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PubMed Central Canada to be taken offline in February 2018

On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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2.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part one 
Lundqvist, Andreas | van Hoef, Vincent | Zhang, Xiaonan | Wennerberg, Erik | Lorent, Julie | Witt, Kristina | Sanz, Laia Masvidal | Liang, Shuo | Murray, Shannon | Larsson, Ola | Kiessling, Rolf | Mao, Yumeng | Sidhom, John-William | Bessell, Catherine A. | Havel, Jonathan | Schneck, Jonathan | Chan, Timothy A. | Sachsenmeier, Eliot | Woods, David | Berglund, Anders | Ramakrishnan, Rupal | Sodre, Andressa | Weber, Jeffrey | Zappasodi, Roberta | Li, Yanyun | Qi, Jingjing | Wong, Philip | Sirard, Cynthia | Postow, Michael | Newman, Walter | Koon, Henry | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Callahan, Margaret K. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Lum, Lawrence G. | Choi, Minsig | Thakur, Archana | Deol, Abhinav | Dyson, Gregory | Shields, Anthony | Haymaker, Cara | Uemura, Marc | Murthy, Ravi | James, Marihella | Wang, Daqing | Brevard, Julie | Monaghan, Catherine | Swann, Suzanne | Geib, James | Cornfeld, Mark | Chunduru, Srinivas | Agrawal, Sudhir | Yee, Cassian | Wargo, Jennifer | Patel, Sapna P. | Amaria, Rodabe | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Woodman, Scott | Hwu, Wen-Jen | Davies, Michael A. | Hwu, Patrick | Overwijk, Willem W. | Bernatchez, Chantale | Diab, Adi | Massarelli, Erminia | Segal, Neil H. | Ribrag, Vincent | Melero, Ignacio | Gangadhar, Tara C. | Urba, Walter | Schadendorf, Dirk | Ferris, Robert L. | Houot, Roch | Morschhauser, Franck | Logan, Theodore | Luke, Jason J. | Sharfman, William | Barlesi, Fabrice | Ott, Patrick A. | Mansi, Laura | Kummar, Shivaani | Salles, Gilles | Carpio, Cecilia | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | McDonald, Dan | Maurer, Matthew | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Levy, Ronald | Khushalani, Nikhil | Wu, Jennifer | Zhang, Jinyu | Basher, Fahmin | Rubinstein, Mark | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | MacDonald, Cameron | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Chatterjee, Shilpak | Daenthanasanmak, Anusara | Chakraborty, Paramita | Toth, Kyle | Meek, Megan | Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth | Nishimura, Michael | Paulos, Chrystal | Beeson, Craig | Yu, Xuezhong | Mehrotra, Shikhar | Zhao, Fei | Evans, Kathy | Xiao, Christine | Holtzhausen, Alisha | Hanks, Brent A. | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Moreci, Rebecca | Whetstone, Ryan | Dadey, Rebekah | Watkins, Simon | Ferris, Robert | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Peled, Jonathan | Devlin, Sean | Staffas, Anna | Lumish, Melissa | Rodriguez, Kori Porosnicu | Ahr, Katya | Perales, Miguel | Giralt, Sergio | Taur, Ying | Pamer, Eric | van den Brink, Marcel R. M. | Jenq, Robert | Annels, Nicola | Pandha, Hardev | Simpson, Guy | Mostafid, Hugh | Harrington, Kevin | Melcher, Alan | Grose, Mark | Davies, Bronwyn | Au, Gough | Karpathy, Roberta | Shafren, Darren | Ricca, Jacob | Merghoub, Taha | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Zamarin, Dmitriy | Batista, Luciana | Marliot, Florence | Vasaturo, Angela | Carpentier, Sabrina | Poggionovo, Cécile | Frayssinet, Véronique | Fieschi, Jacques | Van den Eynde, Marc | Pagès, Franck | Galon, Jérôme | Hermitte, Fabienne | Smith, Sean G. | Nguyen, Khue | Ravindranathan, Sruthi | Koppolu, Bhanu | Zaharoff, David | Schvartsman, Gustavo | Bassett, Roland | McQuade, Jennifer L. | Haydu, Lauren E. | Davies, Michael A. | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Kline, Douglas | Chen, Xiufen | Fosco, Dominick | Kline, Justin | Overacre, Abigail | Chikina, Maria | Brunazzi, Erin | Shayan, Gulidanna | Horne, William | Kolls, Jay | Ferris, Robert L. | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Bruno, Tullia C. | Workman, Creg | Vignali, Dario | Adusumilli, Prasad S. | Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A | Li, Zihai | Gerry, Andrew | Sanderson, Joseph P. | Howe, Karen | Docta, Roslin | Gao, Qian | Bagg, Eleanor A. L. | Tribble, Nicholas | Maroto, Miguel | Betts, Gareth | Bath, Natalie | Melchiori, Luca | Lowther, Daniel E. | Ramachandran, Indu | Kari, Gabor | Basu, Samik | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Chagin, Karen | Pandite, Lini | Holdich, Tom | Amado, Rafael | Zhang, Hua | Glod, John | Bernstein, Donna | Jakobsen, Bent | Mackall, Crystal | Wong, Ryan | Silk, Jonathan D. | Adams, Katherine | Hamilton, Garth | Bennett, Alan D. | Brett, Sara | Jing, Junping | Quattrini, Adriano | Saini, Manoj | Wiedermann, Guy | Gerry, Andrew | Jakobsen, Bent | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Brewer, Joanna | Duong, MyLinh | Lu, An | Chang, Peter | Mahendravada, Aruna | Shinners, Nicholas | Slawin, Kevin | Spencer, David M. | Foster, Aaron E. | Bayle, J. Henri | Bergamaschi, Cristina | Ng, Sinnie Sin Man | Nagy, Bethany | Jensen, Shawn | Hu, Xintao | Alicea, Candido | Fox, Bernard | Felber, Barbara | Pavlakis, George | Chacon, Jessica | Yamamoto, Tori | Garrabrant, Thomas | Cortina, Luis | Powell, Daniel J. | Donia, Marco | Kjeldsen, Julie Westerlin | Andersen, Rikke | Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff | Bianchi, Valentina | Legut, Mateusz | Attaf, Meriem | Dolton, Garry | Szomolay, Barbara | Ott, Sascha | Lyngaa, Rikke | Hadrup, Sine Reker | Sewell, Andrew Kelvin | Svane, Inge Marie | Fan, Aaron | Kumai, Takumi | Celis, Esteban | Frank, Ian | Stramer, Amanda | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wardell, Seth | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Goff, Stephanie L. | Zacharakis, Nikolaos | Assadipour, Yasmine | Prickett, Todd D. | Gartner, Jared J. | Somerville, Robert | Black, Mary | Xu, Hui | Chinnasamy, Harshini | Kriley, Isaac | Lu, Lily | Wunderlich, John | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven | Feldman, Steven A. | Trebska-McGowan, Kasia | Kriley, Isaac | Malekzadeh, Parisa | Payabyab, Eden | Sherry, Richard | Rosenberg, Steven | Goff, Stephanie L. | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Kopits, Charlene | Rabinovich, Brian | Lotze, Michael T. | Green, Daniel S. | Kamenyeva, Olena | Zoon, Kathryn C. | Annunziata, Christina M. | Hammill, Joanne | Helsen, Christopher | Aarts, Craig | Bramson, Jonathan | Harada, Yui | Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu | Helsen, Christopher | Hammill, Joanne | Mwawasi, Kenneth | Denisova, Galina | Bramson, Jonathan | Giri, Rajanish | Jin, Benjamin | Campbell, Tracy | Draper, Lindsey M. | Stevanovic, Sanja | Yu, Zhiya | Weissbrich, Bianca | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Trimble, Cornelia L. | Rosenberg, Steven | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Tsang, Kwong | Fantini, Massimo | Hodge, James W. | Fujii, Rika | Fernando, Ingrid | Jochems, Caroline | Heery, Christopher | Gulley, James | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Schlom, Jeffrey | Jing, Weiqing | Gershan, Jill | Blitzer, Grace | Weber, James | McOlash, Laura | Johnson, Bryon D. | Kiany, Simin | Gangxiong, Huang | Kleinerman, Eugenie S. | Klichinsky, Michael | Ruella, Marco | Shestova, Olga | Kenderian, Saad | Kim, Miriam | Scholler, John | June, Carl H. | Gill, Saar | Moogk, Duane | Zhong, Shi | Yu, Zhiya | Liadi, Ivan | Rittase, William | Fang, Victoria | Dougherty, Janna | Perez-Garcia, Arianne | Osman, Iman | Zhu, Cheng | Varadarajan, Navin | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Frey, Alan | Krogsgaard, Michelle | Landi, Daniel | Fousek, Kristen | Mukherjee, Malini | Shree, Ankita | Joseph, Sujith | Bielamowicz, Kevin | Byrd, Tiara | Ahmed, Nabil | Hegde, Meenakshi | Lee, Sylvia | Byrd, David | Thompson, John | Bhatia, Shailender | Tykodi, Scott | Delismon, Judy | Chu, Liz | Abdul-Alim, Siddiq | Ohanian, Arpy | DeVito, Anna Marie | Riddell, Stanley | Margolin, Kim | Magalhaes, Isabelle | Mattsson, Jonas | Uhlin, Michael | Nemoto, Satoshi | Villarroel, Patricio Pérez | Nakagawa, Ryosuke | Mule, James J. | Mailloux, Adam W. | Mata, Melinda | Nguyen, Phuong | Gerken, Claudia | DeRenzo, Christopher | Spencer, David M. | Gottschalk, Stephen | Mathieu, Mélissa | Pelletier, Sandy | Stagg, John | Turcotte, Simon | Minutolo, Nicholas | Sharma, Prannda | Tsourkas, Andrew | Powell, Daniel J. | Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine | Mauer, Daniela | Drechsel, Katharina | Barth, Carola | Freese, Katharina | Kolrep, Ulrike | Schult, Silke | Assenmacher, Mario | Kaiser, Andrew | Mullinax, John | Hall, MacLean | Le, Julie | Kodumudi, Krithika | Royster, Erica | Richards, Allison | Gonzalez, Ricardo | Sarnaik, Amod | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Nielsen, Morten | Krarup-Hansen, Anders | Hovgaard, Dorrit | Petersen, Michael Mørk | Loya, Anand Chainsukh | Junker, Niels | Svane, Inge Marie | Rivas, Charlotte | Parihar, Robin | Gottschalk, Stephen | Rooney, Cliona M. | Qin, Haiying | Nguyen, Sang | Su, Paul | Burk, Chad | Duncan, Brynn | Kim, Bong-Hyun | Kohler, M. Eric | Fry, Terry | Rao, Arjun A. | Teyssier, Noam | Pfeil, Jacob | Sgourakis, Nikolaos | Salama, Sofie | Haussler, David | Richman, Sarah A. | Nunez-Cruz, Selene | Gershenson, Zack | Mourelatos, Zissimos | Barrett, David | Grupp, Stephan | Milone, Michael | Rodriguez-Garcia, Alba | Robinson, Matthew K. | Adams, Gregory P. | Powell, Daniel J. | Santos, João | Havunen, Riikka | Siurala, Mikko | Cervera-Carrascón, Víctor | Parviainen, Suvi | Antilla, Marjukka | Hemminki, Akseli | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Santiago, Laurelis | Chen, Jie Qing | Dai, Zhimin | Wardell, Seth | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Sha, Huizi | Su, Shu | Ding, Naiqing | Liu, Baorui | Stevanovic, Sanja | Pasetto, Anna | Helman, Sarah R. | Gartner, Jared J. | Prickett, Todd D. | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Bhatia, Shailender | Burgess, Melissa | Zhang, Hui | Lee, Tien | Klingemann, Hans | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Nghiem, Paul | Kirkwood, John M. | Rossi, John M. | Sherman, Marika | Xue, Allen | Shen, Yueh-wei | Navale, Lynn | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Kochenderfer, James N. | Bot, Adrian | Veerapathran, Anandaraman | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Stramer, Amanda | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wiener, Doris | Frank, Ian | Santiago, Laurelis | Rabinovich, Brian | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Waller, Edmund K. | Li, Jian-Ming | Petersen, Christopher | Blazar, Bruce R. | Li, Jingxia | Giver, Cynthia R. | Wang, Ziming | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Sturgill, Ian | Canter, Robert J. | Murphy, William J. | Zhang, Congcong | Burger, Michael C. | Jennewein, Lukas | Waldmann, Anja | Mittelbronn, Michel | Tonn, Torsten | Steinbach, Joachim P. | Wels, Winfried S. | Williams, Jason B. | Zha, Yuanyuan | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Williams, LaTerrica C. | Krenciute, Giedre | Kalra, Mamta | Louis, Chrystal | Gottschalk, Stephen | Xin, Gang | Schauder, David | Jiang, Aimin | Joshi, Nikhil | Cui, Weiguo | Zeng, Xue | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Zhao, Zeguo | Hamieh, Mohamad | Eyquem, Justin | Gunset, Gertrude | Bander, Neil | Sadelain, Michel | Askmyr, David | Abolhalaj, Milad | Lundberg, Kristina | Greiff, Lennart | Lindstedt, Malin | Angell, Helen K. | Kim, Kyoung-Mee | Kim, Seung-Tae | Kim, Sung | Sharpe, Alan D. | Ogden, Julia | Davenport, Anna | Hodgson, Darren R. | Barrett, Carl | Lee, Jeeyun | Kilgour, Elaine | Hanson, Jodi | Caspell, Richard | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ansari, Tameem | Schiller, Annemarie | Sundararaman, Srividya | Lehmann, Paul | Hanson, Jodi | Roen, Diana | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ayers, Mark | Levitan, Diane | Arreaza, Gladys | Liu, Fang | Mogg, Robin | Bang, Yung-Jue | O’Neil, Bert | Cristescu, Razvan | Friedlander, Philip | Wassman, Karl | Kyi, Chrisann | Oh, William | Bhardwaj, Nina | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gustafson, Michael P. | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Parney, Ian F. | Dietz, Allan B. | Carvajal-Hausdorf, Daniel | Mani, Nikita | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Schalper, Kurt | Rimm, David | Chang, Serena | Levy, Ronald | Kurland, John | Krishnan, Suba | Ahlers, Christoph Matthias | Jure-Kunkel, Maria | Cohen, Lewis | Maecker, Holden | Kohrt, Holbrook | Chen, Shuming | Crabill, George | Pritchard, Theresa | McMiller, Tracee | Pardoll, Drew | Pan, Fan | Topalian, Suzanne | Danaher, Patrick | Warren, Sarah | Dennis, Lucas | White, Andrew M. | D’Amico, Leonard | Geller, Melissa | Disis, Mary L. | Beechem, Joseph | Odunsi, Kunle | Fling, Steven | Derakhshandeh, Roshanak | Webb, Tonya J. | Dubois, Sigrid | Conlon, Kevin | Bryant, Bonita | Hsu, Jennifer | Beltran, Nancy | Müller, Jürgen | Waldmann, Thomas | Duhen, Rebekka | Duhen, Thomas | Thompson, Lucas | Montler, Ryan | Weinberg, Andrew | Kates, Max | Early, Brandon | Yusko, Erik | Schreiber, Taylor H. | Bivalacqua, Trinity J. | Ayers, Mark | Lunceford, Jared | Nebozhyn, Michael | Murphy, Erin | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Albright, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Kang, S. Peter | Shankaran, Veena | Piha-Paul, Sarina A. | Yearley, Jennifer | Seiwert, Tanguy | Ribas, Antoni | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Cristescu, Razvan | Mogg, Robin | Ayers, Mark | Albright, Andrew | Murphy, Erin | Yearley, Jennifer | Sher, Xinwei | Liu, Xiao Qiao | Nebozhyn, Michael | Lunceford, Jared | Joe, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Plimack, Elizabeth | Ott, Patrick A. | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Forrest-Hay, Alex | Guyre, Cheryl A. | Narumiya, Kohei | Delcommenne, Marc | Hirsch, Heather A. | Deshpande, Amit | Reeves, Jason | Shu, Jenny | Zi, Tong | Michaelson, Jennifer | Law, Debbie | Trehu, Elizabeth | Sathyanaryanan, Sriram | Hodkinson, Brendan P. | Hutnick, Natalie A. | Schaffer, Michael E. | Gormley, Michael | Hulett, Tyler | Jensen, Shawn | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Dubay, Christopher | Afentoulis, Michael | Reddy, Ashok | David, Larry | Fox, Bernard | Jayant, Kumar | Agrawal, Swati | Agrawal, Rajendra | Jeyakumar, Ghayathri | Kim, Seongho | Kim, Heejin | Silski, Cynthia | Suisham, Stacey | Heath, Elisabeth | Vaishampayan, Ulka | Vandeven, Natalie | Viller, Natasja Nielsen | O’Connor, Alison | Chen, Hui | Bossen, Bolette | Sievers, Eric | Uger, Robert | Nghiem, Paul | Johnson, Lisa | Kao, Hsiang-Fong | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Lai, Shu-Chuan | Wang, Chun-Wei | Ko, Jenq-Yuh | Lou, Pei-Jen | Lee, Tsai-Jan | Liu, Tsang-Wu | Hong, Ruey-Long | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Landis, Benjamin J. | Koegler, Sally | Hirsch, Brooke | Gianani, Roberto | Kim, Jeffrey | He, Ming-Xiao | Zhang, Bingqing | Su, Nan | Luo, Yuling | Ma, Xiao-Jun | Park, Emily | Kim, Dae Won | Copploa, Domenico | Kothari, Nishi | doo Chang, Young | Kim, Richard | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Knaus, Hanna A. | Berglund, Sofia | Hackl, Hubert | Karp, Judith E. | Gojo, Ivana | Luznik, Leo | Hong, Henoch S. | Koch, Sven D. | Scheel, Birgit | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Wiegand, Volker | Backert, Linus | Kohlbacher, Oliver | Hoerr, Ingmar | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Billingsley, James M. | Koguchi, Yoshinobu | Conrad, Valerie | Miller, William | Gonzalez, Iliana | Poplonski, Tomasz | Meeuwsen, Tanisha | Howells-Ferreira, Ana | Rattray, Rogan | Campbell, Mary | Bifulco, Carlo | Dubay, Christopher | Bahjat, Keith | Curti, Brendan | Urba, Walter | Vetsika, E-K | Kallergi, G. | Aggouraki, Despoina | Lyristi, Z. | Katsarlinos, P. | Koinis, Filippos | Georgoulias, V. | Kotsakis, Athanasios | Martin, Nathan T. | Aeffner, Famke | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Cerkovnik, Logan | Pratte, Luke | Kim, Rebecca | Hirsch, Brooke | Krueger, Joseph | Gianani, Roberto | Martínez-Usatorre, Amaia | Jandus, Camilla | Donda, Alena | Carretero-Iglesia, Laura | Speiser, Daniel E. | Zehn, Dietmar | Rufer, Nathalie | Romero, Pedro | Panda, Anshuman | Mehnert, Janice | Hirshfield, Kim M. | Riedlinger, Greg | Damare, Sherri | Saunders, Tracie | Sokol, Levi | Stein, Mark | Poplin, Elizabeth | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Silk, Ann | Chan, Nancy | Frankel, Melissa | Kane, Michael | Malhotra, Jyoti | Aisner, Joseph | Kaufman, Howard L. | Ali, Siraj | Ross, Jeffrey | White, Eileen | Bhanot, Gyan | Ganesan, Shridar | Monette, Anne | Bergeron, Derek | Amor, Amira Ben | Meunier, Liliane | Caron, Christine | Morou, Antigoni | Kaufmann, Daniel | Liberman, Moishe | Jurisica, Igor | Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie | Hamzaoui, Kamel | Lapointe, Rejean | Mongan, Ann | Ku, Yuan-Chieh | Tom, Warren | Sun, Yongming | Pankov, Alex | Looney, Tim | Au-Young, Janice | Hyland, Fiona | Conroy, Jeff | Morrison, Carl | Glenn, Sean | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Gardner, Mark | Mongan, Ann | Omilian, Angela R. | Conroy, Jeff | Bshara, Wiam | Angela, Omilian | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Glenn, Sean | Morrison, Carl | Mongan, Ann | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Smolkin, Mark E. | Deacon, Donna H. | Patterson, James W. | Chen, Lieping | Bullock, Timothy N. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Deacon, Donna H. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Bullock, Timothy N. | Loffredo, John T. | Vuyyuru, Raja | Beyer, Sophie | Spires, Vanessa M. | Fox, Maxine | Ehrmann, Jon M. | Taylor, Katrina A. | Korman, Alan J. | Graziano, Robert F. | Page, David | Sanchez, Katherine | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Martel, Maritza | Bifulco, Carlo | Urba, Walter | Fox, Bernard | Patel, Sapna P. | De Macedo, Mariana Petaccia | Qin, Yong | Reuben, Alex | Spencer, Christine | Guindani, Michele | Bassett, Roland | Wargo, Jennifer | Racolta, Adriana | Kelly, Brian | Jones, Tobin | Polaske, Nathan | Theiss, Noah | Robida, Mark | Meridew, Jeffrey | Habensus, Iva | Zhang, Liping | Pestic-Dragovich, Lidija | Tang, Lei | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Logan, Theodore | Khushalani, Nikhil | Margolin, Kim | Koon, Henry | Olencki, Thomas | Hutson, Thomas | Curti, Brendan | Roder, Joanna | Blackmon, Shauna | Roder, Heinrich | Stewart, John | Amin, Asim | Ernstoff, Marc S. | Clark, Joseph I. | Atkins, Michael B. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Sosman, Jeffrey | Weber, Jeffrey | McDermott, David F. | Weber, Jeffrey | Kluger, Harriet | Halaban, Ruth | Snzol, Mario | Roder, Heinrich | Roder, Joanna | Asmellash, Senait | Steingrimsson, Arni | Blackmon, Shauna | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Wang, Chichung | Roman, Kristin | Clement, Amanda | Downing, Sean | Hoyt, Clifford | Harder, Nathalie | Schmidt, Guenter | Schoenmeyer, Ralf | Brieu, Nicolas | Yigitsoy, Mehmet | Madonna, Gabriele | Botti, Gerardo | Grimaldi, Antonio | Ascierto, Paolo A. | Huss, Ralf | Athelogou, Maria | Hessel, Harald | Harder, Nathalie | Buchner, Alexander | Schmidt, Guenter | Stief, Christian | Huss, Ralf | Binnig, Gerd | Kirchner, Thomas | Sellappan, Shankar | Thyparambil, Sheeno | Schwartz, Sarit | Cecchi, Fabiola | Nguyen, Andrew | Vaske, Charles | Hembrough, Todd
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):1-106.
doi:10.1186/s40425-016-0172-7
PMCID: PMC5123387
3.  Elimination of Metastatic Melanoma Using Gold Nanoshell-Enabled Photothermal Therapy and Adoptive T Cell Transfer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69073.
Ablative treatments such as photothermal therapy (PTT) are attractive anticancer strategies because they debulk accessible tumor sites while simultaneously priming antitumor immune responses. However, the immune response following thermal ablation is often insufficient to treat metastatic disease. Here we demonstrate that PTT induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and promotes the maturation of dendritic cells within tumor-draining lymph nodes, thereby priming antitumor T cell responses. Unexpectedly, however, these immunomodulatory effects were not beneficial to overall antitumor immunity. We found that PTT promoted the infiltration of secondary tumor sites by CD11b+Ly-6G/C+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells, consequently failing to slow the growth of poorly immunogenic B16-F10 tumors and enhancing the growth of distant lung metastases. To exploit the beneficial effects of PTT activity against local tumors and on antitumor immunity whilst avoiding the adverse consequences, we adoptively transferred gp100-specific pmel T cells following PTT. The combination of local control by PTT and systemic antitumor immune reactivity provided by adoptively transferred T cells prevented primary tumor recurrence post-ablation, inhibited tumor growth at distant sites, and abrogated the outgrowth of lung metastases. Hence, the combination of PTT and systemic immunotherapy prevented the adverse effects of PTT on metastatic tumor growth and optimized overall tumor control.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069073
PMCID: PMC3720863  PMID: 23935927
4.  T Cells as Vehicles for Cancer Vaccination 
The success of cancer vaccines is dependent on the delivery of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) within lymphoid tissue in the context of costimulatory molecules and immune stimulatory cytokines. Dendritic cells (DCs) are commonly utilized to elicit antitumor immune responses due to their attractive costimulatory molecule and cytokine expression profile. However, the efficacy of DC-based vaccines is limited by the poor viability and lymph-node migration of exogenously generated DCs in vivo. Alternatively, adoptively transferred T cells persist for long periods of time in vivo and readily migrate between the lymphoid and vascular compartments. In addition, T cells may be genetically modified to express both TAA and DC-activating molecules, suggesting that T cells may be ideal candidates to serve as cellular vehicles for antigen delivery to lymph node-resident DCs in vivo. This paper discusses the concept of using T cells to induce tumor-specific immunity for vaccination against cancer.
doi:10.1155/2011/417403
PMCID: PMC3205726  PMID: 22131805
5.  Genetic Modification of T Cells with IL-21 Enhances Antigen Presentation and Generation of Central Memory Tumor-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes 
An optimized antigen-presenting cell (APC) for tumor immunotherapy should produce a robust antigen specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response to tumor-associated antigens, which can persist in vivo and expand on antigen re-encounter. IL-21 synergizes with other γ-chain cytokines to enhance the frequency and cytotoxicity of antigen-specific CTL. Since T cells themselves may serve as effective APCs (TAPC) and may be useful in vivo as cellular vaccines, we examined whether CD8+ T cells genetically modified to produce IL-21 could induce immune responses to tumor associated antigen peptides in healthy HLA-A2+ donors. We found that IL-21 modified TAPC enhanced both the proliferation and survival of MART-1 specific CD8+ T cells, which were enriched by >8-fold over cultures with control non-transgenic TAPC. MART-1-specific CTL produced IFN-γ in response to cognate peptide antigen, and killed primary tumor cells expressing MART-1 in an MHC restricted manner. IL-21 modified TAPC similarly enhanced generation of functional CTL against melanoma antigen gp100 and the B-CLL associated RHAMM antigen. Antigen-specific CTL generated using IL-21 gene-modified TAPC had a central memory phenotype characterized by CD45RA−, CD44high, CD27high, CD28high, CD62Lhigh and IL-7 receptor-αhigh, contrasting with the terminal effector phenotype of CTL generated in the absence of IL-21. Thus, TAPC stimulation in the presences of IL-21 enhances proliferation of tumor antigen-specific T cells and favors induction of a central memory phenotype, which may improve proliferation, survival and efficacy of T cell based therapies for the treatment of cancer.
doi:10.1097/CJI.0b013e3181ad4071
PMCID: PMC2790367  PMID: 19561536
IL-21; T-antigen presenting cell; CTL; adoptive immunotherapy
6.  Systematically probing the bottom-up synthesis of AuPAMAM conjugates for enhanced transfection efficiency 
Background
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have shown great promise as scaffolds for gene therapy vectors due to their attractive physiochemical properties which include biocompatibility, ease of functionalization via the nearly covalent gold-sulfur dative bond, and surface plasmon optical properties. Previously, we synthesized stable AuNP-polyamidoamine (AuPAMAM) conjugates and showed their success in vitro as non-viral gene delivery vectors.
Results
In this study, we systematically perturbed each component of the AuPAMAM conjugates and analyzed the resulting effect on transfection efficiency. Due to the modular, bottom-up nature of the AuPAMAM synthesis, we were able to probe each step of the fabrication process. The relationship between each conjugation parameter and the function of the final vector were investigated. More than fourfold enhanced transfection efficiency was achieved by modifying the PAMAM concentration, PAMAM core chemistry, PAMAM terminus chemistry, and self-assembled monolayer composition of the AuPAMAM conjugates.
Conclusions
This work suggest that AuPAMAM synthesis platform is a promising non-viral gene therapy approach and highlights the importance of inspecting the role of each individual constituent in all nanotechnology hybrid materials.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12951-016-0178-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12951-016-0178-9
PMCID: PMC4815207  PMID: 27029613
Gene therapy; Nanoparticle; Nanotechnology
7.  Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(10):e0140744.
Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12), a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140744
PMCID: PMC4608718  PMID: 26473608
8.  The miR-223/Nuclear Factor I-A Axis Regulates Glial Precursor Proliferation and Tumorigenesis in the CNS 
The Journal of Neuroscience  2013;33(33):13560-13568.
Contemporary views of tumorigenesis regard its inception as a convergence of genetic mutation and developmental context. Glioma is the most common and deadly malignancy in the CNS; therefore, understanding how regulators of glial development contribute to its formation remains a key question. Previously we identified nuclear factor I-A (NFIA) as a key regulator of developmental gliogenesis, while miR-223 has been shown to repress NFIA expression in other systems. Using this relationship as a starting point, we found that miR-223 can suppress glial precursor proliferation via repression of NFIA during chick spinal cord development. This relationship is conserved in glioma, as miR-223 and NFIA expression is negatively correlated in human glioma tumors, and the miR-223/NFIA axis suppresses tumorigenesis in a human glioma cell line. Subsequent analysis of NFIA function revealed that it directly represses p21 and is required for tumorigenesis in a mouse neural stem cell model of glioma. These studies represent the first characterization of miR-223/NFIA axis function in glioma and demonstrate that it is a conserved proliferative mechanism across CNS development and tumorigenesis.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0321-13.2013
PMCID: PMC3742938  PMID: 23946414
9.  Sox9 and NFIA Coordinate a Transcriptional Regulatory Cascade during the Initiation of Gliogenesis 
Neuron  2012;74(1):79-94.
SUMMARY
Transcriptional cascades that operate over the course of lineage development are fundamental mechanisms that control cellular differentiation. In the developing central nervous system (CNS), these mechanisms are well characterized during neurogenesis, but remain poorly defined during neural stem cell commitment to the glial lineage. NFIA is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the onset of gliogenesis; we found that its induction is regulated by the transcription factor Sox9 and that this relationship mediates the initiation of gliogenesis. Subsequently, Sox9 and NFIA form a complex and coregulate a set of genes induced after glial initiation. Functional studies revealed that a subset of these genes, Apcdd1 and Mmd2, perform key migratory and metabolic roles during astro-gliogenesis, respectively. In sum, these studies delineate a transcriptional regulatory cascade that operates during the initiation of gliogenesis and identifies a unique set of genes that regulate key aspects of astro-glial precursor physiology during development.
doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.01.024
PMCID: PMC3543821  PMID: 22500632
10.  Enhanced Tumor Trafficking of GD2 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells by Expression of the Chemokine Receptor CCR2b 
For adoptive T cell therapy to be effective against solid tumors, tumor-specific T cells must be able to migrate to the tumor site. One requirement for efficient migration is that the effector cells express chemokine receptors that match the chemokines produced either by tumor or tumor-associated cells. In this study, we investigated whether the tumor trafficking of activated T cells (ATCs) bearing a chimeric antigen receptor specific for the tumor antigen GD2 (GD2-CAR) could be enhanced by forced co-expression of the chemokine receptor CCR2b, since this receptor directs migration towards CCL2, a chemokine produced by many tumors, including neuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma cell lines (SK-N-SH and SK-N-AS) and primary tumor cells isolated from six patients all secreted high levels of CCL2, but GD2-CAR transduced ATCs lacked expression of CCR2 (<5%) and migrated poorly to recombinant CCL2 or tumor supernatants. Following retroviral transduction, however, ATCs expressed high levels of CCR2b (>60%) and migrated well in vitro. We expressed firefly luciferase in CCR2b-expressing ATCs and observed improved homing (>10-fold) to CCL2-secreting neuroblastoma compared to CCR2 negative ATCs. As a result, ATCs co-modified with both CCR2b and GD2-CAR had greater anti-tumor activity in vivo.
doi:10.1097/CJI.0b013e3181ee6675
PMCID: PMC2998197  PMID: 20842059
Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte; Chemokine Receptor; Chimeric Antigen Receptor; Immunotherapy; Adoptive T Cell Therapy
11.  IRAK-M Removal Counteracts Dendritic Cell Vaccine Deficits in Migration and Longevity 
To function optimally as vaccines, dendritic cells (DCs) must actively migrate to lymphoid organs and maintain a viable, mature state for sufficient time to effectively present their Ag to cognate T cells. Unfortunately, mature DCs rapidly lose viability and function after injection, and only a minority leaves the vaccine site and migrates to lymph nodes. We show that all of these functions can be enhanced in DCs by removal of IL-1R–associated kinase M (IRAK-M). We found that IRAK-M is induced in DCs by TLR ligation and that its absence from these cells leads to increased activation of the p38-MAPK and NF-κB pathways, which, in turn, improves DC migration to lymph nodes, increases their longevity, and augments their secretion of Th1-skewing cytokines and chemokines. These biological effects have immunological consequences. IRAK-M−/− DCs increase the proliferation and activation of Ag-specific T cells, and a single vaccination with Ag-pulsed, LPS-matured IRAK-M−/− DCs eliminates established tumors and prolongs the survival of EG7 or B16.f10 tumor-bearing mice, without discernible induction of autoimmune disease. Thus, manipulation of IRAK-M levels can increase the potency of DC vaccines by enhancing their Ag-presenting function, migration, and longevity.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0903507
PMCID: PMC3153346  PMID: 20817880
12.  Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes can Target Chemoresistant Side-Population Tumor Cells in Hodgkin’s Lymphoma 
Leukemia & lymphoma  2010;51(5):870-880.
Side-population (SP) analysis has been used to identify progenitor cells from normal and malignant tissues as well as revealing tumor cells with increased resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Despite enhanced chemoresistance, tumor SP cells may still express tumor associated antigens (TAA) which may render them susceptible to elimination by the immune system. In this study, we show that both Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) cell lines and primary HL tumor samples contain a distinct SP phenotype. Importantly, while these cells showed increased resistance to gemcitabine, a commonly used drug for the treatment of refractory HL, HL SP cells also expressed higher levels of the TAAs MAGEA4, SSX2, Survivin and NY-ESO-1 which allowed them to be specifically recognized and killed by TAA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This study suggests that chemoresistant HL SP cells can be targeted by the immune system, providing a rationale for combined chemotherapy and immunotherapy for the treatment of HL.
doi:10.3109/10428191003713968
PMCID: PMC2991134  PMID: 20367572
Hodgkin’s lymphoma; side-population; drug resistance; cytotoxic T lymphocyte; tumor associated antigen
13.  T cells enhance gold nanoparticle delivery to tumors in vivo 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2011;6(1):283.
Gold nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) has shown great potential for the treatment of cancer in mouse studies and is now being evaluated in clinical trials. For this therapy, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are injected intravenously and are allowed to accumulate within the tumor via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The tumor is then irradiated with a near infrared laser, whose energy is absorbed by the AuNPs and translated into heat. While reliance on the EPR effect for tumor targeting has proven adequate for vascularized tumors in small animal models, the efficiency and specificity of tumor delivery in vivo, particularly in tumors with poor blood supply, has proven challenging. In this study, we examine whether human T cells can be used as cellular delivery vehicles for AuNP transport into tumors. We first demonstrate that T cells can be efficiently loaded with 45 nm gold colloid nanoparticles without affecting viability or function (e.g. migration and cytokine production). Using a human tumor xenograft mouse model, we next demonstrate that AuNP-loaded T cells retain their capacity to migrate to tumor sites in vivo. In addition, the efficiency of AuNP delivery to tumors in vivo is increased by more than four-fold compared to injection of free PEGylated AuNPs and the use of the T cell delivery system also dramatically alters the overall nanoparticle biodistribution. Thus, the use of T cell chaperones for AuNP delivery could enhance the efficacy of nanoparticle-based therapies and imaging applications by increasing AuNP tumor accumulation.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-283
PMCID: PMC3211348  PMID: 21711861
14.  Selective Elimination of a Chemoresistant Side-Population of B-CLL Cells by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Subjects Receiving an Autologous hCD40L/IL-2 Tumor Vaccine 
Leukemia  2010;24(3):563-572.
Side-population (SP) analysis identifies precursor cells in normal and malignant tissues. Cells with this phenotype have increased resistance to many cytotoxic agents, and in malignant disease may represent a primary drug resistant population. To discover whether drug resistant malignant SP cells are nonetheless sensitive to immune-mediated killing, we first established the presence of a malignant CD5+CD19+ SP subset in the blood of 18/21 subjects with B-CLL. We examined the fate of these cells in 6 of these individuals who received autologous hCD40L/IL-2 gene-modified tumor cells as part of a tumor vaccine study. Vaccinated patients showed an increase in B-CLL-reactive T cells followed by a corresponding decline in circulating CD5+CD19+ SP cells. T cell lines and clones generated from vaccinated patients specifically recognized B-CLL SP tumor cells. Elimination of SP cells is likely triggered by their increased expression of target antigens such as RHAMM following stimulation of the malignant cells by hCD40L, since CD8+ RHAMM-specific T cells could be detected in the peripheral blood of immunized patients and were associated with the decline in B-CLL SP cells. Hence malignant B cells with a primary drug resistant phenotype can be targeted by T cell mediated effector activity following immunization of human subjects.
doi:10.1038/leu.2009.281
PMCID: PMC2836398  PMID: 20072155
Immunotherapy; Chemoresistance; Side-Population; B-CLL; Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes
15.  Selective depletion of a minor subpopulation of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells is followed by a delayed but progressive loss of bulk tumor cells and disease regression 
Molecular Cancer  2009;8:106.
Cancer precursor/progenitor cells may initiate and sustain the growth of tumors, but evidence for their existence in human disease is indirect, relying on their in vitro properties and animal models. More directly, specific elimination of these rare cells from cancer patients should produce a delayed but progressive disappearance of differentiated malignant progeny. Here, we describe selective eradication of a putative precursor population in a patient with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, followed 6 months later by a progressive loss of mature tumor cells without further treatment. This outcome supports the presence of a rare population of precursor/progenitor cells in human malignancies, and suggests benefit from their removal.
doi:10.1186/1476-4598-8-106
PMCID: PMC2784756  PMID: 19922650
16.  Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia 
Immunotherapy for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) and other haematological malignancies may consist of passive antibody, active immunization or adoptive T-cell transfer. This chapter will focus on T-lymphocyte immunotherapy; an approach supported by earlier observations that the beneficial effects of allogeneic stem cell transplantation depend, in part, on the graft-versus-leukaemia effects mediated by these cells. One promising strategy consists of the genetic manipulation of effector T lymphocytes to express tumour-specific T-cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors directed against surface antigens on the B-CLL cells. This methodology is now being integrated with the concept that tumour recurrence may be due to the persistence of a reservoir of more primitive and chemoresistant tumour cells, dubbed ‘cancer stem cells’, with self-renewal capacity. Identification and characterization of these cancer stem cells in B-CLL is crucial for the development of new anti-tumour agents, and for the identification of target antigens for cellular immunotherapy. This chapter will describe how immunotherapy may be directed to a more primitive side population of B-CLL cells.
doi:10.1016/j.beha.2008.08.002
PMCID: PMC2758265  PMID: 18790444
chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; immunotherapy; adoptive T-cell transfer; chimeric antigen receptor; CD19; CD20; immunoglobulins; cancer stem cells
17.  Antitumor Activity of EBV-specific T Lymphocytes Transduced With a Dominant Negative TGF-β Receptor 
Summary
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is produced in most human tumors and markedly inhibits tumor antigen-specific cellular immunity, representing a major obstacle to the success of tumor immunotherapy. TGF-β is produced in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma both by the tumor cells and by infiltrating T-regulatory cells and may contribute the escape of these tumors from infused EBV-specific T cells. To determine whether tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can be shielded from the inhibitory effects of tumor-derived TGF-β, we previously used a hemagglutinin-tagged dominant negative TGF-βRII expressed from a retrovirus vector to provide CTLs with resistance to the inhibitory effects of TGF-β in vitro. We now show that human tumor antigen-specific CTLs can be engineered to resist the inhibitory effects of tumor-derived TGF-β both in vitro and in vivo using a clinical grade retrovirus vector in which the dominant negative TGF-β type II receptor (DNRII) was modified to remove the immunogenic hemagglutinin tag. TGF-β–resistant CTL had a functional advantage over unmodified CTL in the presence of TGF-β–secreting EBV-positive lymphoma, and had enhanced antitumor activity, supporting the potential value of this countermeasure.
doi:10.1097/CJI.0b013e318177092b
PMCID: PMC2745436  PMID: 18463534
non-Hodgkin lymphoma; Hodgkin disease; TGF-β; cytotoxic T lymphocyte
18.  Using Dendritic Cell Maturation and IL-12 Producing Capacity as Markers of Function: A Cautionary Tale 
Summary
Effective dendritic cell (DC) function depends on sufficient expression of antigen and costimulatory molecules, and secretion of interleukin (IL)-12. We sought to augment DC stimulatory capacity by optimizing DC phenotype and IL-12 production. DCs, obtained by CD14-selection, were matured using 8 different cytokine cocktails, and expression of costimulatory/major histocompatibility complex molecules and IL-12 production at the end of maturation was assessed. DC stimulatory capacity was determined after pulsing with immunogenic adenoviral CD8+ peptide epitopes or after transduction with an Ad5f35-null vector. Resultant T-cell cultures were analyzed using pentamer and interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assays. On the basis of DC expression of maturation markers and IL-12 production, we defined prototype “minimal” [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2], “standard” (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, prostaglandin E2), and “optimal” (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, interferon-α, CD40 ligand) DC cocktails. Optimal DCs were functionally superior when pulsed with CD8+ peptides, but when transduced with Ad5f35, functioned poorly as antigen-presenting cells. We investigated the mechanisms underlying this discrepancy and suggest that prolonged stimulation with potent cytokines (optimal cocktail) in combination with adenoviral transduction alters the kinetics of DC maturation such that the DCs are functionally exhausted by the traditional 48-hour maturation time point. Shortening the DC maturation period posttransduction restored optimal DC stimulatory capacity. Thus, maturation stimuli and viral transduction affects DC phenotype, IL-12 producing capacity, and kinetics of maturation, and all must be considered before designing protocols to generate the optimal DC for cytotoxic T lymphocyte generation.
doi:10.1097/CJI.0b013e318165f5d2
PMCID: PMC2744357  PMID: 18391760
dendritic cell; IL-12; CTL; adenovirus; maturation cocktail
19.  In vivo fluorescent optical imaging of cytotoxic T lymphocyte migration using IRDye800CW near-infrared dye 
Applied optics  2008;47(31):5944-5952.
We describe a method to measure in vivo migration of human T cells by using the near-infrared (NIR) dye IRDye800CW. Labeling of Epstein–Barr virus-specific T cells with IRDye800CW did not affect viability, proliferation, or T cell function. Following tail vein injection into mice bearing subcutaneous tumors, the NIR signal could be measured in vivo at the tumor site. Analysis of tumors revealed T cell infiltration and an increased NIR signal, confirming T cell migration. To test specific migration with IRDye800CW, tumors were modified to express CCL5 to measure site-specific migration. The NIR signal was increased at CCL5-secreting tumors compared with control tumors. Together, these data suggest that IRDye800CW may be used to study the trafficking of T cells in a small animal model and may have potential as a short-term reporter molecule for human immunotherapy studies.
PMCID: PMC2744150  PMID: 19122737

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