhibitor therapy in metastatic melanoma
Rosamaria Pinto, Simona De Summa, Vito Michele Garrisi, Sabino Strippoli, Amalia Azzariti, Gabriella Guida, Michele Guida, Stefania Tommasi
O12 Chemokine receptor patterns in lymphocytes mirror metastatic spreading in melanoma and response to ipilimumab
Nicolas Jacquelot, David Enot, Caroline Flament, Jonathan M. Pitt, Nadège Vimond, Carolin Blattner, Takahiro Yamazaki, Maria-Paula Roberti, Marie Vetizou, Romain Daillere, Vichnou Poirier-Colame, Michaëla Semeraro, Anne Caignard, Craig L Slingluff Jr, Federica Sallusto, Sylvie Rusakiewicz, Benjamin Weide, Aurélien Marabelle, Holbrook Kohrt, Stéphane Dalle, Andréa Cavalcanti, Guido Kroemer, Anna Maria Di Giacomo, Michaele Maio, Phillip Wong, Jianda Yuan, Jedd Wolchok, Viktor Umansky, Alexander Eggermont, Laurence Zitvogel
O13 Serum levels of PD1- and CD28-positive exosomes before Ipilimumab correlate with therapeutic response in metastatic melanoma patients
Passarelli Anna, Tucci Marco, Stucci Stefania, Mannavola Francesco, Capone Mariaelena, Madonna Gabriele, Ascierto Paolo Antonio, Silvestris Franco
O14 Immunological prognostic factors in stage III melanomas
María Paula Roberti, Nicolas Jacquelot, David P Enot, Sylvie Rusakiewicz, Michaela Semeraro, Sarah Jégou, Camila Flores, Lieping Chen, Byoung S. Kwon, Ana Carrizossa Anderson, Caroline Robert, Christophe Borg, Benjamin Weide, François Aubin, Stéphane Dalle, Michele Maio, Jedd D. Wolchok, Holbrook Kohrt, Maha Ayyoub, Guido Kroemer, Aurélien Marabelle, Andréa Cavalcanti, Alexander Eggermont, Laurence Zitvogel
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
Molecular and immuno-advances
P1 Human melanoma cells resistant to B-RAF and MEK inhibition exhibit mesenchymal-like features
Anna Lisa De Presbiteris, Fabiola Gilda Cordaro, Rosa Camerlingo, Federica Fratangelo, Nicola Mozzillo, Giuseppe Pirozzi, Eduardo J. Patriarca, Paolo A. Ascierto, Emilia Caputo
P2 Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of ABT888 on melanoma cell lines and its potential role in the treatment of melanoma resistant to B-RAF inhibitors
Federica Fratangelo, Rosa Camerlingo, Emilia Caputo, Maria Letizia Motti, Rosaria Falcone, Roberta Miceli, Mariaelena Capone, Gabriele Madonna, Domenico Mallardo, Maria Vincenza Carriero, Giuseppe Pirozzi and Paolo Antonio Ascierto
P3 Involvement of the L-cysteine/CSE/H2S pathway in human melanoma progression
Elisabetta Panza, Paola De Cicco, Chiara Armogida, Giuseppe Ercolano, Rosa Camerlingo, Giuseppe Pirozzi, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Gerardo Botti, Giuseppe Cirino, Angela Ianaro
P4 Cancer stem cell antigen revealing pattern of antibody variable region genes were defined by immunoglobulin repertoire analysis in patients with malignant melanoma
Beatrix Kotlan, Gabriella Liszkay, Miri Blank, Timea Balatoni, Judit Olasz, Emil Farkas, Andras Szollar, Akos Savolt, Maria Godeny, Orsolya Csuka, Szabolcs Horvath, Klara Eles, Yehuda Shoenfeld and Miklos Kasler
P5 Upregulation of Neuregulin-1 expression is a hallmark of adaptive response to BRAF/MEK inhibitors in melanoma
Debora Malpicci, Luigi Fattore, Susan Costantini, Francesca Capone, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Rita Mancini, Gennaro Ciliberto
P6 HuR positively regulates migration of HTB63 melanoma cells
Farnaz Moradi, Pontus Berglund, Karin Leandersson, Rickard Linnskog, Tommy Andersson, Chandra Prakash Prasad
P7 Prolyl 4- (C-P4H) hydroxylases have opposing effects in malignant melanoma: implication in prognosis and therapy
Cristiana Lo Nigro, Laura Lattanzio, Hexiao Wang, Charlotte Proby, Nelofer Syed, Marcella Occelli, Carolina Cauchi, Marco Merlano, Catherine Harwood, Alastair Thompson, Tim Crook
P8 Urokinase receptor antagonists: novel agents for the treatment of melanoma
Maria Letizia Motti, Katia Bifulco, Vincenzo Ingangi, Michele Minopoli, Concetta Ragone, Federica Fratangelo, Antonello Pessi, Gennaro Ciliberto, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Maria Vincenza Carriero
P9 Exosomes released by melanoma cell lines enhance chemotaxis of primary tumor cells
Francesco Mannavola, Stella D’Oronzo, Claudia Felici, Marco Tucci, Antonio Doronzo, Franco Silvestris
P10 New insights in mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming in melanoma
Anna Ferretta, Gabriella Guida, Stefania Guida, Imma Maida, Tiziana Cocco, Sabino Strippoli, Stefania Tommasi, Amalia Azzariti, Michele Guida
P11 Lenalidomide restrains the proliferation in melanoma cells through a negative regulation of their cell cycle
Stella D’Oronzo, Anna Passarelli, Claudia Felici, Marco Tucci, Davide Quaresmini, Franco Silvestris
Combination therapies
P12 Chemoimmunotherapy elicits polyfunctional anti-tumor CD8 + T cells depending on the activation of an AKT pathway sustained by ICOS
Ornella Franzese, Belinda Palermo, Cosmo Di Donna, Isabella Sperduti, MariaLaura Foddai, Helena Stabile, Angela Gismondi, Angela Santoni, Paola Nisticò
P13 Favourable toxicity profile of combined BRAF and MEK inhibitors in metastatic melanoma patients
Andrea P. Sponghini, Francesca Platini, Elena Marra, David Rondonotti, Oscar Alabiso, Maria T. Fierro, Paola Savoia, Florian Stratica, Pietro Quaglino
P14 Electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing system dissection reduces seroma output or time to drain removal following axillary and ilio-inguinal node dissection in melanoma patients: a pilot study
Di Monta Gianluca, Caracò Corrado, Di Marzo Massimiliano, Marone Ugo, Di Cecilia Maria Luisa, Mozzillo Nicola
News in immunotherapy
P15 Clinical and immunological response to ipilimumab in a metastatic melanoma patient with HIV infection
Francesco Sabbatino, Celeste Fusciello1, Antonio Marra, Rosario Guarrasi, Carlo Baldi, Rosa Russo, Di Giulio Giovanni, Vincenzo Faiola, Pio Zeppa, Stefano Pepe
P16 Immunotherapy and hypophysitis: a case report
Elisabetta Gambale, Consiglia Carella, Alessandra Di Paolo, Michele De Tursi
Tumor microenvironment and biomarkers
P17 New immuno- histochemical markers for the differential diagnosis of atypical melanocytic lesions with uncertain malignant potential
Laura Marra, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Monica Cantile, Margherita Cerrone, Fara De Murtas, Valeria Sorrentino, Anna Maria Anniciello, Gerardo Botti
P18 Utility of simultaneous measurement of three serum tumor markers in melanoma patients
Angela Sandru, Silviu Voinea, Eugenia Panaitescu, Madalina Bolovan, Adina Stanciu, Sabin Cinca
P19 The significance of various cut-off levels of melanoma inhibitory activity in evaluation of cutaneous melanoma patients
Angela Sandru, Silviu Voinea, Eugenia Panaitescu, Madalina Bolovan, Adina Stanciu, Sabin Cinca
P20 The long noncoding RNA HOTAIR is associated to metastatic progression of melanoma and it can be identified in the blood of patients with advanced disease
Chiara Botti, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Laura Marra, Gabriella Aquino, Rosaria Falcone, Annamaria Anniciello, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Gerardo Botti, Monica Cantile
Other
P21 The effect of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in melanoma mortality: timing of dissection
Cristina Fortes, Simona Mastroeni, Alessio Caggiati, Francesca Passarelli, Alba Zappalà, Maria Capuano, Riccardo Bono, Maurizio Nudo, Claudia Marino, Paola Michelozzi
P22 Epidemiological survey on related psychopathology in melanoma
Valeria De Biasio, Vincenzo C. Battarra
IMMUNOTHERAPY BRIDGE
KEYNOTE SPEAKER PRESENTATIONS
Immunotherapy beyond melanoma
K19 Predictor of response to radiation and immunotherapy
Silvia Formenti
K20 Response and resistance to PD-1 pathway blockade: clues from the tumor microenvironment
Maria Libera Ascierto, Tracee L. McMiller, Alan E. Berger, Ludmila Danilova, Robert A. Anders, George J. Netto, Haiying Xu, Theresa S. Pritchard, Jinshui Fan, Chris Cheadle, Leslie Cope, Charles G. Drake, Drew M. Pardoll, Janis M. Taube and Suzanne L. Topalian
K21 Combination immunotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation, protein immunization, and PBMC reinfusion in myeloma patients
Sacha Gnjatic, Sarah Nataraj, Naoko Imai, Adeeb Rahman, Achim A. Jungbluth, Linda Pan, Ralph Venhaus, Andrew Park, Frédéric F. Lehmann, Nikoletta Lendvai, Adam D. Cohen, and Hearn J. Cho
K22 Anti-cancer immunity despite T cell “exhaustion”
Speiser Daniel
Immunotherapy in oncology (I-O): data from clinical trial
K23 The Checkpoint Inhibitors for the Treatment of Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
Vera Hirsh
doi:10.1186/s12967-016-0791-2
PMCID: PMC4965835  PMID: 27461275
12.  Consensus nomenclature for CD8+ T cell phenotypes in cancer 
Oncoimmunology  2015;4(4):e998538.
Whereas preclinical investigations and clinical studies have established that CD8+ T cells can profoundly affect cancer progression, the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Challenging the prevalent view that the beneficial effect of CD8+ T cells in cancer is solely attributable to their cytotoxic activity, several reports have indicated that the ability of CD8+ T cells to promote tumor regression is dependent on their cytokine secretion profile and their ability to self-renew. Evidence has also shown that the tumor microenvironment can disarm CD8+ T cell immunity, leading to the emergence of dysfunctional CD8+ T cells. The existence of different types of CD8+ T cells in cancer calls for a more precise definition of the CD8+ T cell immune phenotypes in cancer and the abandonment of the generic terms “pro-tumor” and “antitumor.” Based on recent studies investigating the functions of CD8+ T cells in cancer, we here propose some guidelines to precisely define the functional states of CD8+ T cells in cancer.
doi:10.1080/2162402X.2014.998538
PMCID: PMC4485711  PMID: 26137416
anergy; anticancer immunity; CD8+ T cells; cytotoxicity; exhaustion; effector; IFNγ; senescence; stemness
13.  Coexpressed Catalase Protects Chimeric Antigen Receptor–Redirected T Cells as well as Bystander Cells from Oxidative Stress–Induced Loss of Antitumor Activity 
Treatment of cancer patients by adoptive T cell therapy has yielded promising results. In solid tumors, however, T cells encounter a hostile environment, in particular with increased inflammatory activity as a hallmark of the tumor milieu that goes along with abundant reactive oxygen species (ROS) that substantially impair antitumor activity. We present a strategy to render antitumor T cells more resilient toward ROS by coexpressing catalase along with a tumor specific chimeric Ag receptor (CAR) to increase their antioxidative capacity by metabolizing H2O2. In fact, T cells engineered with a bicistronic vector that concurrently expresses catalase, along with the CAR coexpressing catalase (CAR-CAT), performed superior over CAR T cells as they showed increased levels of intracellular catalase and had a reduced oxidative state with less ROS accumulation in both the basal state and upon activation while maintaining their antitumor activity despite high H2O2 levels. Moreover, CAR-CAT T cells exerted a substantial bystander protection of nontransfected immune effector cells as measured by CD3ζ chain expression in bystander T cells even in the presence of high H2O2 concentrations. Bystander NK cells, otherwise ROS sensitive, efficiently eliminate their K562 target cells under H2O2-induced oxidative stress when admixed with CAR-CAT T cells. This approach represents a novel means for protecting tumor-infiltrating cells from tumor-associated oxidative stress–mediated repression.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1401710
PMCID: PMC4705591  PMID: 26673145
14.  Future perspectives in melanoma research: meeting report from the “Melanoma Bridge”: Napoli, December 3rd–6th 2014 
The fourth “Melanoma Bridge Meeting” took place in Naples, December 3–6th, 2014. The four topics discussed at this meeting were: Molecular and Immunological Advances, Combination Therapies, News in Immunotherapy, and Tumor Microenvironment and Biomarkers. Until recently systemic therapy for metastatic melanoma patients was ineffective, but recent advances in tumor biology and immunology have led to the development of new targeted and immunotherapeutic agents that prolong progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). New therapies, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway inhibitors as well as other signaling pathway inhibitors, are being tested in patients with metastatic melanoma either as monotherapy or in combination, and all have yielded promising results. These include inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinases (BRAF, MEK, and VEGFR), the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) pathway [PI3K, AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)], activators of apoptotic pathway, and the cell cycle inhibitors (CDK4/6). Various locoregional interventions including radiotherapy and surgery are still valid approaches in treatment of advanced melanoma that can be integrated with novel therapies. Intrinsic, adaptive and acquired resistance occur with targeted therapy such as BRAF inhibitors, where most responses are short-lived. Given that the reactivation of the MAPK pathway through several distinct mechanisms is responsible for the majority of acquired resistance, it is logical to combine BRAF inhibitors with inhibitors of targets downstream in the MAPK pathway. For example, combination of BRAF/MEK inhibitors (e.g., dabrafenib/trametinib) have been demonstrated to improve survival compared to monotherapy. Application of novel technologies such sequencing have proven useful as a tool for identification of MAPK pathway-alternative resistance mechanism and designing other combinatorial therapies such as those between BRAF and AKT inhibitors. Improved survival rates have also been observed with immune-targeted therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma. Immune-modulating antibodies came to the forefront with anti-CTLA-4, programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway blocking antibodies that result in durable responses in a subset of melanoma patients. Agents targeting other immune inhibitory (e.g., Tim-3) or immune stimulating (e.g., CD137) receptors and other approaches such as adoptive cell transfer demonstrate clinical benefit in patients with melanoma as well. These agents are being studied in combination with targeted therapies in attempt to produce longer-term responses than those more typically seen with targeted therapy. Other combinations with cytotoxic chemotherapy and inhibitors of angiogenesis are changing the evolving landscape of therapeutic options and are being evaluated to prevent or delay resistance and to further improve survival rates for this patient population. This meeting’s specific focus was on advances in combination of targeted therapy and immunotherapy. Both combination targeted therapy approaches and different immunotherapies were discussed. Similarly to the previous meetings, the importance of biomarkers for clinical application as markers for diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of treatment response was an integral part of the meeting. The overall emphasis on biomarkers supports novel concepts toward integrating biomarkers into contemporary clinical management of patients with melanoma across the entire spectrum of disease stage. Translation of the knowledge gained from the biology of tumor microenvironment across different tumors represents a bridge to impact on prognosis and response to therapy in melanoma.
doi:10.1186/s12967-015-0736-1
PMCID: PMC4665874  PMID: 26619946
16.  Contrasting Effects of the Cytotoxic Anticancer Drug Gemcitabine and the EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Gefitinib on NK Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity via Regulation of NKG2D Ligand in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(10):e0139809.
Introduction
Several cytotoxic anticancer drugs inhibit DNA replication and/or mitosis, while EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors inactivate EGFR signalling in cancer cell. Both types of anticancer drugs improve the overall survival of the patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although tumors often become refractory to this treatment. Despite several mechanisms by which the tumors become resistant having been described the effect of these compounds on anti-tumor immunity remains largely unknown.
Methods
This study examines the effect of the cytotoxic drug Gemcitabine and the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor Gefitinib on the expression of NK group 2 member D (NKG2D) ligands as well as the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to the NK-mediated lysis.
Results
We demonstrate that Gemcitabine treatment leads to an enhanced expression, while Gefitinib downregulated the expression of molecules that act as key ligands for the activating receptor NKG2D and promote NK cell-mediated recognition and cytolysis. Gemcitabine activated ATM and ATM- and Rad-3-related protein kinase (ATR) pathways. The Gemcitabine-induced phosphorylation of ATM as well as the upregulation of the NKG2D ligand expression could be blocked by an ATM-ATR inhibitor. In contrast, Gefitinib attenuated NKG2D ligand expression. Silencing EGFR using siRNA or addition of the PI3K inhibitor resulted in downregulation of NKG2D ligands. The observations suggest that the EGFR/PI3K pathway also regulates the expression of NKG2D ligands. Additionally, we showed that both ATM-ATR and EGFR regulate MICA/B via miR20a.
Conclusion
In keeping with the effect on NKG2D expression, Gemcitabine enhanced NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity while Gefitinib attenuated NK cell killing in NSCLC cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139809
PMCID: PMC4595469  PMID: 26439264
17.  Non-classical HLA-class I expression in serous ovarian carcinoma: Correlation with the HLA-genotype, tumor infiltrating immune cells and prognosis 
Oncoimmunology  2015;5(1):e1052213.
In our previous studies, we have shown that patients with serous ovarian carcinoma in advanced surgical stage disease have a particularly poor prognosis if they carry the HLA-A*02 genotype. This represent a stronger prognostic factor than loss or downregulation of the MHC class I heavy chain (HC) on tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of the non-classical, immune tolerogenic HLA -G and -E on the tumor cells along with the infiltration of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. FFPE primary tumors from 72 patients with advanced stages of serous adenocarcinoma and metastatic cells present in ascites fluid from 8 additional patients were included in this study. Both expression of HLA-G and aberrant expression of HLA-E were correlated to a significant worse prognosis in patients with HLA-A*02, but not with different HLA genotypes. Focal cell expression of HLA-G correlated to a site-specific downregulation of classical MHC class I HC products and aberrant HLA-E expression, showing a poor survival. HLA-G was more frequently expressed in metastatic cells than in primary tumor lesions and the expression of HLA-G inversely correlated with the frequency of tumor infiltrating immune cells. All these parameters can contribute together to identify and discriminate subpopulations of patients with extremely poor prognosis and can give them the opportunity to receive, and benefit of individually tailored treatments.
doi:10.1080/2162402X.2015.1052213
PMCID: PMC4760332  PMID: 26942060
HLA-G; HLA-E; HLA-A*02; immunohistochemistry; ovarian cancer; prognosis; serous adenocarcinoma
18.  Methylcholanthrene-Induced Sarcomas Develop Independently from NOX2-Derived ROS 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(6):e0129786.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the inducible NADPH oxidase type 2 (NOX2) complex are essential for clearing certain infectious organisms but may also have a role in regulating inflammation and immune response. For example, ROS is involved in myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC)- and regulatory T cell (Treg) mediated T- and NK-cell suppression. However, abundant ROS produced within the tumor microenvironment, or by the tumor itself may also yield oxidative stress, which can blunt anti-tumor immune responses as well as eventually leading to tumor toxicity. In this study we aimed to decipher the role of NOX2-derived ROS in a chemically (by methylcholanthrene (MCA)) induced sarcoma model. Superoxide production by NOX2 requires the p47phox (NCF1) subunit to organize the formation of the NOX2 complex on the cell membrane. Homozygous mutant mice (NCF1*/*) have a functional loss of their super oxide burst while heterozygous mice (NCF1*/+) retain this key function. Mice harboring either a homo- or a heterozygous mutation were injected intramuscularly with MCA to induce sarcoma formation. We found that NOX2 functionality does not determine tumor incidence in the tested MCA model. Comprehensive immune monitoring in tumor bearing mice showed that infiltrating immune cells experienced an increase in their oxidative state regardless of the NOX2 functionality. While MCA-induced sarcomas where characterized by a Treg and MDSC accumulation, no significant differences could be found between NCF1*/* and NCF1*/+ mice. Furthermore, infiltrating T cells showed an increase in effector-memory cell phenotype markers in both NCF1*/* and NCF1*/+ mice. Tumors established from both NCF1*/* and NCF1*/+ mice were tested for their in vitro proliferative capacity as well as their resistance to cisplatin and radiation therapy, with no differences being recorded. Overall our findings indicate that NOX2 activity does not play a key role in tumor development or immune cell infiltration in the chemically induced MCA sarcoma model.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0129786
PMCID: PMC4468117  PMID: 26076008
20.  Classification of current anticancer immunotherapies 
Galluzzi, Lorenzo | Vacchelli, Erika | Pedro, José-Manuel Bravo-San | Buqué, Aitziber | Senovilla, Laura | Baracco, Elisa Elena | Bloy, Norma | Castoldi, Francesca | Abastado, Jean-Pierre | Agostinis, Patrizia | Apte, Ron N. | Aranda, Fernando | Ayyoub, Maha | Beckhove, Philipp | Blay, Jean-Yves | Bracci, Laura | Caignard, Anne | Castelli, Chiara | Cavallo, Federica | Celis, Estaban | Cerundolo, Vincenzo | Clayton, Aled | Colombo, Mario P. | Coussens, Lisa | Dhodapkar, Madhav V. | Eggermont, Alexander M. | Fearon, Douglas T. | Fridman, Wolf H. | Fučíková, Jitka | Gabrilovich, Dmitry I. | Galon, Jérôme | Garg, Abhishek | Ghiringhelli, François | Giaccone, Giuseppe | Gilboa, Eli | Gnjatic, Sacha | Hoos, Axel | Hosmalin, Anne | Jäger, Dirk | Kalinski, Pawel | Kärre, Klas | Kepp, Oliver | Kiessling, Rolf | Kirkwood, John M. | Klein, Eva | Knuth, Alexander | Lewis, Claire E. | Liblau, Roland | Lotze, Michael T. | Lugli, Enrico | Mach, Jean-Pierre | Mattei, Fabrizio | Mavilio, Domenico | Melero, Ignacio | Melief, Cornelis J. | Mittendorf, Elizabeth A. | Moretta, Lorenzo | Odunsi, Adekunke | Okada, Hideho | Palucka, Anna Karolina | Peter, Marcus E. | Pienta, Kenneth J. | Porgador, Angel | Prendergast, George C. | Rabinovich, Gabriel A. | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Rizvi, Naiyer | Sautès-Fridman, Catherine | Schreiber, Hans | Seliger, Barbara | Shiku, Hiroshi | Silva-Santos, Bruno | Smyth, Mark J. | Speiser, Daniel E. | Spisek, Radek | Srivastava, Pramod K. | Talmadge, James E. | Tartour, Eric | Van Der Burg, Sjoerd H. | Van Den Eynde, Benoît J. | Vile, Richard | Wagner, Hermann | Weber, Jeffrey S. | Whiteside, Theresa L. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Zitvogel, Laurence | Zou, Weiping | Kroemer, Guido
Oncotarget  2014;5(24):12472-12508.
During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or combined with conventional treatments in clinical studies. Immunotherapies may be subdivided into “passive” and “active” based on their ability to engage the host immune system against cancer. Since the anticancer activity of most passive immunotherapeutics (including tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies) also relies on the host immune system, this classification does not properly reflect the complexity of the drug-host-tumor interaction. Alternatively, anticancer immunotherapeutics can be classified according to their antigen specificity. While some immunotherapies specifically target one (or a few) defined tumor-associated antigen(s), others operate in a relatively non-specific manner and boost natural or therapy-elicited anticancer immune responses of unknown and often broad specificity. Here, we propose a critical, integrated classification of anticancer immunotherapies and discuss the clinical relevance of these approaches.
PMCID: PMC4350348  PMID: 25537519
adoptive cell transfer; checkpoint blockers; dendritic cell-based interventions; DNA-based vaccines; immunostimulatory cytokines; peptide-based vaccines; oncolytic viruses; Toll-like receptor agonists
21.  NF-κB activation during intradermal DNA vaccination is essential for eliciting tumor protective antigen-specific CTL responses 
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics  2013;9(10):2189-2195.
DNA vaccines have been shown to elicit tumor-protective cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunity in preclinical models, but have shown limited efficacy in cancer patients. Plasmids used for DNA vaccines can stimulate several innate immune receptors, triggering the activation of master transcription factors, including interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB). These transcription factors drive the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which promote the induction of CTL responses. Understanding the innate immune signaling pathways triggered by DNA vaccines that control the generation of CTL responses will increase our ability to design more effective vaccines. To gain insight into the contribution of these pathways, we vaccinated mice lacking different signaling components with plasmids encoding tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2) or ovalbumin (OVA) using intradermal electroporation. Antigen-specific CTL responses were detected by intracellular IFN-γ staining and in vivo cytotoxicity. Mice lacking IRF3, IFN-α receptor, IL-1β/IL-18, TLR9 or MyD88 showed similar CTL responses to wild-type mice, arguing that none of these molecules were required for the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. To elucidate the role of NF-κB activation we co-vaccinated mice with pIκBα-SR, a plasmid encoding a mutant IκBα that blocks NF-κB activity. Mice vaccinated with pIκBα-SR and the TRP2-encoding plasmid (pTRP2) drastically reduced the frequencies of TRP2-specific CTLs and were unable to suppress lung melanoma metastasis in vivo, as compared with mice vaccinated only with pTRP2. Taken together these results indicate that the activation of NF-κB is essential for the immunogenicity of intradermal DNA vaccines.
doi:10.4161/hv.25699
PMCID: PMC3906403  PMID: 23884215
DNA vaccine; NF-κB; cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL); electroporation; intradermal; tumor immunity; type-I interferon
22.  Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells express FoxP3: a marker for the immunosuppressive capacity? 
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have immunosuppressive capacity but the exact mechanism by which they suppress proliferation of T lymphocytes is not fully understood. Recently, the characteristics and function of regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) have become better defined. Tregs and MSCs have immunosuppressive features in common. Here, we looked for a common basis for immunosuppression in these distinct cell types. FoxP3 and CD39 expression in MSCs was measured by flow cytometry and RT-qPCR. The importance of FoxP3 in MSC-mediated immunosuppression was investigated by siRNA technology and mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC). The effect of 5-azacytidine and other immunosuppressive drugs on FoxP3 expression and immunosuppression by MSCs was explored by flow cytometry, MLC, and RT-qPCR. MSCs express FoxP3 at variable levels, but they do not express CD39. FoxP3high MSCs suppress MLC to a greater extent than cells with lower FoxP3 expression. However, FoxP3-decreased MSCs were found to retain their immunosuppressive properties. 5-azacytitine had no effect on FoxP3 expression or MLC suppression by MSCs. However, immunosuppressive drugs led to increased FoxP3 levels and MLC inhibition in FoxP3low MSCs. This is the first demonstration of FoxP3 expression by MSCs. Although MSCs share several features with Tregs, and FoxP3high MSCs tend to be more immunosuppressive, MSCs do not require functional FoxP3 for their immunosuppressive activity. The increased MSC-mediated suppression of immune responses by immunosuppressive drugs deserves further investigation.
doi:10.1097/CJI.0b013e318217007c
PMCID: PMC4157637  PMID: 21499129
transplantation; forkhead box 3; mesenchymal stem cells
24.  Tumor-dependent increase of serum amino acid levels in breast cancer patients has diagnostic potential and correlates with molecular tumor subtypes 
Background
Malignancies induce changes in the levels of serum amino acids (AA), which may offer diagnostic potential. Furthermore, changes in AA levels are associated with immune cell function. In this study, serum AA levels were studied in breast cancer patients versus patients with benign breast lesions.
Methods
In a prospective study, serum levels of 15 AA were measured by high performance liquid chromatography before and after surgery in 41 breast cancer patients (BrCA) and nine patients with benign breast lesions (healthy donors, HD). Results were analyzed in relation to clinical tumor data and tested against immunological flow cytometry data. Principal component analysis was performed and the accuracy of AA levels as a potential diagnostic tool was tested.
Results
Pre- but not postoperative serum AA levels were increased in BrCA in eight out of 15 AA compared with HD. Serum AA levels were highest in the most aggressive (basal-like) as compared with the least aggressive tumor subtype (luminal A). A principal component (PC1) of all measured AA correlated with a mainly pro-inflammatory immune profile, while a second one (PC2, selectively considering AA preoperatively differing between HD and BrCA) could predict health state with an area under the curve of 0.870.
Conclusions
Breast cancer shows a tumor-dependent impact on serum AA levels, which varies with intrinsic tumor subtypes and is associated with a pro-inflammatory state. Serum AA levels need further evaluation as a potential diagnostic tool.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-11-290
PMCID: PMC3835137  PMID: 24237611
Breast cancer; Serum amino acids; Molecular subtypes; Tumor immunology
25.  The MAPK Pathway Is a Predominant Regulator of HLA-A Expression in Esophageal and Gastric Cancer 
The Journal of Immunology Author Choice  2013;191(12):6261-6272.
Downregulation of HLA class I expression may contribute to a poor prognosis in cancer patients. There is limited information about epigenetic and oncogenic regulation of HLA class I, and multiple mechanisms may be involved. In the current study, we examined the relationship between the HER2-signaling pathway (MAPK and PI3K-Akt) and the expression of HLA class I and Ag-processing machinery (APM) components. A panel of gastric and esophageal cancer cell lines was treated with wortmannin as an Akt-signal inhibitor; the MAPK signal inhibitor PD98059; lapatinib, which inhibits both the epidermal growth factor receptor and HER2 tyrosine kinase; or siRNA for MAPK. The levels of HER2-signaling molecules, APM components, and HLA class I were evaluated by Western blot, quantitative PCR, and flow cytometry. Resected gastric tumor tissues (n = 102) were analyzed for p-Erk and HLA class I expression by immunohistochemistry. As a result, inhibition of the MAPK pathway induced upregulation of HLA-A02 and HLA-A24 expression in parallel with an increase in APM components and enhanced target sensitivity to tumor Ag–specific CTL lysis. HLA-A expression was predominantly regulated by the MAPK pathway, but it was also influenced, in part, by the Akt pathway. There was a strong inverse correlation between p-Erk expression and HLA class I expression in clinical tumor samples. In conclusion, HLA-A expression is predominantly regulated by the MAPK pathway in gastric and esophageal cancer.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1301597
PMCID: PMC3856928  PMID: 24244023

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