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PubMed Central Canada to be taken offline in February 2018

On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part one 
Lundqvist, Andreas | van Hoef, Vincent | Zhang, Xiaonan | Wennerberg, Erik | Lorent, Julie | Witt, Kristina | Sanz, Laia Masvidal | Liang, Shuo | Murray, Shannon | Larsson, Ola | Kiessling, Rolf | Mao, Yumeng | Sidhom, John-William | Bessell, Catherine A. | Havel, Jonathan | Schneck, Jonathan | Chan, Timothy A. | Sachsenmeier, Eliot | Woods, David | Berglund, Anders | Ramakrishnan, Rupal | Sodre, Andressa | Weber, Jeffrey | Zappasodi, Roberta | Li, Yanyun | Qi, Jingjing | Wong, Philip | Sirard, Cynthia | Postow, Michael | Newman, Walter | Koon, Henry | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Callahan, Margaret K. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Lum, Lawrence G. | Choi, Minsig | Thakur, Archana | Deol, Abhinav | Dyson, Gregory | Shields, Anthony | Haymaker, Cara | Uemura, Marc | Murthy, Ravi | James, Marihella | Wang, Daqing | Brevard, Julie | Monaghan, Catherine | Swann, Suzanne | Geib, James | Cornfeld, Mark | Chunduru, Srinivas | Agrawal, Sudhir | Yee, Cassian | Wargo, Jennifer | Patel, Sapna P. | Amaria, Rodabe | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Woodman, Scott | Hwu, Wen-Jen | Davies, Michael A. | Hwu, Patrick | Overwijk, Willem W. | Bernatchez, Chantale | Diab, Adi | Massarelli, Erminia | Segal, Neil H. | Ribrag, Vincent | Melero, Ignacio | Gangadhar, Tara C. | Urba, Walter | Schadendorf, Dirk | Ferris, Robert L. | Houot, Roch | Morschhauser, Franck | Logan, Theodore | Luke, Jason J. | Sharfman, William | Barlesi, Fabrice | Ott, Patrick A. | Mansi, Laura | Kummar, Shivaani | Salles, Gilles | Carpio, Cecilia | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | McDonald, Dan | Maurer, Matthew | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Levy, Ronald | Khushalani, Nikhil | Wu, Jennifer | Zhang, Jinyu | Basher, Fahmin | Rubinstein, Mark | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | MacDonald, Cameron | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Chatterjee, Shilpak | Daenthanasanmak, Anusara | Chakraborty, Paramita | Toth, Kyle | Meek, Megan | Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth | Nishimura, Michael | Paulos, Chrystal | Beeson, Craig | Yu, Xuezhong | Mehrotra, Shikhar | Zhao, Fei | Evans, Kathy | Xiao, Christine | Holtzhausen, Alisha | Hanks, Brent A. | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Moreci, Rebecca | Whetstone, Ryan | Dadey, Rebekah | Watkins, Simon | Ferris, Robert | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Peled, Jonathan | Devlin, Sean | Staffas, Anna | Lumish, Melissa | Rodriguez, Kori Porosnicu | Ahr, Katya | Perales, Miguel | Giralt, Sergio | Taur, Ying | Pamer, Eric | van den Brink, Marcel R. M. | Jenq, Robert | Annels, Nicola | Pandha, Hardev | Simpson, Guy | Mostafid, Hugh | Harrington, Kevin | Melcher, Alan | Grose, Mark | Davies, Bronwyn | Au, Gough | Karpathy, Roberta | Shafren, Darren | Ricca, Jacob | Merghoub, Taha | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Zamarin, Dmitriy | Batista, Luciana | Marliot, Florence | Vasaturo, Angela | Carpentier, Sabrina | Poggionovo, Cécile | Frayssinet, Véronique | Fieschi, Jacques | Van den Eynde, Marc | Pagès, Franck | Galon, Jérôme | Hermitte, Fabienne | Smith, Sean G. | Nguyen, Khue | Ravindranathan, Sruthi | Koppolu, Bhanu | Zaharoff, David | Schvartsman, Gustavo | Bassett, Roland | McQuade, Jennifer L. | Haydu, Lauren E. | Davies, Michael A. | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Kline, Douglas | Chen, Xiufen | Fosco, Dominick | Kline, Justin | Overacre, Abigail | Chikina, Maria | Brunazzi, Erin | Shayan, Gulidanna | Horne, William | Kolls, Jay | Ferris, Robert L. | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Bruno, Tullia C. | Workman, Creg | Vignali, Dario | Adusumilli, Prasad S. | Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A | Li, Zihai | Gerry, Andrew | Sanderson, Joseph P. | Howe, Karen | Docta, Roslin | Gao, Qian | Bagg, Eleanor A. L. | Tribble, Nicholas | Maroto, Miguel | Betts, Gareth | Bath, Natalie | Melchiori, Luca | Lowther, Daniel E. | Ramachandran, Indu | Kari, Gabor | Basu, Samik | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Chagin, Karen | Pandite, Lini | Holdich, Tom | Amado, Rafael | Zhang, Hua | Glod, John | Bernstein, Donna | Jakobsen, Bent | Mackall, Crystal | Wong, Ryan | Silk, Jonathan D. | Adams, Katherine | Hamilton, Garth | Bennett, Alan D. | Brett, Sara | Jing, Junping | Quattrini, Adriano | Saini, Manoj | Wiedermann, Guy | Gerry, Andrew | Jakobsen, Bent | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Brewer, Joanna | Duong, MyLinh | Lu, An | Chang, Peter | Mahendravada, Aruna | Shinners, Nicholas | Slawin, Kevin | Spencer, David M. | Foster, Aaron E. | Bayle, J. Henri | Bergamaschi, Cristina | Ng, Sinnie Sin Man | Nagy, Bethany | Jensen, Shawn | Hu, Xintao | Alicea, Candido | Fox, Bernard | Felber, Barbara | Pavlakis, George | Chacon, Jessica | Yamamoto, Tori | Garrabrant, Thomas | Cortina, Luis | Powell, Daniel J. | Donia, Marco | Kjeldsen, Julie Westerlin | Andersen, Rikke | Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff | Bianchi, Valentina | Legut, Mateusz | Attaf, Meriem | Dolton, Garry | Szomolay, Barbara | Ott, Sascha | Lyngaa, Rikke | Hadrup, Sine Reker | Sewell, Andrew Kelvin | Svane, Inge Marie | Fan, Aaron | Kumai, Takumi | Celis, Esteban | Frank, Ian | Stramer, Amanda | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wardell, Seth | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Goff, Stephanie L. | Zacharakis, Nikolaos | Assadipour, Yasmine | Prickett, Todd D. | Gartner, Jared J. | Somerville, Robert | Black, Mary | Xu, Hui | Chinnasamy, Harshini | Kriley, Isaac | Lu, Lily | Wunderlich, John | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven | Feldman, Steven A. | Trebska-McGowan, Kasia | Kriley, Isaac | Malekzadeh, Parisa | Payabyab, Eden | Sherry, Richard | Rosenberg, Steven | Goff, Stephanie L. | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Kopits, Charlene | Rabinovich, Brian | Lotze, Michael T. | Green, Daniel S. | Kamenyeva, Olena | Zoon, Kathryn C. | Annunziata, Christina M. | Hammill, Joanne | Helsen, Christopher | Aarts, Craig | Bramson, Jonathan | Harada, Yui | Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu | Helsen, Christopher | Hammill, Joanne | Mwawasi, Kenneth | Denisova, Galina | Bramson, Jonathan | Giri, Rajanish | Jin, Benjamin | Campbell, Tracy | Draper, Lindsey M. | Stevanovic, Sanja | Yu, Zhiya | Weissbrich, Bianca | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Trimble, Cornelia L. | Rosenberg, Steven | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Tsang, Kwong | Fantini, Massimo | Hodge, James W. | Fujii, Rika | Fernando, Ingrid | Jochems, Caroline | Heery, Christopher | Gulley, James | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Schlom, Jeffrey | Jing, Weiqing | Gershan, Jill | Blitzer, Grace | Weber, James | McOlash, Laura | Johnson, Bryon D. | Kiany, Simin | Gangxiong, Huang | Kleinerman, Eugenie S. | Klichinsky, Michael | Ruella, Marco | Shestova, Olga | Kenderian, Saad | Kim, Miriam | Scholler, John | June, Carl H. | Gill, Saar | Moogk, Duane | Zhong, Shi | Yu, Zhiya | Liadi, Ivan | Rittase, William | Fang, Victoria | Dougherty, Janna | Perez-Garcia, Arianne | Osman, Iman | Zhu, Cheng | Varadarajan, Navin | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Frey, Alan | Krogsgaard, Michelle | Landi, Daniel | Fousek, Kristen | Mukherjee, Malini | Shree, Ankita | Joseph, Sujith | Bielamowicz, Kevin | Byrd, Tiara | Ahmed, Nabil | Hegde, Meenakshi | Lee, Sylvia | Byrd, David | Thompson, John | Bhatia, Shailender | Tykodi, Scott | Delismon, Judy | Chu, Liz | Abdul-Alim, Siddiq | Ohanian, Arpy | DeVito, Anna Marie | Riddell, Stanley | Margolin, Kim | Magalhaes, Isabelle | Mattsson, Jonas | Uhlin, Michael | Nemoto, Satoshi | Villarroel, Patricio Pérez | Nakagawa, Ryosuke | Mule, James J. | Mailloux, Adam W. | Mata, Melinda | Nguyen, Phuong | Gerken, Claudia | DeRenzo, Christopher | Spencer, David M. | Gottschalk, Stephen | Mathieu, Mélissa | Pelletier, Sandy | Stagg, John | Turcotte, Simon | Minutolo, Nicholas | Sharma, Prannda | Tsourkas, Andrew | Powell, Daniel J. | Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine | Mauer, Daniela | Drechsel, Katharina | Barth, Carola | Freese, Katharina | Kolrep, Ulrike | Schult, Silke | Assenmacher, Mario | Kaiser, Andrew | Mullinax, John | Hall, MacLean | Le, Julie | Kodumudi, Krithika | Royster, Erica | Richards, Allison | Gonzalez, Ricardo | Sarnaik, Amod | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Nielsen, Morten | Krarup-Hansen, Anders | Hovgaard, Dorrit | Petersen, Michael Mørk | Loya, Anand Chainsukh | Junker, Niels | Svane, Inge Marie | Rivas, Charlotte | Parihar, Robin | Gottschalk, Stephen | Rooney, Cliona M. | Qin, Haiying | Nguyen, Sang | Su, Paul | Burk, Chad | Duncan, Brynn | Kim, Bong-Hyun | Kohler, M. Eric | Fry, Terry | Rao, Arjun A. | Teyssier, Noam | Pfeil, Jacob | Sgourakis, Nikolaos | Salama, Sofie | Haussler, David | Richman, Sarah A. | Nunez-Cruz, Selene | Gershenson, Zack | Mourelatos, Zissimos | Barrett, David | Grupp, Stephan | Milone, Michael | Rodriguez-Garcia, Alba | Robinson, Matthew K. | Adams, Gregory P. | Powell, Daniel J. | Santos, João | Havunen, Riikka | Siurala, Mikko | Cervera-Carrascón, Víctor | Parviainen, Suvi | Antilla, Marjukka | Hemminki, Akseli | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Santiago, Laurelis | Chen, Jie Qing | Dai, Zhimin | Wardell, Seth | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Sha, Huizi | Su, Shu | Ding, Naiqing | Liu, Baorui | Stevanovic, Sanja | Pasetto, Anna | Helman, Sarah R. | Gartner, Jared J. | Prickett, Todd D. | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Bhatia, Shailender | Burgess, Melissa | Zhang, Hui | Lee, Tien | Klingemann, Hans | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Nghiem, Paul | Kirkwood, John M. | Rossi, John M. | Sherman, Marika | Xue, Allen | Shen, Yueh-wei | Navale, Lynn | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Kochenderfer, James N. | Bot, Adrian | Veerapathran, Anandaraman | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Stramer, Amanda | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wiener, Doris | Frank, Ian | Santiago, Laurelis | Rabinovich, Brian | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Waller, Edmund K. | Li, Jian-Ming | Petersen, Christopher | Blazar, Bruce R. | Li, Jingxia | Giver, Cynthia R. | Wang, Ziming | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Sturgill, Ian | Canter, Robert J. | Murphy, William J. | Zhang, Congcong | Burger, Michael C. | Jennewein, Lukas | Waldmann, Anja | Mittelbronn, Michel | Tonn, Torsten | Steinbach, Joachim P. | Wels, Winfried S. | Williams, Jason B. | Zha, Yuanyuan | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Williams, LaTerrica C. | Krenciute, Giedre | Kalra, Mamta | Louis, Chrystal | Gottschalk, Stephen | Xin, Gang | Schauder, David | Jiang, Aimin | Joshi, Nikhil | Cui, Weiguo | Zeng, Xue | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Zhao, Zeguo | Hamieh, Mohamad | Eyquem, Justin | Gunset, Gertrude | Bander, Neil | Sadelain, Michel | Askmyr, David | Abolhalaj, Milad | Lundberg, Kristina | Greiff, Lennart | Lindstedt, Malin | Angell, Helen K. | Kim, Kyoung-Mee | Kim, Seung-Tae | Kim, Sung | Sharpe, Alan D. | Ogden, Julia | Davenport, Anna | Hodgson, Darren R. | Barrett, Carl | Lee, Jeeyun | Kilgour, Elaine | Hanson, Jodi | Caspell, Richard | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ansari, Tameem | Schiller, Annemarie | Sundararaman, Srividya | Lehmann, Paul | Hanson, Jodi | Roen, Diana | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ayers, Mark | Levitan, Diane | Arreaza, Gladys | Liu, Fang | Mogg, Robin | Bang, Yung-Jue | O’Neil, Bert | Cristescu, Razvan | Friedlander, Philip | Wassman, Karl | Kyi, Chrisann | Oh, William | Bhardwaj, Nina | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gustafson, Michael P. | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Parney, Ian F. | Dietz, Allan B. | Carvajal-Hausdorf, Daniel | Mani, Nikita | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Schalper, Kurt | Rimm, David | Chang, Serena | Levy, Ronald | Kurland, John | Krishnan, Suba | Ahlers, Christoph Matthias | Jure-Kunkel, Maria | Cohen, Lewis | Maecker, Holden | Kohrt, Holbrook | Chen, Shuming | Crabill, George | Pritchard, Theresa | McMiller, Tracee | Pardoll, Drew | Pan, Fan | Topalian, Suzanne | Danaher, Patrick | Warren, Sarah | Dennis, Lucas | White, Andrew M. | D’Amico, Leonard | Geller, Melissa | Disis, Mary L. | Beechem, Joseph | Odunsi, Kunle | Fling, Steven | Derakhshandeh, Roshanak | Webb, Tonya J. | Dubois, Sigrid | Conlon, Kevin | Bryant, Bonita | Hsu, Jennifer | Beltran, Nancy | Müller, Jürgen | Waldmann, Thomas | Duhen, Rebekka | Duhen, Thomas | Thompson, Lucas | Montler, Ryan | Weinberg, Andrew | Kates, Max | Early, Brandon | Yusko, Erik | Schreiber, Taylor H. | Bivalacqua, Trinity J. | Ayers, Mark | Lunceford, Jared | Nebozhyn, Michael | Murphy, Erin | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Albright, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Kang, S. Peter | Shankaran, Veena | Piha-Paul, Sarina A. | Yearley, Jennifer | Seiwert, Tanguy | Ribas, Antoni | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Cristescu, Razvan | Mogg, Robin | Ayers, Mark | Albright, Andrew | Murphy, Erin | Yearley, Jennifer | Sher, Xinwei | Liu, Xiao Qiao | Nebozhyn, Michael | Lunceford, Jared | Joe, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Plimack, Elizabeth | Ott, Patrick A. | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Forrest-Hay, Alex | Guyre, Cheryl A. | Narumiya, Kohei | Delcommenne, Marc | Hirsch, Heather A. | Deshpande, Amit | Reeves, Jason | Shu, Jenny | Zi, Tong | Michaelson, Jennifer | Law, Debbie | Trehu, Elizabeth | Sathyanaryanan, Sriram | Hodkinson, Brendan P. | Hutnick, Natalie A. | Schaffer, Michael E. | Gormley, Michael | Hulett, Tyler | Jensen, Shawn | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Dubay, Christopher | Afentoulis, Michael | Reddy, Ashok | David, Larry | Fox, Bernard | Jayant, Kumar | Agrawal, Swati | Agrawal, Rajendra | Jeyakumar, Ghayathri | Kim, Seongho | Kim, Heejin | Silski, Cynthia | Suisham, Stacey | Heath, Elisabeth | Vaishampayan, Ulka | Vandeven, Natalie | Viller, Natasja Nielsen | O’Connor, Alison | Chen, Hui | Bossen, Bolette | Sievers, Eric | Uger, Robert | Nghiem, Paul | Johnson, Lisa | Kao, Hsiang-Fong | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Lai, Shu-Chuan | Wang, Chun-Wei | Ko, Jenq-Yuh | Lou, Pei-Jen | Lee, Tsai-Jan | Liu, Tsang-Wu | Hong, Ruey-Long | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Landis, Benjamin J. | Koegler, Sally | Hirsch, Brooke | Gianani, Roberto | Kim, Jeffrey | He, Ming-Xiao | Zhang, Bingqing | Su, Nan | Luo, Yuling | Ma, Xiao-Jun | Park, Emily | Kim, Dae Won | Copploa, Domenico | Kothari, Nishi | doo Chang, Young | Kim, Richard | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Knaus, Hanna A. | Berglund, Sofia | Hackl, Hubert | Karp, Judith E. | Gojo, Ivana | Luznik, Leo | Hong, Henoch S. | Koch, Sven D. | Scheel, Birgit | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Wiegand, Volker | Backert, Linus | Kohlbacher, Oliver | Hoerr, Ingmar | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Billingsley, James M. | Koguchi, Yoshinobu | Conrad, Valerie | Miller, William | Gonzalez, Iliana | Poplonski, Tomasz | Meeuwsen, Tanisha | Howells-Ferreira, Ana | Rattray, Rogan | Campbell, Mary | Bifulco, Carlo | Dubay, Christopher | Bahjat, Keith | Curti, Brendan | Urba, Walter | Vetsika, E-K | Kallergi, G. | Aggouraki, Despoina | Lyristi, Z. | Katsarlinos, P. | Koinis, Filippos | Georgoulias, V. | Kotsakis, Athanasios | Martin, Nathan T. | Aeffner, Famke | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Cerkovnik, Logan | Pratte, Luke | Kim, Rebecca | Hirsch, Brooke | Krueger, Joseph | Gianani, Roberto | Martínez-Usatorre, Amaia | Jandus, Camilla | Donda, Alena | Carretero-Iglesia, Laura | Speiser, Daniel E. | Zehn, Dietmar | Rufer, Nathalie | Romero, Pedro | Panda, Anshuman | Mehnert, Janice | Hirshfield, Kim M. | Riedlinger, Greg | Damare, Sherri | Saunders, Tracie | Sokol, Levi | Stein, Mark | Poplin, Elizabeth | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Silk, Ann | Chan, Nancy | Frankel, Melissa | Kane, Michael | Malhotra, Jyoti | Aisner, Joseph | Kaufman, Howard L. | Ali, Siraj | Ross, Jeffrey | White, Eileen | Bhanot, Gyan | Ganesan, Shridar | Monette, Anne | Bergeron, Derek | Amor, Amira Ben | Meunier, Liliane | Caron, Christine | Morou, Antigoni | Kaufmann, Daniel | Liberman, Moishe | Jurisica, Igor | Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie | Hamzaoui, Kamel | Lapointe, Rejean | Mongan, Ann | Ku, Yuan-Chieh | Tom, Warren | Sun, Yongming | Pankov, Alex | Looney, Tim | Au-Young, Janice | Hyland, Fiona | Conroy, Jeff | Morrison, Carl | Glenn, Sean | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Gardner, Mark | Mongan, Ann | Omilian, Angela R. | Conroy, Jeff | Bshara, Wiam | Angela, Omilian | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Glenn, Sean | Morrison, Carl | Mongan, Ann | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Smolkin, Mark E. | Deacon, Donna H. | Patterson, James W. | Chen, Lieping | Bullock, Timothy N. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Deacon, Donna H. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Bullock, Timothy N. | Loffredo, John T. | Vuyyuru, Raja | Beyer, Sophie | Spires, Vanessa M. | Fox, Maxine | Ehrmann, Jon M. | Taylor, Katrina A. | Korman, Alan J. | Graziano, Robert F. | Page, David | Sanchez, Katherine | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Martel, Maritza | Bifulco, Carlo | Urba, Walter | Fox, Bernard | Patel, Sapna P. | De Macedo, Mariana Petaccia | Qin, Yong | Reuben, Alex | Spencer, Christine | Guindani, Michele | Bassett, Roland | Wargo, Jennifer | Racolta, Adriana | Kelly, Brian | Jones, Tobin | Polaske, Nathan | Theiss, Noah | Robida, Mark | Meridew, Jeffrey | Habensus, Iva | Zhang, Liping | Pestic-Dragovich, Lidija | Tang, Lei | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Logan, Theodore | Khushalani, Nikhil | Margolin, Kim | Koon, Henry | Olencki, Thomas | Hutson, Thomas | Curti, Brendan | Roder, Joanna | Blackmon, Shauna | Roder, Heinrich | Stewart, John | Amin, Asim | Ernstoff, Marc S. | Clark, Joseph I. | Atkins, Michael B. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Sosman, Jeffrey | Weber, Jeffrey | McDermott, David F. | Weber, Jeffrey | Kluger, Harriet | Halaban, Ruth | Snzol, Mario | Roder, Heinrich | Roder, Joanna | Asmellash, Senait | Steingrimsson, Arni | Blackmon, Shauna | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Wang, Chichung | Roman, Kristin | Clement, Amanda | Downing, Sean | Hoyt, Clifford | Harder, Nathalie | Schmidt, Guenter | Schoenmeyer, Ralf | Brieu, Nicolas | Yigitsoy, Mehmet | Madonna, Gabriele | Botti, Gerardo | Grimaldi, Antonio | Ascierto, Paolo A. | Huss, Ralf | Athelogou, Maria | Hessel, Harald | Harder, Nathalie | Buchner, Alexander | Schmidt, Guenter | Stief, Christian | Huss, Ralf | Binnig, Gerd | Kirchner, Thomas | Sellappan, Shankar | Thyparambil, Sheeno | Schwartz, Sarit | Cecchi, Fabiola | Nguyen, Andrew | Vaske, Charles | Hembrough, Todd
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):1-106.
doi:10.1186/s40425-016-0172-7
PMCID: PMC5123387
2.  Modulation of Hepatitis C Virus-Specific CD8 Effector T-Cell Function with Antiviral Effect in Infectious Hepatitis C Virus Coculture Model 
Journal of Virology  2017;91(10):e02129-16.
ABSTRACT
The antiviral effects of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8 T cells have been shown in an HCV replicon system but not in an authentic infectious HCV cell culture (HCVcc) system. Here, we developed tools to examine the antigenicity of HCV-infected HLA-A2-positive Huh7.5 hepatoma cells (Huh7.5A2 cells) in activating HCV-specific CD8 T cells and the downstream antiviral effects. Infectious HCV epitope mutants encoding the well-defined genotype 1a-derived HLA-A2-restricted HCV NS3-1073 or NS5-2594 epitope were generated from a genotype 2a-derived HCV clone (Jc1Gluc2A) by site-directed mutagenesis. CD8 T-cell lines specific for NS3-1073 and NS5-2594 were expanded from HCV-seropositive persons by peptide stimulation in vitro or engineered from HCV-seronegative donor T cells by transduction of a lentiviral vector expressing HCV-specific T-cell receptors. HCV-specific CD8 T cells were cocultured with Huh7.5 cells that were pulsed with titrating doses of HCV epitope peptides or infected with HCV epitope mutants. HCV-specific CD8 T-cell activation (CD107a, gamma interferon, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha) was dependent on the peptide concentrations and the relative percentages of HCV-infected Huh7.5A2 cells. HCV-infected Huh7.5A2 cells activated HCV-specific CD8 T cells at levels comparable to those achieved with 0.1 to 2 μM pulsed peptides, providing a novel estimate of the level at which endogenously processed HCV epitopes are presented on HCV-infected cells. While HCV-specific CD8 T-cell activation with cytolytic and antiviral effects was blunted by PD-L1 expression on HCV-infected Huh7.5A2 cells, resulting in the improved viability of Huh7.5A2 cells, PD-1 blockade reversed this effect, producing enhanced cytolytic elimination of HCV-infected Huh7.5A2 cells. Our findings, obtained using an infectious HCVcc system, show that the HCV-specific CD8 T-cell function is modulated by antigen expression levels, the percentage of HCV-infected cells, and the PD-1/PD-L1 pathways and has antiviral and cytotoxic effects.
IMPORTANCE We developed several novel molecular and immunological tools to study the interactions among HCV, HCV-infected hepatocytes, and HCV-specific CD8 T cells. Using these tools, we show the level at which HCV-infected hepatoma cells present endogenously processed HCV epitopes to HCV-specific CD8 T cells with antiviral and cytotoxic effects. We also show the marked protective effect of PD-L1 expression on HCV-infected hepatoma cells against HCV-specific CD8 T cells.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02129-16
PMCID: PMC5411593  PMID: 28275182
CD8 T cells; Huh7.5 cells; lentiviral transduction; HCV-specific TCR; coculture; PD-1 blockade
3.  Polyfunctional response by ImmTAC (IMCgp100) redirected CD8+ and CD4+ T cells 
Immunology  2017;152(3):425-438.
Summary
The success of immune system‐based cancer therapies depends on a broad immune response engaging a range of effector cells and mechanisms. Immune mobilizing monoclonal T cell receptors (TCRs) against cancer (ImmTAC™ molecules: fusion proteins consisting of a soluble, affinity enhanced TCR and an anti‐CD3 scFv antibody) were previously shown to redirect CD8+ and CD4+ T cells against tumours. Here we present evidence that IMCgp100 (ImmTAC recognizing a peptide derived from the melanoma‐specific protein, gp100, presented by HLA‐A*0201) efficiently redirects and activates effector and memory cells from both CD8+ and CD4+ repertoires. Using isolated subpopulations of T cells, we find that both terminally differentiated and effector memory CD8+ T cells redirected by IMCgp100 are potent killers of melanoma cells. Furthermore, CD4+ effector memory T cells elicit potent cytotoxic activity leading to melanoma cell killing upon redirection by IMCgp100. The majority of T cell subsets belonging to both the CD8+ and CD4+ repertoires secrete key pro‐inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor‐α, interferon‐γ, interleukin‐6) and chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein‐1α‐β, interferon‐γ‐inducible protein‐10, monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1). At an individual cell level, IMCgp100‐redirected T cells display a polyfunctional phenotype, which is a hallmark of a potent anti‐cancer response. This study demonstrates that IMCgp100 induces broad immune responses that extend beyond the induction of CD8+ T cell‐mediated cytotoxicity. These findings are of particular importance because IMCgp100 is currently undergoing clinical trials as a single agent or in combination with check point inhibitors for patients with malignant melanoma.
doi:10.1111/imm.12779
PMCID: PMC5629433  PMID: 28640942
cancer; ImmTAC; immunotherapy; melanoma; T cells; T cell receptor
4.  Elimination of Latently HIV-infected Cells from Antiretroviral Therapy-suppressed Subjects by Engineered Immune-mobilizing T-cell Receptors 
Molecular Therapy  2016;24(11):1913-1925.
Persistence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a latent state in long-lived CD4+ T-cells is a major barrier to eradication. Latency-reversing agents that induce direct or immune-mediated cell death upon reactivation of HIV are a possible solution. However, clearance of reactivated cells may require immunotherapeutic agents that are fine-tuned to detect viral antigens when expressed at low levels. We tested the antiviral efficacy of immune-mobilizing monoclonal T-cell receptors against viruses (ImmTAVs), bispecific molecules that redirect CD8+ T-cells to kill HIV-infected CD4+ T-cells. T-cell receptors specific for an immunodominant Gag epitope, SL9, and its escape variants were engineered to achieve supraphysiological affinity and fused to a humanised CD3-specific single chain antibody fragment. Ex vivo polyclonal CD8+ T-cells were efficiently redirected by immune-mobilising monoclonal T-cell receptors against viruses to eliminate CD4+ T-cells from human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201-positive antiretroviral therapy-treated patients after reactivation of inducible HIV in vitro. The efficiency of infected cell elimination correlated with HIV Gag expression. Immune-mobilising monoclonal T-cell receptors against viruses have potential as a therapy to facilitate clearance of reactivated HIV reservoir cells.
doi:10.1038/mt.2016.114
PMCID: PMC5154472  PMID: 27401039
5.  Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Enhance CD4 T Cell Susceptibility to NK Cell Killing but Reduce NK Cell Function 
PLoS Pathogens  2016;12(8):e1005782.
In the search for a cure for HIV-1 infection, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are being investigated as activators of latently infected CD4 T cells to promote their targeting by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). However, HDACi may also inhibit CTL function, suggesting different immunotherapy approaches may need to be explored. Here, we study the impact of different HDACi on both Natural Killer (NK) and CTL targeting of HIV-1 infected cells. We found HDACi down-regulated HLA class I expression independently of HIV-1 Nef which, without significantly compromising CTL function, led to enhanced targeting by NK cells. HDACi-treated HIV-1-infected CD4 T cells were also more effectively cleared than untreated controls during NK co-culture. However, HDACi impaired NK function, reducing degranulation and killing capacity. Depending on the HDACi and dose, this impairment could counteract the benefit gained by treating infected target cells. These data suggest that following HDACi-induced HLA class I down-regulation NK cells kill HIV-1-infected cells, although HDACi-mediated NK cell inhibition may negate this effect. Our data emphasize the importance of studying the effects of potential interventions on both targets and effectors.
Author Summary
Antiretroviral therapy successfully controls HIV-1 viraemia and can restore life expectancy to within normal limits. However, antiretroviral therapy is not a cure as HIV-1 persists in a treatment-resistant latent reservoir. Therapy also comes with a high cost, side effects, and a lifetime commitment to pills. Therefore, there is growing interest in finding a cure. One proposed strategy is to use novel agents to stimulate HIV-1 transcription in latently-infected cells, after which the cells could be targeted and cleared by the immune system. Of current interest are the latency-reversing histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), with CD8 T cells and NK cells potentially serving as the HIV-1 killing agents. However, previous studies suggested HDACi negatively affected CD8 T cell function, compromising their role as killers. Here we studied whether NK cells might serve as effective killers of HDACi treated CD4 T cells, especially as HDACi may induce HLA class I down-regulation. We found that although treating infected cells with HDACi resulted in HLA class I down-regulation and enhanced their visibility to NK cells, HDACi inhibited NK cell function overall, suggesting additional killing strategies will be required.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1005782
PMCID: PMC4986965  PMID: 27529554
6.  T cells targeting NY-ESO-1 demonstrate efficacy against disseminated neuroblastoma 
Oncoimmunology  2015;5(1):e1040216.
abstract
The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is expressed by many solid tumors and has limited expression by mature somatic tissues, making it a highly attractive target for tumor immunotherapy. Targeting NY-ESO-1 using engineered T cells has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of some adult tumors. Neuroblastoma is a significant cause of cancer mortality in children, and is a tumor type shown to be responsive to immunotherapies. We evaluated a large panel of primarily resected neuroblastoma samples and demonstrated that 23% express NY-ESO-1. After confirming antigen-specific activity of T cells genetically engineered to express an NY-ESO-1 directed high-affinity transgenic T cell receptor in vitro, we performed xenograft mouse studies assessing the efficacy of NY-ESO-1-targeted T cells in both localized and disseminated models of neuroblastoma. Disease responses were monitored by tumor volume measurement and in vivo bioluminescence. After delivery of NY-ESO-1 transgenic TCR T cells, we observed significant delay of tumor progression in mice bearing localized and disseminated neuroblastoma, as well as enhanced animal survival. These data demonstrate that NY-ESO-1 is an antigen target in neuroblastoma and that targeted T cells represent a potential therapeutic option for patients with neuroblastoma.
doi:10.1080/2162402X.2015.1040216
PMCID: PMC4760344  PMID: 26942053
Cell therapy; immunotherapy; neuroblastoma; NY-ESO-1; transgenic TCR
7.  NY-ESO-1 specific TCR engineered T-cells mediate sustained antigen-specific antitumor effects in myeloma 
Nature medicine  2015;21(8):914-921.
Despite recent therapeutic advances, multiple myeloma (MM) remains largely incurable. Herein we report results of a phase I/II trial to evaluate the safety and activity of autologous T-cells engineered to express an affinity-enhanced T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizing a naturally processed peptide shared by the cancer-testis antigens NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1. Twenty patients with antigen-positive MM received an average 2.4×109 engineered T cells two days after autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). Infusions were well-tolerated without clinically apparent cytokine release syndrome, despite high IL-6 levels. Engineered T-cells expanded, persisted, trafficked to marrow and exhibited a cytotoxic phenotype. Persistence of engineered T cells in blood was inversely associated with NY-ESO-1 levels in the marrow. Disease progression was associated with loss of T cell persistence or antigen escape, consistent with the expected mechanism of action of the transferred T cells. Encouraging clinical responses were observed in 16 of 20 patients (80%) with advanced disease, with a median progression free survival of 19.1 months. NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 TCR-engineered T-cells were safe, trafficked to marrow and showed extended persistence that correlated with clinical activity against antigen-positive myeloma.
doi:10.1038/nm.3910
PMCID: PMC4529359  PMID: 26193344
8.  Direct molecular mimicry enables off-target cardiovascular toxicity by an enhanced affinity TCR designed for cancer immunotherapy 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:18851.
Natural T-cell responses generally lack the potency to eradicate cancer. Enhanced affinity T-cell receptors (TCRs) provide an ideal approach to target cancer cells, with emerging clinical data showing significant promise. Nevertheless, the risk of off target reactivity remains a key concern, as exemplified in a recent clinical report describing fatal cardiac toxicity, following administration of MAGE-A3 specific TCR-engineered T-cells, mediated through cross-reactivity with an unrelated epitope from the Titin protein presented on cardiac tissue. Here, we investigated the structural mechanism enabling TCR cross-recognition of MAGE-A3 and Titin, and applied the resulting data to rationally design mutants with improved antigen discrimination, providing a proof-of-concept strategy for altering the fine specificity of a TCR towards an intended target antigen. This study represents the first example of direct molecular mimicry leading to clinically relevant fatal toxicity, mediated by a modified enhanced affinity TCR designed for cancer immunotherapy. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that self-antigens that are expressed at high levels on healthy tissue should be treated with extreme caution when designing immuno-therapeutics.
doi:10.1038/srep18851
PMCID: PMC4725365  PMID: 26758806
15.  Different affinity windows for virus and cancer-specific T-cell receptors – implications for therapeutic strategies 
European journal of immunology  2012;42(12):3174-3179.
Summary
T-cell destiny during thymic selection depends on the affinity of the T-cell receptor (TCR) for autologous peptide ligands presented in the context of MHC molecules. This is a delicately balanced process; robust binding leads to negative selection, yet some affinity for the antigen complex is required for positive selection. All TCRs of the resulting repertoire thus have some intrinsic affinity for an MHC type presenting an assortment of peptides. Generally, TCR affinities of peripheral T cells will be low towards self-derived peptides, as these would have been presented during thymic selection, whereas, by serendipity, binding to pathogen-derived peptides which are encountered de novo could be stronger. A crucial question in assessing immunotherapeutic strategies for cancer is whether natural TCR repertoires have the capacity for efficiently recognizing tumor associated peptide antigens (TAPAs). Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of TCR affinities to a range of HLA-A2 presented antigens. TCRs which bind viral antigens (VAs) fall within a strikingly higher affinity range than those which bind cancer-related antigens. This difference may be one of the key explanations for tumor immune escape and for the deficiencies of T-cell vaccines against cancer.
doi:10.1002/eji.201242606
PMCID: PMC3776049  PMID: 22949370
Thymic selection; TCR; T-cell; Immunotherapy; Tumor immunology
18.  T-cell Receptor (TCR)-Peptide Specificity Overrides Affinity-enhancing TCR-Major Histocompatibility Complex Interactions* 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2013;289(2):628-638.
Background: TCR recognition of bipartite ligands composed of self (MHC) and non-self (peptide) maintains T-cell specificity.
Results: Mutation of residues in the cognate peptide override TCR mutations that enhance MHC binding.
Conclusion: TCR-pMHC binding affinity requires specific TCR-peptide interactions.
Significance: Stabilization of TCR-pMHC engagement by TCR-peptide interactions maintains T-cell specificity and prevents recognition of self-pMHC in the periphery.
αβ T-cell receptors (TCRs) engage antigens using complementarity-determining region (CDR) loops that are either germ line-encoded (CDR1 and CDR2) or somatically rearranged (CDR3). TCR ligands compose a presentation platform (major histocompatibility complex (MHC)) and a variable antigenic component consisting of a short “foreign” peptide. The sequence of events when the TCR engages its peptide-MHC (pMHC) ligand remains unclear. Some studies suggest that the germ line elements of the TCR engage the MHC prior to peptide scanning, but this order of binding is difficult to reconcile with some TCR-pMHC structures. Here, we used TCRs that exhibited enhanced pMHC binding as a result of mutations in either CDR2 and/or CDR3 loops, that bound to the MHC or peptide, respectively, to dissect the roles of these loops in stabilizing TCR-pMHC interactions. Our data show that TCR-peptide interactions play a strongly dominant energetic role providing a binding mode that is both temporally and energetically complementary with a system requiring positive selection by self-pMHC in the thymus and rapid recognition of non-self-pMHC in the periphery.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M113.522110
PMCID: PMC3887192  PMID: 24196962
Immunology; Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC); Protein-Protein Interactions; Receptor Structure-Function; T-cell Biology; T-cell Receptor
19.  The Tumor Targeted Superantigen ABR-217620 Selectively Engages TRBV7-9 and Exploits TCR-pMHC Affinity Mimicry in Mediating T Cell Cytotoxicity 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e79082.
The T lymphocytes are the most important effector cells in immunotherapy of cancer. The conceptual objective for developing the tumor targeted superantigen (TTS) ABR-217620 (naptumomab estafenatox, 5T4Fab-SEA/E-120), now in phase 3 studies for advanced renal cell cancer, was to selectively coat tumor cells with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) target structures functionally similar to natural CTL pMHC target molecules. Here we present data showing that the molecular basis for the anti-tumor activity by ABR-217620 resides in the distinct interaction between the T cell receptor β variable (TRBV) 7-9 and the engineered superantigen (Sag) SEA/E-120 in the fusion protein bound to the 5T4 antigen on tumor cells. Multimeric but not monomeric ABR-217620 selectively stains TRBV7-9 expressing T lymphocytes from human peripheral blood similar to antigen specific staining of T cells with pMHC tetramers. SEA/E-120 selectively activates TRBV7-9 expressing T lymphocytes resulting in expansion of the subset. ABR-217620 selectively triggers TRBV7-9 expressing cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill 5T4 positive tumor cells. Furthermore, ABR-217620 activates TRBV7-9 expressing T cell line cells in the presence of cell- and bead-bound 5T4 tumor antigen. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that ABR-217620 binds to 5T4 with high affinity, to TRBV7-9 with low affinity and to MHC class II with very low affinity. The T lymphocyte engagement by ABR-217620 is constituted by displaying high affinity binding to the tumor cells (KD approximately 1 nM) and with the mimicry of natural productive immune TCR-pMHC contact using affinities of around 1 µM. This difference in kinetics between the two components of the ABR-217620 fusion protein will bias the binding towards the 5T4 target antigen, efficiently activating T-cells via SEA/E-120 only when presented by the tumor cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079082
PMCID: PMC3806850  PMID: 24194959
20.  Examining the presentation of tumor-associated antigens on peptide-pulsed T2 cells 
Oncoimmunology  2013;2(11):e26840.
Peptide-pulsed T2 cells are routinely used to study T-cell activation by MHC-restricted peptides derived from tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Nevertheless, the capacity of T2 cells to present antigenic epitopes remains to be precisely quantified, primarily due to the detection limits imposed by available methods. Since naturally-processed TAA-derived epitopes have been shown to be displayed at levels as low as 10–150 copies per cell, highly sensitive detection and quantification techniques are essential to assess the natural degree of T-cell sensitivity. Here, we report the use of soluble, high-affinity T-cell receptors (TCRs) coupled with single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to quantify three reported TAA-derived epitopes on peptide-pulsed T2 cells, dissecting the relationship between concentration of exogenous peptide, number of epitopes presented, and activation of epitope-specific T cells. Our findings indicate that peptide concentrations in the low nanomolar range are required for T2 cells to present TAAs in extents that are comparable to those of malignant cells.
doi:10.4161/onci.26840
PMCID: PMC3894244  PMID: 24482751
antigen presentation; fluorescence microscopy; monoclonal TCR; T2 cells; T-cell activation; T-cell receptor; tumor-associated antigens
21.  T-cell Receptor Specificity Maintained by Altered Thermodynamics* 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2013;288(26):18766-18775.
Background: The molecular principles governing T-cell specificity are poorly understood.
Results: High affinity binding of a melanoma-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) is mediated through new MHC contacts and distinct thermodynamics.
Conclusion: A novel thermodynamic mechanism upholds TCR-peptide specificity.
Significance: TCRs can maintain peptide specificity using a mechanism that may enable widespread, safe enhancement of TCR binding affinity in therapeutic applications.
The T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizes peptides bound to major histocompatibility molecules (MHC) and allows T-cells to interrogate the cellular proteome for internal anomalies from the cell surface. The TCR contacts both MHC and peptide in an interaction characterized by weak affinity (KD = 100 nm to 270 μm). We used phage-display to produce a melanoma-specific TCR (α24β17) with a 30,000-fold enhanced binding affinity (KD = 0.6 nm) to aid our exploration of the molecular mechanisms utilized to maintain peptide specificity. Remarkably, although the enhanced affinity was mediated primarily through new TCR-MHC contacts, α24β17 remained acutely sensitive to modifications at every position along the peptide backbone, mimicking the specificity of the wild type TCR. Thermodynamic analyses revealed an important role for solvation in directing peptide specificity. These findings advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that can govern the exquisite peptide specificity characteristic of TCR recognition.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M113.464560
PMCID: PMC3696650  PMID: 23698002
Crystal Structure; Melanoma; Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR); T-cell; T-cell Receptor; High Affinity T Cell Receptor (TCR); Peptide-major Histocompatibility Complex (pMHC)
22.  ImmTACs 
Oncoimmunology  2013;2(2):e22891.
Our expanding knowledge of the immune system is guiding a new era of targeted anticancer therapies. Here, we describe our recent work on a novel class of anticancer agents termed ImmTACs. These molecules combine the power of picomolar-affinity TCR-based antigen recognition with the immune-activating potential of an anti-CD3 antibody fragment, to potently redirect T-cell killing to tumor cells.
doi:10.4161/onci.22891
PMCID: PMC3601161  PMID: 23525668
CD3; ImmTAC; T cell receptor; immunotherapy; thymic selection
23.  Increased Peptide Contacts Govern High Affinity Binding of a Modified TCR Whilst Maintaining a Native pMHC Docking Mode 
Natural T cell receptors (TCRs) generally bind to their cognate pMHC molecules with weak affinity and fast kinetics, limiting their use as therapeutic agents. Using phage display, we have engineered a high affinity version of the A6 wild-type TCR (A6wt), specific for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A∗0201) complexed with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 111–19 peptide (A2-Tax). Mutations in just 4 residues in the CDR3β loop region of the A6wt TCR were selected that improved binding to A2-Tax by nearly 1000-fold. Biophysical measurements of this mutant TCR (A6c134) demonstrated that the enhanced binding was derived through favorable enthalpy and a slower off-rate. The structure of the free A6c134 TCR and the A6c134/A2-Tax complex revealed a native binding mode, similar to the A6wt/A2-Tax complex. However, concordant with the more favorable binding enthalpy, the A6c134 TCR made increased contacts with the Tax peptide compared with the A6wt/A2-Tax complex, demonstrating a peptide-focused mechanism for the enhanced affinity that directly involved the mutated residues in the A6c134 TCR CDR3β loop. This peptide-focused enhanced TCR binding may represent an important approach for developing antigen specific high affinity TCR reagents for use in T cell based therapies.
doi:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00168
PMCID: PMC3693486  PMID: 23805144
human T leukocyte virus type 1; crystal structure; peptide-major histocompatibility complex; surface plasmon resonance; T cell; T cell receptor; A6 TCR; high affinity TCR
24.  Bi-specific TCR-anti CD3 redirected T-cell targeting of NY-ESO-1- and LAGE-1-positive tumors 
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy  2012;62(4):773-785.
NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1 are cancer testis antigens with an ideal profile for tumor immunotherapy, combining up-regulation in many cancer types with highly restricted expression in normal tissues and sharing a common HLA-A*0201 epitope, 157–165. Here, we present data to describe the specificity and anti-tumor activity of a bifunctional ImmTAC, comprising a soluble, high-affinity T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for NY-ESO-1157–165 fused to an anti-CD3 scFv. This reagent, ImmTAC-NYE, is shown to kill HLA-A2, antigen-positive tumor cell lines, and freshly isolated HLA-A2- and LAGE-1-positive NSCLC cells. Employing time-domain optical imaging, we demonstrate in vivo targeting of fluorescently labelled high-affinity NYESO-specific TCRs to HLA-A2-, NY-ESO-1157–165-positive tumors in xenografted mice. In vivo ImmTAC-NYE efficacy was tested in a tumor model in which human lymphocytes were stably co-engrafted into NSG mice harboring tumor xenografts; efficacy was observed in both tumor prevention and established tumor models using a GFP fluorescence readout. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of both NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1 antigens in 15 normal tissues, 5 cancer cell lines, 10 NSCLC, and 10 ovarian cancer samples. Overall, LAGE-1 RNA was expressed at a greater frequency and at higher levels than NY-ESO-1 in the tumor samples. These data support the clinical utility of ImmTAC-NYE as an immunotherapeutic agent for a variety of cancers.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00262-012-1384-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00262-012-1384-4
PMCID: PMC3624013  PMID: 23263452
Bi-specific TCR; ImmTAC; Cancer immunotherapy; NY-ESO-1; LAGE-1; Time-domain
25.  Structural basis of human β-cell killing by CD8+ T cells in Type 1 diabetes 
Nature immunology  2012;13(3):283-289.
The structural characteristics of autoreactive-T cell receptor (TCR) engagement of major histocompatability (MHC) class II-restricted self-antigens is established, but how autoimmune-TCRs interact with self-MHC class I has been unclear. We examined how CD8+ T cells kill human islet β-cells, in Type-1 diabetes, via autoreactive-TCR (1E6) recognition of an HLA-A*0201-restricted glucose-sensitive preproinsulin peptide. Rigid ‘lock-and-key’ binding underpinned the 1E6-HLA-A*0201-peptide interaction, whereby 1E6 docked similarly to most MHCI-restricted TCRs. However, this interaction was extraordinarily weak, due to limited contacts with MHCI. TCR binding was highly peptide-centric, dominated by two CDR3-loop-encoded residues, acting as an ‘aromatic-cap’, over the peptide MHCI (pMHCI). Thus, highly focused peptide-centric interactions associated with suboptimal TCR-pMHCI binding affinities might lead to thymic escape and potential CD8+ T cell-mediated autoreactivity.
doi:10.1038/ni.2206
PMCID: PMC3378510  PMID: 22245737
β-cell; crystal structure; peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC); preproinsulin; surface plasmon resonance (SPR); T cell; T cell receptor (TCR); type 1 diabetes (T1D); vaccine

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