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PubMed Central Canada to be taken offline in February 2018

On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part one 
Lundqvist, Andreas | van Hoef, Vincent | Zhang, Xiaonan | Wennerberg, Erik | Lorent, Julie | Witt, Kristina | Sanz, Laia Masvidal | Liang, Shuo | Murray, Shannon | Larsson, Ola | Kiessling, Rolf | Mao, Yumeng | Sidhom, John-William | Bessell, Catherine A. | Havel, Jonathan | Schneck, Jonathan | Chan, Timothy A. | Sachsenmeier, Eliot | Woods, David | Berglund, Anders | Ramakrishnan, Rupal | Sodre, Andressa | Weber, Jeffrey | Zappasodi, Roberta | Li, Yanyun | Qi, Jingjing | Wong, Philip | Sirard, Cynthia | Postow, Michael | Newman, Walter | Koon, Henry | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Callahan, Margaret K. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Lum, Lawrence G. | Choi, Minsig | Thakur, Archana | Deol, Abhinav | Dyson, Gregory | Shields, Anthony | Haymaker, Cara | Uemura, Marc | Murthy, Ravi | James, Marihella | Wang, Daqing | Brevard, Julie | Monaghan, Catherine | Swann, Suzanne | Geib, James | Cornfeld, Mark | Chunduru, Srinivas | Agrawal, Sudhir | Yee, Cassian | Wargo, Jennifer | Patel, Sapna P. | Amaria, Rodabe | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Woodman, Scott | Hwu, Wen-Jen | Davies, Michael A. | Hwu, Patrick | Overwijk, Willem W. | Bernatchez, Chantale | Diab, Adi | Massarelli, Erminia | Segal, Neil H. | Ribrag, Vincent | Melero, Ignacio | Gangadhar, Tara C. | Urba, Walter | Schadendorf, Dirk | Ferris, Robert L. | Houot, Roch | Morschhauser, Franck | Logan, Theodore | Luke, Jason J. | Sharfman, William | Barlesi, Fabrice | Ott, Patrick A. | Mansi, Laura | Kummar, Shivaani | Salles, Gilles | Carpio, Cecilia | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | McDonald, Dan | Maurer, Matthew | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Levy, Ronald | Khushalani, Nikhil | Wu, Jennifer | Zhang, Jinyu | Basher, Fahmin | Rubinstein, Mark | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | MacDonald, Cameron | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Chatterjee, Shilpak | Daenthanasanmak, Anusara | Chakraborty, Paramita | Toth, Kyle | Meek, Megan | Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth | Nishimura, Michael | Paulos, Chrystal | Beeson, Craig | Yu, Xuezhong | Mehrotra, Shikhar | Zhao, Fei | Evans, Kathy | Xiao, Christine | Holtzhausen, Alisha | Hanks, Brent A. | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Moreci, Rebecca | Whetstone, Ryan | Dadey, Rebekah | Watkins, Simon | Ferris, Robert | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Peled, Jonathan | Devlin, Sean | Staffas, Anna | Lumish, Melissa | Rodriguez, Kori Porosnicu | Ahr, Katya | Perales, Miguel | Giralt, Sergio | Taur, Ying | Pamer, Eric | van den Brink, Marcel R. M. | Jenq, Robert | Annels, Nicola | Pandha, Hardev | Simpson, Guy | Mostafid, Hugh | Harrington, Kevin | Melcher, Alan | Grose, Mark | Davies, Bronwyn | Au, Gough | Karpathy, Roberta | Shafren, Darren | Ricca, Jacob | Merghoub, Taha | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Zamarin, Dmitriy | Batista, Luciana | Marliot, Florence | Vasaturo, Angela | Carpentier, Sabrina | Poggionovo, Cécile | Frayssinet, Véronique | Fieschi, Jacques | Van den Eynde, Marc | Pagès, Franck | Galon, Jérôme | Hermitte, Fabienne | Smith, Sean G. | Nguyen, Khue | Ravindranathan, Sruthi | Koppolu, Bhanu | Zaharoff, David | Schvartsman, Gustavo | Bassett, Roland | McQuade, Jennifer L. | Haydu, Lauren E. | Davies, Michael A. | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Kline, Douglas | Chen, Xiufen | Fosco, Dominick | Kline, Justin | Overacre, Abigail | Chikina, Maria | Brunazzi, Erin | Shayan, Gulidanna | Horne, William | Kolls, Jay | Ferris, Robert L. | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Bruno, Tullia C. | Workman, Creg | Vignali, Dario | Adusumilli, Prasad S. | Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A | Li, Zihai | Gerry, Andrew | Sanderson, Joseph P. | Howe, Karen | Docta, Roslin | Gao, Qian | Bagg, Eleanor A. L. | Tribble, Nicholas | Maroto, Miguel | Betts, Gareth | Bath, Natalie | Melchiori, Luca | Lowther, Daniel E. | Ramachandran, Indu | Kari, Gabor | Basu, Samik | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Chagin, Karen | Pandite, Lini | Holdich, Tom | Amado, Rafael | Zhang, Hua | Glod, John | Bernstein, Donna | Jakobsen, Bent | Mackall, Crystal | Wong, Ryan | Silk, Jonathan D. | Adams, Katherine | Hamilton, Garth | Bennett, Alan D. | Brett, Sara | Jing, Junping | Quattrini, Adriano | Saini, Manoj | Wiedermann, Guy | Gerry, Andrew | Jakobsen, Bent | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Brewer, Joanna | Duong, MyLinh | Lu, An | Chang, Peter | Mahendravada, Aruna | Shinners, Nicholas | Slawin, Kevin | Spencer, David M. | Foster, Aaron E. | Bayle, J. Henri | Bergamaschi, Cristina | Ng, Sinnie Sin Man | Nagy, Bethany | Jensen, Shawn | Hu, Xintao | Alicea, Candido | Fox, Bernard | Felber, Barbara | Pavlakis, George | Chacon, Jessica | Yamamoto, Tori | Garrabrant, Thomas | Cortina, Luis | Powell, Daniel J. | Donia, Marco | Kjeldsen, Julie Westerlin | Andersen, Rikke | Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff | Bianchi, Valentina | Legut, Mateusz | Attaf, Meriem | Dolton, Garry | Szomolay, Barbara | Ott, Sascha | Lyngaa, Rikke | Hadrup, Sine Reker | Sewell, Andrew Kelvin | Svane, Inge Marie | Fan, Aaron | Kumai, Takumi | Celis, Esteban | Frank, Ian | Stramer, Amanda | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wardell, Seth | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Goff, Stephanie L. | Zacharakis, Nikolaos | Assadipour, Yasmine | Prickett, Todd D. | Gartner, Jared J. | Somerville, Robert | Black, Mary | Xu, Hui | Chinnasamy, Harshini | Kriley, Isaac | Lu, Lily | Wunderlich, John | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven | Feldman, Steven A. | Trebska-McGowan, Kasia | Kriley, Isaac | Malekzadeh, Parisa | Payabyab, Eden | Sherry, Richard | Rosenberg, Steven | Goff, Stephanie L. | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Kopits, Charlene | Rabinovich, Brian | Lotze, Michael T. | Green, Daniel S. | Kamenyeva, Olena | Zoon, Kathryn C. | Annunziata, Christina M. | Hammill, Joanne | Helsen, Christopher | Aarts, Craig | Bramson, Jonathan | Harada, Yui | Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu | Helsen, Christopher | Hammill, Joanne | Mwawasi, Kenneth | Denisova, Galina | Bramson, Jonathan | Giri, Rajanish | Jin, Benjamin | Campbell, Tracy | Draper, Lindsey M. | Stevanovic, Sanja | Yu, Zhiya | Weissbrich, Bianca | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Trimble, Cornelia L. | Rosenberg, Steven | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Tsang, Kwong | Fantini, Massimo | Hodge, James W. | Fujii, Rika | Fernando, Ingrid | Jochems, Caroline | Heery, Christopher | Gulley, James | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Schlom, Jeffrey | Jing, Weiqing | Gershan, Jill | Blitzer, Grace | Weber, James | McOlash, Laura | Johnson, Bryon D. | Kiany, Simin | Gangxiong, Huang | Kleinerman, Eugenie S. | Klichinsky, Michael | Ruella, Marco | Shestova, Olga | Kenderian, Saad | Kim, Miriam | Scholler, John | June, Carl H. | Gill, Saar | Moogk, Duane | Zhong, Shi | Yu, Zhiya | Liadi, Ivan | Rittase, William | Fang, Victoria | Dougherty, Janna | Perez-Garcia, Arianne | Osman, Iman | Zhu, Cheng | Varadarajan, Navin | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Frey, Alan | Krogsgaard, Michelle | Landi, Daniel | Fousek, Kristen | Mukherjee, Malini | Shree, Ankita | Joseph, Sujith | Bielamowicz, Kevin | Byrd, Tiara | Ahmed, Nabil | Hegde, Meenakshi | Lee, Sylvia | Byrd, David | Thompson, John | Bhatia, Shailender | Tykodi, Scott | Delismon, Judy | Chu, Liz | Abdul-Alim, Siddiq | Ohanian, Arpy | DeVito, Anna Marie | Riddell, Stanley | Margolin, Kim | Magalhaes, Isabelle | Mattsson, Jonas | Uhlin, Michael | Nemoto, Satoshi | Villarroel, Patricio Pérez | Nakagawa, Ryosuke | Mule, James J. | Mailloux, Adam W. | Mata, Melinda | Nguyen, Phuong | Gerken, Claudia | DeRenzo, Christopher | Spencer, David M. | Gottschalk, Stephen | Mathieu, Mélissa | Pelletier, Sandy | Stagg, John | Turcotte, Simon | Minutolo, Nicholas | Sharma, Prannda | Tsourkas, Andrew | Powell, Daniel J. | Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine | Mauer, Daniela | Drechsel, Katharina | Barth, Carola | Freese, Katharina | Kolrep, Ulrike | Schult, Silke | Assenmacher, Mario | Kaiser, Andrew | Mullinax, John | Hall, MacLean | Le, Julie | Kodumudi, Krithika | Royster, Erica | Richards, Allison | Gonzalez, Ricardo | Sarnaik, Amod | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Nielsen, Morten | Krarup-Hansen, Anders | Hovgaard, Dorrit | Petersen, Michael Mørk | Loya, Anand Chainsukh | Junker, Niels | Svane, Inge Marie | Rivas, Charlotte | Parihar, Robin | Gottschalk, Stephen | Rooney, Cliona M. | Qin, Haiying | Nguyen, Sang | Su, Paul | Burk, Chad | Duncan, Brynn | Kim, Bong-Hyun | Kohler, M. Eric | Fry, Terry | Rao, Arjun A. | Teyssier, Noam | Pfeil, Jacob | Sgourakis, Nikolaos | Salama, Sofie | Haussler, David | Richman, Sarah A. | Nunez-Cruz, Selene | Gershenson, Zack | Mourelatos, Zissimos | Barrett, David | Grupp, Stephan | Milone, Michael | Rodriguez-Garcia, Alba | Robinson, Matthew K. | Adams, Gregory P. | Powell, Daniel J. | Santos, João | Havunen, Riikka | Siurala, Mikko | Cervera-Carrascón, Víctor | Parviainen, Suvi | Antilla, Marjukka | Hemminki, Akseli | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Santiago, Laurelis | Chen, Jie Qing | Dai, Zhimin | Wardell, Seth | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Sha, Huizi | Su, Shu | Ding, Naiqing | Liu, Baorui | Stevanovic, Sanja | Pasetto, Anna | Helman, Sarah R. | Gartner, Jared J. | Prickett, Todd D. | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Bhatia, Shailender | Burgess, Melissa | Zhang, Hui | Lee, Tien | Klingemann, Hans | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Nghiem, Paul | Kirkwood, John M. | Rossi, John M. | Sherman, Marika | Xue, Allen | Shen, Yueh-wei | Navale, Lynn | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Kochenderfer, James N. | Bot, Adrian | Veerapathran, Anandaraman | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Stramer, Amanda | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wiener, Doris | Frank, Ian | Santiago, Laurelis | Rabinovich, Brian | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Waller, Edmund K. | Li, Jian-Ming | Petersen, Christopher | Blazar, Bruce R. | Li, Jingxia | Giver, Cynthia R. | Wang, Ziming | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Sturgill, Ian | Canter, Robert J. | Murphy, William J. | Zhang, Congcong | Burger, Michael C. | Jennewein, Lukas | Waldmann, Anja | Mittelbronn, Michel | Tonn, Torsten | Steinbach, Joachim P. | Wels, Winfried S. | Williams, Jason B. | Zha, Yuanyuan | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Williams, LaTerrica C. | Krenciute, Giedre | Kalra, Mamta | Louis, Chrystal | Gottschalk, Stephen | Xin, Gang | Schauder, David | Jiang, Aimin | Joshi, Nikhil | Cui, Weiguo | Zeng, Xue | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Zhao, Zeguo | Hamieh, Mohamad | Eyquem, Justin | Gunset, Gertrude | Bander, Neil | Sadelain, Michel | Askmyr, David | Abolhalaj, Milad | Lundberg, Kristina | Greiff, Lennart | Lindstedt, Malin | Angell, Helen K. | Kim, Kyoung-Mee | Kim, Seung-Tae | Kim, Sung | Sharpe, Alan D. | Ogden, Julia | Davenport, Anna | Hodgson, Darren R. | Barrett, Carl | Lee, Jeeyun | Kilgour, Elaine | Hanson, Jodi | Caspell, Richard | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ansari, Tameem | Schiller, Annemarie | Sundararaman, Srividya | Lehmann, Paul | Hanson, Jodi | Roen, Diana | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ayers, Mark | Levitan, Diane | Arreaza, Gladys | Liu, Fang | Mogg, Robin | Bang, Yung-Jue | O’Neil, Bert | Cristescu, Razvan | Friedlander, Philip | Wassman, Karl | Kyi, Chrisann | Oh, William | Bhardwaj, Nina | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gustafson, Michael P. | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Parney, Ian F. | Dietz, Allan B. | Carvajal-Hausdorf, Daniel | Mani, Nikita | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Schalper, Kurt | Rimm, David | Chang, Serena | Levy, Ronald | Kurland, John | Krishnan, Suba | Ahlers, Christoph Matthias | Jure-Kunkel, Maria | Cohen, Lewis | Maecker, Holden | Kohrt, Holbrook | Chen, Shuming | Crabill, George | Pritchard, Theresa | McMiller, Tracee | Pardoll, Drew | Pan, Fan | Topalian, Suzanne | Danaher, Patrick | Warren, Sarah | Dennis, Lucas | White, Andrew M. | D’Amico, Leonard | Geller, Melissa | Disis, Mary L. | Beechem, Joseph | Odunsi, Kunle | Fling, Steven | Derakhshandeh, Roshanak | Webb, Tonya J. | Dubois, Sigrid | Conlon, Kevin | Bryant, Bonita | Hsu, Jennifer | Beltran, Nancy | Müller, Jürgen | Waldmann, Thomas | Duhen, Rebekka | Duhen, Thomas | Thompson, Lucas | Montler, Ryan | Weinberg, Andrew | Kates, Max | Early, Brandon | Yusko, Erik | Schreiber, Taylor H. | Bivalacqua, Trinity J. | Ayers, Mark | Lunceford, Jared | Nebozhyn, Michael | Murphy, Erin | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Albright, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Kang, S. Peter | Shankaran, Veena | Piha-Paul, Sarina A. | Yearley, Jennifer | Seiwert, Tanguy | Ribas, Antoni | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Cristescu, Razvan | Mogg, Robin | Ayers, Mark | Albright, Andrew | Murphy, Erin | Yearley, Jennifer | Sher, Xinwei | Liu, Xiao Qiao | Nebozhyn, Michael | Lunceford, Jared | Joe, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Plimack, Elizabeth | Ott, Patrick A. | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Forrest-Hay, Alex | Guyre, Cheryl A. | Narumiya, Kohei | Delcommenne, Marc | Hirsch, Heather A. | Deshpande, Amit | Reeves, Jason | Shu, Jenny | Zi, Tong | Michaelson, Jennifer | Law, Debbie | Trehu, Elizabeth | Sathyanaryanan, Sriram | Hodkinson, Brendan P. | Hutnick, Natalie A. | Schaffer, Michael E. | Gormley, Michael | Hulett, Tyler | Jensen, Shawn | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Dubay, Christopher | Afentoulis, Michael | Reddy, Ashok | David, Larry | Fox, Bernard | Jayant, Kumar | Agrawal, Swati | Agrawal, Rajendra | Jeyakumar, Ghayathri | Kim, Seongho | Kim, Heejin | Silski, Cynthia | Suisham, Stacey | Heath, Elisabeth | Vaishampayan, Ulka | Vandeven, Natalie | Viller, Natasja Nielsen | O’Connor, Alison | Chen, Hui | Bossen, Bolette | Sievers, Eric | Uger, Robert | Nghiem, Paul | Johnson, Lisa | Kao, Hsiang-Fong | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Lai, Shu-Chuan | Wang, Chun-Wei | Ko, Jenq-Yuh | Lou, Pei-Jen | Lee, Tsai-Jan | Liu, Tsang-Wu | Hong, Ruey-Long | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Landis, Benjamin J. | Koegler, Sally | Hirsch, Brooke | Gianani, Roberto | Kim, Jeffrey | He, Ming-Xiao | Zhang, Bingqing | Su, Nan | Luo, Yuling | Ma, Xiao-Jun | Park, Emily | Kim, Dae Won | Copploa, Domenico | Kothari, Nishi | doo Chang, Young | Kim, Richard | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Knaus, Hanna A. | Berglund, Sofia | Hackl, Hubert | Karp, Judith E. | Gojo, Ivana | Luznik, Leo | Hong, Henoch S. | Koch, Sven D. | Scheel, Birgit | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Wiegand, Volker | Backert, Linus | Kohlbacher, Oliver | Hoerr, Ingmar | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Billingsley, James M. | Koguchi, Yoshinobu | Conrad, Valerie | Miller, William | Gonzalez, Iliana | Poplonski, Tomasz | Meeuwsen, Tanisha | Howells-Ferreira, Ana | Rattray, Rogan | Campbell, Mary | Bifulco, Carlo | Dubay, Christopher | Bahjat, Keith | Curti, Brendan | Urba, Walter | Vetsika, E-K | Kallergi, G. | Aggouraki, Despoina | Lyristi, Z. | Katsarlinos, P. | Koinis, Filippos | Georgoulias, V. | Kotsakis, Athanasios | Martin, Nathan T. | Aeffner, Famke | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Cerkovnik, Logan | Pratte, Luke | Kim, Rebecca | Hirsch, Brooke | Krueger, Joseph | Gianani, Roberto | Martínez-Usatorre, Amaia | Jandus, Camilla | Donda, Alena | Carretero-Iglesia, Laura | Speiser, Daniel E. | Zehn, Dietmar | Rufer, Nathalie | Romero, Pedro | Panda, Anshuman | Mehnert, Janice | Hirshfield, Kim M. | Riedlinger, Greg | Damare, Sherri | Saunders, Tracie | Sokol, Levi | Stein, Mark | Poplin, Elizabeth | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Silk, Ann | Chan, Nancy | Frankel, Melissa | Kane, Michael | Malhotra, Jyoti | Aisner, Joseph | Kaufman, Howard L. | Ali, Siraj | Ross, Jeffrey | White, Eileen | Bhanot, Gyan | Ganesan, Shridar | Monette, Anne | Bergeron, Derek | Amor, Amira Ben | Meunier, Liliane | Caron, Christine | Morou, Antigoni | Kaufmann, Daniel | Liberman, Moishe | Jurisica, Igor | Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie | Hamzaoui, Kamel | Lapointe, Rejean | Mongan, Ann | Ku, Yuan-Chieh | Tom, Warren | Sun, Yongming | Pankov, Alex | Looney, Tim | Au-Young, Janice | Hyland, Fiona | Conroy, Jeff | Morrison, Carl | Glenn, Sean | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Gardner, Mark | Mongan, Ann | Omilian, Angela R. | Conroy, Jeff | Bshara, Wiam | Angela, Omilian | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Glenn, Sean | Morrison, Carl | Mongan, Ann | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Smolkin, Mark E. | Deacon, Donna H. | Patterson, James W. | Chen, Lieping | Bullock, Timothy N. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Deacon, Donna H. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Bullock, Timothy N. | Loffredo, John T. | Vuyyuru, Raja | Beyer, Sophie | Spires, Vanessa M. | Fox, Maxine | Ehrmann, Jon M. | Taylor, Katrina A. | Korman, Alan J. | Graziano, Robert F. | Page, David | Sanchez, Katherine | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Martel, Maritza | Bifulco, Carlo | Urba, Walter | Fox, Bernard | Patel, Sapna P. | De Macedo, Mariana Petaccia | Qin, Yong | Reuben, Alex | Spencer, Christine | Guindani, Michele | Bassett, Roland | Wargo, Jennifer | Racolta, Adriana | Kelly, Brian | Jones, Tobin | Polaske, Nathan | Theiss, Noah | Robida, Mark | Meridew, Jeffrey | Habensus, Iva | Zhang, Liping | Pestic-Dragovich, Lidija | Tang, Lei | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Logan, Theodore | Khushalani, Nikhil | Margolin, Kim | Koon, Henry | Olencki, Thomas | Hutson, Thomas | Curti, Brendan | Roder, Joanna | Blackmon, Shauna | Roder, Heinrich | Stewart, John | Amin, Asim | Ernstoff, Marc S. | Clark, Joseph I. | Atkins, Michael B. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Sosman, Jeffrey | Weber, Jeffrey | McDermott, David F. | Weber, Jeffrey | Kluger, Harriet | Halaban, Ruth | Snzol, Mario | Roder, Heinrich | Roder, Joanna | Asmellash, Senait | Steingrimsson, Arni | Blackmon, Shauna | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Wang, Chichung | Roman, Kristin | Clement, Amanda | Downing, Sean | Hoyt, Clifford | Harder, Nathalie | Schmidt, Guenter | Schoenmeyer, Ralf | Brieu, Nicolas | Yigitsoy, Mehmet | Madonna, Gabriele | Botti, Gerardo | Grimaldi, Antonio | Ascierto, Paolo A. | Huss, Ralf | Athelogou, Maria | Hessel, Harald | Harder, Nathalie | Buchner, Alexander | Schmidt, Guenter | Stief, Christian | Huss, Ralf | Binnig, Gerd | Kirchner, Thomas | Sellappan, Shankar | Thyparambil, Sheeno | Schwartz, Sarit | Cecchi, Fabiola | Nguyen, Andrew | Vaske, Charles | Hembrough, Todd
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):1-106.
doi:10.1186/s40425-016-0172-7
PMCID: PMC5123387
2.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part two 
Ager, Casey | Reilley, Matthew | Nicholas, Courtney | Bartkowiak, Todd | Jaiswal, Ashvin | Curran, Michael | Albershardt, Tina C. | Bajaj, Anshika | Archer, Jacob F. | Reeves, Rebecca S. | Ngo, Lisa Y. | Berglund, Peter | ter Meulen, Jan | Denis, Caroline | Ghadially, Hormas | Arnoux, Thomas | Chanuc, Fabien | Fuseri, Nicolas | Wilkinson, Robert W. | Wagtmann, Nicolai | Morel, Yannis | Andre, Pascale | Atkins, Michael B. | Carlino, Matteo S. | Ribas, Antoni | Thompson, John A. | Choueiri, Toni K. | Hodi, F. Stephen | Hwu, Wen-Jen | McDermott, David F. | Atkinson, Victoria | Cebon, Jonathan S. | Fitzharris, Bernie | Jameson, Michael B. | McNeil, Catriona | Hill, Andrew G. | Mangin, Eric | Ahamadi, Malidi | van Vugt, Marianne | van Zutphen, Mariëlle | Ibrahim, Nageatte | Long, Georgina V. | Gartrell, Robyn | Blake, Zoe | Simoes, Ines | Fu, Yichun | Saito, Takuro | Qian, Yingzhi | Lu, Yan | Saenger, Yvonne M. | Budhu, Sadna | De Henau, Olivier | Zappasodi, Roberta | Schlunegger, Kyle | Freimark, Bruce | Hutchins, Jeff | Barker, Christopher A. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Burova, Elena | Allbritton, Omaira | Hong, Peter | Dai, Jie | Pei, Jerry | Liu, Matt | Kantrowitz, Joel | Lai, Venus | Poueymirou, William | MacDonald, Douglas | Ioffe, Ella | Mohrs, Markus | Olson, William | Thurston, Gavin | Capasso, Cristian | Frascaro, Federica | Carpi, Sara | Tähtinen, Siri | Feola, Sara | Fusciello, Manlio | Peltonen, Karita | Martins, Beatriz | Sjöberg, Madeleine | Pesonen, Sari | Ranki, Tuuli | Kyruk, Lukasz | Ylösmäki, Erkko | Cerullo, Vincenzo | Cerignoli, Fabio | Xi, Biao | Guenther, Garret | Yu, Naichen | Muir, Lincoln | Zhao, Leyna | Abassi, Yama | Cervera-Carrascón, Víctor | Siurala, Mikko | Santos, João | Havunen, Riikka | Parviainen, Suvi | Hemminki, Akseli | Dalgleish, Angus | Mudan, Satvinder | DeBenedette, Mark | Plachco, Ana | Gamble, Alicia | Grogan, Elizabeth W. | Krisko, John | Tcherepanova, Irina | Nicolette, Charles | Dhupkar, Pooja | Yu, Ling | Kleinerman, Eugenie S. | Gordon, Nancy | Grenga, Italia | Lepone, Lauren | Gameiro, Sofia | Knudson, Karin M. | Fantini, Massimo | Tsang, Kwong | Hodge, James | Donahue, Renee | Schlom, Jeffrey | Evans, Elizabeth | Bussler, Holm | Mallow, Crystal | Reilly, Christine | Torno, Sebold | Scrivens, Maria | Foster, Cathie | Howell, Alan | Balch, Leslie | Knapp, Alyssa | Leonard, John E. | Paris, Mark | Fisher, Terry | Hu-Lieskovan, Siwen | Ribas, Antoni | Smith, Ernest | Zauderer, Maurice | Fogler, William | Franklin, Marilyn | Thayer, Matt | Saims, Dan | Magnani, John L. | Gong, Jian | Gray, Michael | Hutchins, Jeff | Freimark, Bruce | Fromm, George | de Silva, Suresh | Giffin, Louise | Xu, Xin | Rose, Jason | Schreiber, Taylor H. | Fantini, Massimo | Gameiro, Sofia R. | Knudson, Karin M. | Clavijo, Paul E. | Allen, Clint T. | Donahue, Renee | Lepone, Lauren | Grenga, Italia | Hodge, James W. | Tsang, Kwong Y. | Schlom, Jeffrey | Gray, Michael | Gong, Jian | Hutchins, Jeff | Freimark, Bruce | Grogan, Jane | Manieri, Nicholas | Chiang, Eugene | Caplazi, Patrick | Yadav, Mahesh | Hagner, Patrick | Chiu, Hsiling | Waldman, Michelle | Klippel, Anke | Thakurta, Anjan | Pourdehnad, Michael | Gandhi, Anita | Henrich, Ian | Quick, Laura | Young, Rob | Chou, Margaret | Hotson, Andrew | Willingham, Stephen | Ho, Po | Choy, Carmen | Laport, Ginna | McCaffery, Ian | Miller, Richard | Tipton, Kimberly A. | Wong, Kenneth R. | Singson, Victoria | Wong, Chihunt | Chan, Chanty | Huang, Yuanhiu | Liu, Shouchun | Richardson, Jennifer H. | Kavanaugh, W. 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Maurice | Hammond, Scott A. | Schlom, Jeffrey | Greiner, John W. | Nath, Pulak R. | Schwartz, Anthony L. | Maric, Dragan | Roberts, David D. | Obermajer, Nataša | Bartlett, David | Kalinski, Pawel | Naing, Aung | Papadopoulos, Kyriakos P. | Autio, Karen A. | Wong, Deborah J. | Patel, Manish | Falchook, Gerald | Pant, Shubham | Ott, Patrick A. | Whiteside, Melinda | Patnaik, Amita | Mumm, John | Janku, Filip | Chan, Ivan | Bauer, Todd | Colen, Rivka | VanVlasselaer, Peter | Brown, Gail L. | Tannir, Nizar M. | Oft, Martin | Infante, Jeffrey | Lipson, Evan | Gopal, Ajay | Neelapu, Sattva S. | Armand, Philippe | Spurgeon, Stephen | Leonard, John P. | Hodi, F. Stephen | Sanborn, Rachel E. | Melero, Ignacio | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Maurer, Matthew | Perna, Serena | Gutierrez, Andres A. | Clynes, Raphael | Mitra, Priyam | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Gladstone, Douglas | Callahan, Margaret K. | Crooks, James | Brown, Sheila | Gauthier, Audrey | de Boisferon, Marc Hillairet | MacDonald, Andrew | Brunet, Laura Rosa | Rothwell, William T. | Bell, Peter | Wilson, James M. | Sato-Kaneko, Fumi | Yao, Shiyin | Zhang, Shannon S. | Carson, Dennis A. | Guiducci, Cristina | Coffman, Robert L. | Kitaura, Kazutaka | Matsutani, Takaji | Suzuki, Ryuji | Hayashi, Tomoko | Cohen, Ezra E. 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A. | Sayers, Thomas J. | Vasilakos, John P. | Alston, Tesha | Dovedi, Simon | Elvecrog, James | Grigsby, Iwen | Herbst, Ronald | Johnson, Karen | Moeckly, Craig | Mullins, Stefanie | Siebenaler, Kristen | SternJohn, Julius | Tilahun, Ashenafi | Tomai, Mark A. | Vogel, Katharina | Wilkinson, Robert W. | Vietsch, Eveline E. | Wellstein, Anton | Wythes, Martin | Crosignani, Stefano | Tumang, Joseph | Alekar, Shilpa | Bingham, Patrick | Cauwenberghs, Sandra | Chaplin, Jenny | Dalvie, Deepak | Denies, Sofie | De Maeseneire, Coraline | Feng, JunLi | Frederix, Kim | Greasley, Samantha | Guo, Jie | Hardwick, James | Kaiser, Stephen | Jessen, Katti | Kindt, Erick | Letellier, Marie-Claire | Li, Wenlin | Maegley, Karen | Marillier, Reece | Miller, Nichol | Murray, Brion | Pirson, Romain | Preillon, Julie | Rabolli, Virginie | Ray, Chad | Ryan, Kevin | Scales, Stephanie | Srirangam, Jay | Solowiej, Jim | Stewart, Al | Streiner, Nicole | Torti, Vince | Tsaparikos, Konstantinos | Zheng, Xianxian | Driessens, Gregory | Gomes, Bruno | Kraus, Manfred | Xu, Chunxiao | Zhang, Yanping | Kradjian, Giorgio | Qin, Guozhong | Qi, Jin | Xu, Xiaomei | Marelli, Bo | Yu, Huakui | Guzman, Wilson | Tighe, Rober | Salazar, Rachel | Lo, Kin-Ming | English, Jessie | Radvanyi, Laszlo | Lan, Yan | Zappasodi, Roberta | Budhu, Sadna | Hellmann, Matthew D. | Postow, Michael | Senbabaoglu, Yasin | Gasmi, Billel | Zhong, Hong | Li, Yanyun | Liu, Cailian | Hirschhorhn-Cymerman, Daniel | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Zha, Yuanyuan | Malnassy, Gregory | Fulton, Noreen | Park, Jae-Hyun | Stock, Wendy | Nakamura, Yusuke | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Liu, Hongtao | Ju, Xiaoming | Kosoff, Rachelle | Ramos, Kimberly | Coder, Brandon | Petit, Robert | Princiotta, Michael | Perry, Kyle | Zou, Jun | Arina, Ainhoa | Fernandez, Christian | Zheng, Wenxin | Beckett, Michael A. | Mauceri, Helena J. | Fu, Yang-Xin | Weichselbaum, Ralph R. | DeBenedette, Mark | Lewis, Whitney | Gamble, Alicia | Nicolette, Charles | Han, Yanyan | Wu, Yeting | Yang, Chou | Huang, Jing | Wu, Dongyun | Li, Jin | Liang, Xiaoling | Zhou, Xiangjun | Hou, Jinlin | Hassan, Raffit | Jahan, Thierry | Antonia, Scott J. | Kindler, Hedy L. | Alley, Evan W. | Honarmand, Somayeh | Liu, Weiqun | Leong, Meredith L. | Whiting, Chan C. | Nair, Nitya | Enstrom, Amanda | Lemmens, Edward E. | Tsujikawa, Takahiro | Kumar, Sushil | Coussens, Lisa M. | Murphy, Aimee L. | Brockstedt, Dirk G. | Koch, Sven D. | Sebastian, Martin | Weiss, Christian | Früh, Martin | Pless, Miklos | Cathomas, Richard | Hilbe, Wolfgang | Pall, Georg | Wehler, Thomas | Alt, Jürgen | Bischoff, Helge | Geissler, Michael | Griesinger, Frank | Kollmeier, Jens | Papachristofilou, Alexandros | Doener, Fatma | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Hipp, Madeleine | Hong, Henoch S. | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Klinkhardt, Ute | Stosnach, Claudia | Scheel, Birgit | Schroeder, Andreas | Seibel, Tobias | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Zippelius, Alfred | Park, Ha-Ram | Ahn, Yong-Oon | Kim, Tae Min | Kim, Soyeon | Kim, Seulki | Lee, Yu Soo | Keam, Bhumsuk | Kim, Dong-Wan | Heo, Dae Seog | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Weber, Amy | Morse, Jennifer | Kodumudi, Krithika | Liu, Hao | Mullinax, John | Sarnaik, Amod A. | Pike, Luke | Bang, Andrew | Ott, Patrick A. | Balboni, Tracy | Taylor, Allison | Spektor, Alexander | Wilhite, Tyler | Krishnan, Monica | Cagney, Daniel | Alexander, Brian | Aizer, Ayal | Buchbinder, Elizabeth | Awad, Mark | Ghandi, Leena | Hodi, F. Stephen | Schoenfeld, Jonathan | Schwartz, Anthony L. | Nath, Pulak R. | Lessey-Morillon, Elizabeth | Ridnour, Lisa | Roberts, David D. | Segal, Neil H. | Sharma, Manish | Le, Dung T. | Ott, Patrick A. | Ferris, Robert L. | Zelenetz, Andrew D. | Neelapu, Sattva S. | Levy, Ronald | Lossos, Izidore S. | Jacobson, Caron | Ramchandren, Radhakrishnan | Godwin, John | Colevas, A. Dimitrios | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Timmerman, John | Vanpouille-Box, Claire I. | Formenti, Silvia C. | Demaria, Sandra | Wennerberg, Erik | Mediero, Aranzazu | Cronstein, Bruce N. | Formenti, Silvia C. | Demaria, Sandra | Gustafson, Michael P. | DiCostanzo, AriCeli | Wheatley, Courtney | Kim, Chul-Ho | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Johnson, Bruce D. | Dietz, Allan B. | MacDonald, Cameron | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Turbitt, William J. | Xu, Yitong | Mastro, Andrea | Rogers, Connie J. | Withers, Sita | Wang, Ziming | Khuat, Lam T. | Dunai, Cordelia | Blazar, Bruce R. | Longo, Dan | Rebhun, Robert | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Monjazeb, Arta | Murphy, William J. | Rowlinson, Scott | Agnello, Giulia | Alters, Susan | Lowe, David | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Whetstone, Ryan | Zeng, Xue | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Santos, Patricia M. | Menk, Ashley V. | Shi, Jian | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Butterfield, Lisa H. | Whetstone, Ryan | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg | Nagasaka, Misako | Sukari, Ammar | Byrne-Steele, Miranda | Pan, Wenjing | Hou, Xiaohong | Brown, Brittany | Eisenhower, Mary | Han, Jian | Collins, Natalie | Manguso, Robert | Pope, Hans | Shrestha, Yashaswi | Boehm, Jesse | Haining, W. Nicholas | Cron, Kyle R. | Sivan, Ayelet | Aquino-Michaels, Keston | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Orecchioni, Marco | Bedognetti, Davide | Hendrickx, Wouter | Fuoco, Claudia | Spada, Filomena | Sgarrella, Francesco | Cesareni, Gianni | Marincola, Francesco | Kostarelos, Kostas | Bianco, Alberto | Delogu, Lucia | Hendrickx, Wouter | Roelands, Jessica | Boughorbel, Sabri | Decock, Julie | Presnell, Scott | Wang, Ena | Marincola, Franco M. | Kuppen, Peter | Ceccarelli, Michele | Rinchai, Darawan | Chaussabel, Damien | Miller, Lance | Bedognetti, Davide | Nguyen, Andrew | Sanborn, J. Zachary | Vaske, Charles | Rabizadeh, Shahrooz | Niazi, Kayvan | Benz, Steven | Patel, Shashank | Restifo, Nicholas | White, James | Angiuoli, Sam | Sausen, Mark | Jones, Sian | Sevdali, Maria | Simmons, John | Velculescu, Victor | Diaz, Luis | Zhang, Theresa | Sims, Jennifer S. | Barton, Sunjay M. | Gartrell, Robyn | Kadenhe-Chiweshe, Angela | Dela Cruz, Filemon | Turk, Andrew T. | Lu, Yan | Mazzeo, Christopher F. | Kung, Andrew L. | Bruce, Jeffrey N. | Saenger, Yvonne M. | Yamashiro, Darrell J. | Connolly, Eileen P. | Baird, Jason | Crittenden, Marka | Friedman, David | Xiao, Hong | Leidner, Rom | Bell, Bryan | Young, Kristina | Gough, Michael | Bian, Zhen | Kidder, Koby | Liu, Yuan | Curran, Emily | Chen, Xiufen | Corrales, Leticia P. | Kline, Justin | Dunai, Cordelia | Aguilar, Ethan G. | Khuat, Lam T. | Murphy, William J. | Guerriero, Jennifer | Sotayo, Alaba | Ponichtera, Holly | Pourzia, Alexandra | Schad, Sara | Carrasco, Ruben | Lazo, Suzan | Bronson, Roderick | Letai, Anthony | Kornbluth, Richard S. | Gupta, Sachin | Termini, James | Guirado, Elizabeth | Stone, Geoffrey W. | Meyer, Christina | Helming, Laura | Tumang, Joseph | Wilson, Nicholas | Hofmeister, Robert | Radvanyi, Laszlo | Neubert, Natalie J. | Tillé, Laure | Barras, David | Soneson, Charlotte | Baumgaertner, Petra | Rimoldi, Donata | Gfeller, David | Delorenzi, Mauro | Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A. | Speiser, Daniel E. | Abraham, Tara S. | Xiang, Bo | Magee, Michael S. | Waldman, Scott A. | Snook, Adam E. | Blogowski, Wojciech | Zuba-Surma, Ewa | Budkowska, Marta | Salata, Daria | Dolegowska, Barbara | Starzynska, Teresa | Chan, Leo | Somanchi, Srinivas | McCulley, Kelsey | Lee, Dean | Buettner, Nico | Shi, Feng | Myers, Paisley T. | Curbishley, Stuart | Penny, Sarah A. | Steadman, Lora | Millar, David | Speers, Ellen | Ruth, Nicola | Wong, Gabriel | Thimme, Robert | Adams, David | Cobbold, Mark | Thomas, Remy | Hendrickx, Wouter | Al-Muftah, Mariam | Decock, Julie | Wong, Michael KK | Morse, Michael | McDermott, David F. | Clark, Joseph I. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Daniels, Gregory A. | Hua, Hong | Rao, Tharak | Dutcher, Janice P. | Kang, Kai | Saunthararajah, Yogen | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Kumar, Vikas | Anwar, Firoz | Verma, Amita | Chheda, Zinal | Kohanbash, Gary | Sidney, John | Okada, Kaori | Shrivastav, Shruti | Carrera, Diego A. | Liu, Shuming | Jahan, Naznin | Mueller, Sabine | Pollack, Ian F. | Carcaboso, Angel M. | Sette, Alessandro | Hou, Yafei | Okada, Hideho | Field, Jessica J. | Zeng, Weiping | Shih, Vincent FS | Law, Che-Leung | Senter, Peter D. | Gardai, Shyra J. | Okeley, Nicole M. | Penny, Sarah A. | Abelin, Jennifer G. | Saeed, Abu Z. | Malaker, Stacy A. | Myers, Paisley T. | Shabanowitz, Jeffrey | Ward, Stephen T. | Hunt, Donald F. | Cobbold, Mark | Profusek, Pam | Wood, Laura | Shepard, Dale | Grivas, Petros | Kapp, Kerstin | Volz, Barbara | Oswald, Detlef | Wittig, Burghardt | Schmidt, Manuel | Sefrin, Julian P. | Hillringhaus, Lars | Lifke, Valeria | Lifke, Alexander | Skaletskaya, Anna | Ponte, Jose | Chittenden, Thomas | Setiady, Yulius | Valsesia-Wittmann, Sandrine | Sivado, Eva | Thomas, Vincent | El Alaoui, Meddy | Papot, Sébastien | Dumontet, Charles | Dyson, Mike | McCafferty, John | El Alaoui, Said | Verma, Amita | Kumar, Vikas | Bommareddy, Praveen K. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Zloza, Andrew | Kohlhapp, Frederick | Silk, Ann W. | Jhawar, Sachin | Paneque, Tomas | Bommareddy, Praveen K. | Kohlhapp, Frederick | Newman, Jenna | Beltran, Pedro | Zloza, Andrew | Kaufman, Howard L. | Cao, Felicia | Hong, Bang-Xing | Rodriguez-Cruz, Tania | Song, Xiao-Tong | Gottschalk, Stephen | Calderon, Hugo | Illingworth, Sam | Brown, Alice | Fisher, Kerry | Seymour, Len | Champion, Brian | Eriksson, Emma | Wenthe, Jessica | Hellström, Ann-Charlotte | Paul-Wetterberg, Gabriella | Loskog, Angelica | Eriksson, Emma | Milenova, Ioanna | Wenthe, Jessica | Ståhle, Magnus | Jarblad-Leja, Justyna | Ullenhag, Gustav | Dimberg, Anna | Moreno, Rafael | Alemany, Ramon | Loskog, Angelica | Eriksson, Emma | Milenova, Ioanna | Moreno, Rafael | Alemany, Ramon
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):107-221.
doi:10.1186/s40425-016-0173-6
PMCID: PMC5123381
3.  A Model for Perineural Invasion in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma 
Perineural invasion (PNI) is found in approximately 40% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Despite multimodal treatment with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, locoregional recurrences and distant metastases occur at higher rates, and overall survival is decreased by 40% compared to HNSCC without PNI. In vitro studies of the pathways involved in HNSCC PNI have historically been challenging given the lack of a consistent, reproducible assay. Described here is the adaptation of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) assay for the examination of PNI in HNSCC. In this model, DRG are harvested from the spinal column of a sacrificed nude mouse and placed within a semisolid matrix. Over the subsequent days, neurites are generated and grow in a radial pattern from the cell bodies of the DRG. HNSCC cell lines are then placed peripherally around the matrix and invade preferentially along the neurites toward the DRG. This method allows for rapid evaluation of multiple treatment conditions, with very high assay success rates and reproducibility.
doi:10.3791/55043
PMCID: PMC5408652  PMID: 28117782
Cancer Research; Issue 119; head and neck cancer; squamous cell carcinoma; perineural invasion; dorsal root ganglion; matrigel; mouse model
4.  Adaptive resistance to anti-PD1 therapy by Tim-3 upregulation is mediated by the PI3K-Akt pathway in head and neck cancer 
Oncoimmunology  2016;6(1):e1261779.
ABSTRACT
Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) and T cell Ig and mucin domain-3 protein (Tim-3) are immune checkpoint receptors that are expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in tumor-bearing mice and humans. As anti-PD-1 single agent response rates are only <20% in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients, it is important to understand how multiple inhibitory checkpoint receptors maintain suppressed cellular immunity. One such receptor, Tim-3, activates downstream proliferative pathways through Akt/S6, and is highly expressed in dysfunctional TIL. We observed that PD-1 and Tim-3 co-expression was associated with a more exhausted phenotype, with the highest PD-1 levels on TIL co-expressing Tim-3. Dampened Akt/S6 phosphorylation in these PD-1+Tim-3+ TIL, when the PD-1 pathway was ligated, suggested that signaling cross-talk could lead to escape through Tim-3 expression. Indeed, PD-1 blockade of human HNSCC TIL led to further Tim-3 upregulation, supporting a circuit of compensatory signaling and potentially permitting escape from anti-PD-1 blockade in the tumor microenvironment. Also, in a murine HNC tumor model that is partially responsive to anti-PD-1 therapy, Tim-3 was upregulated in TIL from persistently growing tumors. Significant antitumor activity was observed after sequential addition of anti-Tim-3 mAb to overcome adaptive resistance to anti-PD-1 mAb. This increased Tim-3-mediated escape of exhausted TIL from PD-1 inhibition that was mediated by phospho-inositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt complex downstream of TCR signaling but not cytokine-mediated pathways. Taken together, we conclude that during PD-1 blockade, TIL upregulate Tim-3 in a PI3K/Akt-dependent manner, providing further support for dual targeting of these molecules for more effective cancer immunotherapy.
doi:10.1080/2162402X.2016.1261779
PMCID: PMC5283618  PMID: 28197389
Head and neck cancer; immunotherapy; monoclonal antibody; PD-1; Tim-3
5.  Immunotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer: Emerging Clinical Trials From a National Cancer Institute Head and Neck Cancer Steering Committee Planning Meeting 
Cancer  2016;123(7):1259-1271.
Recent advances have permitted successful therapeutic targeting of the immune system in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). These new immunotherapeutic targets and agents are being rapidly adopted by the oncologic community and hold considerable promise. The National Cancer Institute sponsored a Clinical Trials Planning Meeting to address the issue of how to further investigate the use of immunotherapy in patients with HNSCC. The goals of the meeting were to consider phase 2 or 3 trial designs primarily in 3 different patient populations: those with previously untreated, human papillomavirus-initiated oropharyngeal cancers; those with previously untreated, human papillomavirus-negative HNSCC; and those with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC. In addition, a separate committee was formed to develop integrative biomarkers for the clinical trials. The meeting started with an overview of key immune components and principles related to HNSCC, including immunosurveillance and immune escape. Four clinical trial concepts were developed at the meeting integrating different immunotherapies with existing standards of care. These designs were presented for implementation by the head and neck committees of the National Cancer Institute-funded National Clinical Trials Network. This article summarizes the proceedings of this Clinical Trials Planning Meeting, the purpose of which was to facilitate the rigorous development and design of randomized phase 2 and 3 immunotherapeutic trials in patients with HNSCC. Although reviews usually are published immediately after the meeting is held, this report is unique because there are now tangible clinical trial designs that have been funded and put into practice and the studies are being activated to accrual.
doi:10.1002/cncr.30449
PMCID: PMC5705038  PMID: 27906454
checkpoint inhibitors; clinical trials; head and neck cancer; human papillomavirus; immunotherapy
6.  E1308: Phase II Trial of Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Reduced-Dose Radiation and Weekly Cetuximab in Patients With HPV-Associated Resectable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx— ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2016;35(5):490-497.
Purpose
Human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is treatment-responsive. Definitive chemoradiation results in high cure rates but causes long-term toxicity and may represent overtreatment of some patients. This phase II trial evaluated whether complete clinical response (cCR) to induction chemotherapy (IC) could select patients with HPV-associated OPSCC for reduced radiation dose as a means of sparing late sequelae.
Methods
Patients with HPV16 and/or p16-positive, stage III-IV OPSCC received three cycles of IC with cisplatin, paclitaxel, and cetuximab. Patients with primary-site cCR to IC received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) 54 Gy with weekly cetuximab; those with less than cCR to IC at the primary site or nodes received 69.3 Gy and cetuximab to those regions. The primary end point was 2-year progression-free survival.
Results
Of the 90 patients enrolled, 80 were evaluable. Their median age was 57 years (range, 35 to 73 years), with the majority having stage T1-3N0-N2b OPSCC and a history of ≤ 10 pack-years of cigarette smoking. Three cycles of IC were delivered to 77 of the 80 patients. Fifty-six patients (70%) achieved a primary-site cCR to IC and 51 patients continued to cetuximab with IMRT 54 Gy. After median follow-up of 35.4 months, 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 80% and 94%, respectively, for patients with primary-site cCR treated with 54 Gy of radiation (n = 51); 96% and 96%, respectively, for patients with < T4, < N2c, and ≤ 10 pack-year smoking history who were treated with ≤ 54 Gy of radiation (n = 27). At 12 months, significantly fewer patients treated with a radiation dose ≤ 54 Gy had difficulty swallowing solids (40% v 89%; P = .011) or had impaired nutrition (10% v 44%; P = .025).
Conclusion
For IC responders, reduced-dose IMRT with concurrent cetuximab is worthy of further study in favorable-risk patients with HPV-associated OPSCC. Radiation dose reduction resulted in significantly improved swallowing and nutritional status.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2016.68.3300
PMCID: PMC5455313  PMID: 28029303
7.  Anti-EGFR targeted monoclonal antibody isotype influences anti-tumor cellular immunity in head and neck cancer patients 
Purpose
EGFR is highly overexpressed on several cancers and two targeted anti-EGFR antibodies which differ by isotype are FDA approved for clinical use. Cetuximab (IgG1 isotype) inhibits downstream signaling of EGFR and activates anti-tumor, cellular immune mechanisms. As panitumumab (IgG2 isotype) may inhibit downstream EGFR signaling similar to cetuximab, it might also induce adaptive immunity.
Experimental Design
We measured in vitro activation of cellular components of the innate and adaptive immune system. We also studied the in vivo activation of components of the adaptive immune system in patient specimens from two recent clinical trials using cetuximab or panitumumab.
Results
Both mAb primarily activate NK cells, although cetuximab is significantly more potent than panitumumab. Cetuximab-activated neutrophils mediate ADCC against HNSCC tumor cells, and interestingly, this effect was FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIa genotype dependent. Panitumumab may activate monocytes through CD32 (FcγRIIa), however monocytes activated by either mAb are not able to mediate ADCC. Cetuximab enhanced DC maturation to a greater extent than panitumumab, which was associated with improved tumor antigen cross presentation by cetuximab compared with panitumumab. This correlated with increased EGFR-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in patients treated with cetuximab compared to those treated with panitumumab.
Conclusions
Although panitumumab effectively inhibits EGFR signaling to a similar extent as cetuximab, it is less effective at triggering anti-tumor, cellular immune mechanisms which may be crucial for effective therapy of HNSCC.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-2971
PMCID: PMC5093040  PMID: 27217441
Head and neck cancer; EGFR; Monoclonal antibody; Immunotherapy
8.  Subsets of Salivary Duct Carcinoma Defined by Morphologic Evidence of Pleomorphic Adenoma, PLAG1 or HMGA2 Rearrangements, and Common Genetic Alterations 
Cancer  2016;122(20):3136-3144.
Background
We hypothesized that histogenetic classification of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) could account for de novo cases and those with morphologic or molecular evidence (PLAG1, HMGA2 rearrangement, amplification) of pleomorphic adenoma (PA).
Methods
SDCs (n=66) were reviewed for morphologic evidence of PA. PLAG1 and HMGA2 alterations were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). PLAG1 positive cases were tested for FGFR1 rearrangement (by FISH). Thirty-nine cases were analyzed by the Ion Ampliseq Cancer HotSpot panel v2 for mutations and copy number variation in 50 cancer-related genes.
Results
Based on combined morphologic and molecular evidence of PA, four subsets of SDC emerged: 1) carcinomas with morphologic evidence of PA, but intact PLAG1 and HMGA2 (n=22); 2) carcinomas with PLAG1 (n=18), or 3) HMGA2 alteration (n=12); and 4) de novo carcinomas, without morphologic or molecular evidence of PA (n=14). The median disease free survival was 37 months (95% confidence interval, 28.4 – 45.6 months). Disease free survival and other clinicopathologic parameters did not differ by above defined subsets. Combined HRAS/PIK3CA mutations were seen predominantly in de novo carcinomas (5/8 vs 2/31, p = 0.035). ERBB2 copy number gain was not seen in de novo carcinoma (0/8 vs. 12/31, p = 0.08). TP53 mutations were more common in SDC ex PA than in de novo cases (17/31 vs. 1/8, p = 0.033).
Conclusion
The genetic profile of SDC varies with the absence or presence of pre-existing PA and its cytogenetic signature. Most de novo SDCs harbor combined HRAS/PIK3CA mutations and no ERBB2 amplification.
Condensed Abstract
Based on morphologic and molecular (PLAG1 and HMGA2 status) evidence of pleomorphic adenoma, four subsets of salivary duct carcinoma were identified with distinct distribution of potentially targetable genetic alteration. Next generation sequencing revealed that de novo salivary duct carcinomas are characterized by combined HRAS/PIK3CA mutations and absence of ERBB2 copy number gain.
doi:10.1002/cncr.30179
PMCID: PMC5048512  PMID: 27379604
9.  Tumor-infiltrating Tim-3+ T cells proliferate avidly except when PD-1 is co-expressed: Evidence for intracellular cross talk 
Oncoimmunology  2016;5(10):e1200778.
ABSTRACT
Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) and T cell Ig and mucin domain-3 protein (Tim-3) are immune checkpoint receptors highly expressed on tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes (TIL). PD-1 inhibits T cell activation and type-1 T cell responses, while Tim-3 is proposed to mark more extensively exhausted cells, although the mechanisms underlying Tim-3 function are not clear. Trials of anti-PD-1 therapy have identified a large subset of non-responder patients, likely due to expression of alternative checkpoint molecules like Tim-3. We investigated the phenotypic and functional characteristics of T cells with differential expression of PD-1 (high/low) and Tim-3 (positive/negative), using TIL directly isolated from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Unexpectedly, we found that expression of Tim-3 alone does not necessarily mark TIL as dysfunctional/exhausted. In Tim-3-TIL, PD-1 levels correlate with T cell dysfunction, with a PD-1low/intermed phenotype identifying recently activated and still functional cells, whereas PD-1hiTim-3− T cells are actually exhausted. Nonetheless, PD-1intermed cells are still potently suppressed by PD-L1. PD-1 expression was associated with reduced phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (pS6), whereas Tim-3 expression was associated with increased pS6. Using a novel mouse model for inducible Tim-3 expression, we confirmed that expression of Tim-3 does not necessarily render T cells refractory to further activation. These results suggest the existence of PD-1 and Tim-3 crosstalk in regulating antitumor T cell responses, with important implications for anti-PD-1 immunotherapy.
doi:10.1080/2162402X.2016.1200778
PMCID: PMC5087305  PMID: 27853635
Activation; exhaustion; PD-1; TIL; Tim-3
10.  KRAS-variant is a biomarker of cetuximab response potentially through altered immunity in head and neck cancer: Re-analysis of NRG Oncology/RTOG 0522 
JAMA oncology  2017;3(4):483-491.
Importance
There is a significant need to find biomarkers of response to radiation and cetuximab in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), as well as biomarkers predicting altered immunity, thereby enabling personalized treatment.
Objective
To evaluate if the KRAS-variant, a germ-line mutation in a microRNA-binding site in KRAS, is a predictive biomarker of cetuximab response and altered immunity in the setting of radiation and cisplatin treatment. To evaluate the interaction of the KRAS-variant with p16 status and blood-based TGF-β1.
Design
Advanced HNSCC patients from NRG Oncology RTOG 0522, a Phase III trial of cisplatin plus radiation+/−cetuximab, were included in this study, and patients with available samples were genotyped for the KRAS-variant.
Methods
Genomic DNA was tested for the KRAS-variant in a CLIA-certified laboratory. Correlation between the KRAS-variant, p16 positivity, outcome, and TGF-β1 levels was evaluated. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox model.
Main Outcomes and Measures
The correlation of KRAS-variant status with cetuximab response and outcome, p16 status, and plasma TGF-β1 levels was tested.
Results
Of 891 RTOG 0522 patients eligible for protocol analyses, 413 had biological samples for KRAS-variant testing, and 376 had plasma for TGF-β1 measurement. Seventy patients (16.9%) had the KRAS-variant. Overall, for KRAS-variant patients, cetuximab improved both progression-free survival (PFS) for the first year (HR 0.31, 95%CI 0.10–0.94, p=0.04) and overall survival (OS) in years 1–2 (HR 0.19, 95%CI 0.04–0.86, p=0.03). There was a significant interaction of the KRAS-variant with p16 status for PFS in patients treated without cetuximab (p=0.04). In p16 positive patients, KRAS-variant patients treated without cetuximab had worse PFS than non-variant patients (HR 2.59, 95%CI 0.91–7.33, p=0.07). There was a significant three-way interaction between the KRAS-variant, p16 status and treatment for OS (p=0.02). KRAS-variant patients had significantly elevated TGF-β1 plasma levels (p=0.03), and a trend for worse treatment-related toxicity.
Conclusion and Relevance
KRAS-variant HNSCC patients significantly benefit from the addition of cetuximab to radiation and cisplatin, and there is a significant interaction between the KRAS-variant and p16 status. Elevated TGF-β1in KRAS-variant patients suggests that cetuximab may help these patients by overcoming TGF-beta induced suppression of antitumor immunity.
doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.5478
PMCID: PMC5470422  PMID: 28006059
12.  The Tumor Microenvironment Represses T Cell Mitochondrial Biogenesis to Drive Intratumoral T Cell Metabolic Insufficiency and Dysfunction 
Immunity  2016;45(2):374-388.
SUMMARY
Although tumor-specific T cells recognize cancer cells, they are often rendered dysfunctional due to an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Here we showed that T cells demonstrated persistent loss of mitochondrial function and mass when infiltrating murine and human tumors, an effect specific to the tumor microenvironment and not merely caused by activation. Tumor-infiltrating T cells showed a progressive loss of PPAR-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α), which programs mitochondrial biogenesis, induced by chronic Akt signaling in tumor-specific T cells. Reprogramming tumor-specific T cells through enforced expression of PGC1α resulted in superior intratumoral metabolic and effector function. Our data support a model in which signals in the tumor microenvironment repress T cell oxidative metabolism, resulting in effector cells with metabolic needs that cannot be met. Our studies also suggest that modulation or reprogramming of the altered metabolism of tumor-infiltrating T cells might represent a potential strategy to reinvigorate dysfunctional T cells for cancer treatment.
doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2016.07.009
PMCID: PMC5207350  PMID: 27496732
13.  Dendritic Cell-Based Autologous Tumor Vaccines for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Promise vs Reality 
Head & neck  2015;38(Suppl 1):E494-E501.
Background
An autologous vaccine of apoptotic tumor cells (ATC) & dendritic cells (DC) was administered to stage III/IV HNSCC patients to study safety and feasibility.
Methods
Autologous DC were generated from monocytes, loaded with ATC and delivered intranodally. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and immunological endpoints were measured pre/post vaccination. Clinical follow-up was required.
Results
Tumors obtained from 30 patients yielded 2×106 – 2×108 tumor cells. Only 19/30 (63%) were sterile. 10/30 patients (33%) had ≥1×107 sterile tumor cells required for vaccine production. 8/10 had positive recall DTH. 5/10 were leukapheresed to generate DC. 4/5 were vaccinated. ATC-reactive T cells were detected in 3/4 patients. All 4 survived > 5 years. The trial failed to enroll the projected 12 patients and was terminated.
Conclusions
This vaccine was safe and immunogenic but feasible only in HNSCC patients with positive pre-vaccine DTH and ≥1×107 sterile tumor cells. All vaccinated patients were long-term disease-free survivors. [Words, 150]
doi:10.1002/hed.24025
PMCID: PMC5542585  PMID: 25735641
dendritic cells; apoptotic tumor cells; HNSCC; vaccine; T-cell responses
14.  Nimotuzumab Induces NK Cell Activation, Cytotoxicity, Dendritic Cell Maturation and Expansion of EGFR-Specific T Cells in Head and Neck Cancer Patients 
Survival benefit and long-term duration of clinical response have been seen using the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted monoclonal antibody (mAb) nimotuzumab. Blocking EGFR signaling may not be the only mechanism of action underlying its efficacy. As an IgG1 isotype mAb, nimotuzumab’s capacity of killing tumor cells by antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and to induce an immune response in cancer patients have not been studied. ADCC-induced by nimotuzumab was determined using a 51Cr release assay. The in vitro effect of nimotuzumab on natural killer (NK) cell activation and dendritic cell (DC) maturation and the in vivo frequency of circulating regulatory T cells (Tregs) and NK cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Cytokine levels in supernatants were determined by ELISA. ELISpot was carried out to quantify EGFR-specific T cells in nimotuzumab-treated head and neck cancer (HNSCC) patients. Nimotuzumab was able to kill EGFR+ tumor cells by NK cell-mediated ADCC. Nimotuzumab-activated NK cells promoted DC maturation and EGFR-specific CD8+ T cell priming. Interestingly, nimotuzumab led to upregulation of some immune checkpoint molecules on NK cells (TIM-3) and DC (PD-L1), to a lower extent than another EGFR mAb, cetuximab. Furthermore, circulating EGFR-specific T cells were identified in nimotuzumab-treated HNSCC patients. Notably, nimotuzumab combined with cisplatin-based chemotherapy and radiation increased the frequency of peripheral CD4+CD39+FOXP3+Tregs which otherwise were decreased to baseline values when nimotuzumab was used as monotherapy. The frequency of circulating NK cells remained constant during treatment. Nimotuzumab-induced, NK cell-mediated DC priming led to induction of anti-EGFR specific T cells in HNSCC patients. The association between EGFR-specific T cells and patient clinical benefit with nimotuzumab treatment should be investigated.
doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00382
PMCID: PMC5474456
human epidermal growth factor receptor; head and neck cancer; monoclonal antibodies; natural killer cells; T cells
15.  Characterization of human papillomavirus antibodies in individuals with head and neck cancer 
Cancer epidemiology  2016;42:46-52.
BACKGROUND
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E6 antibodies are a promising biomarker of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC); however, seropositivity among non-OPC cases is not well characterized.
METHODS
Pre-treatment sera from 260 (38 OPC, 222 non-OPC) incident head and neck cancers diagnosed at the University of Pittsburgh between 2003 and 2006 were tested for HPV16 (L1,E1,E2,E4,E6,E7) and non-HPV16 E6 (HPV6,11,18,33) antibodies. Sensitivity and specificity of HPV16 E6 antibodies for HPV-driven tumors was evaluated among tumors with known HPV status (n=25).
RESULTS
63.2% of OPC versus 27.5% of non-OPC cases were HPV16 seropositive; HPV16 E6 seroprevalence was 60.5% and 6.3% respectively, odds ratio 22.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.8–53.1). Sensitivity and specificity of HPV16 E6 antibodies for HPV-driven OPC was 100% [95%CI:50%–100%; n=6] and 100% [95%CI:60%–100%, n=4] compared to 0% (n=2) and 0% (n=13) for non-OPC cases.
CONCLUSIONS
HPV16 antibodies were significantly more common in OPC versus non-OPC cases, particularly HPV16 E6 antibodies.
doi:10.1016/j.canep.2016.03.003
PMCID: PMC4910878  PMID: 27010729
human papillomavirus 16; HPV16; HPV16 E6; HPV antibodies; HPV seropositivity; oropharyngeal cancer; OPC; non-oropharyngeal cancer; non-OPC
16.  Is There a Role for Robotic Surgery in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer? 
Opinion statement
Given the potential for long-term toxicities from concurrent chemoradiation, there is great interest in surgery as a primary treatment modality for head and neck cancers, particularly in the younger HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer patient. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has proven to be an effective technique to safely treat oropharyngeal and select supraglottic tumors surgically. Sound, traditional surgical principles are employed using improved endoscopic visualization and precise instrumentation to perform oncologic surgery without the morbidity of transmandibular or transcervical approaches. Although level 1 evidence prospective clinical trials are currently underway for TORS, the literature supports its safety and efficacy based on numerous studies. Currently, prospective randomized trials are underway to provide better evidence for or against TORS in oropharyngeal cancer. Patient selection based on comorbidities, anatomy, and available pathological data is critical in choosing patients for TORS.
doi:10.1007/s11864-016-0405-5
PMCID: PMC5423354  PMID: 27117980
Transoral robotic surgery; Oropharyngeal cancer; Head and neck cancer; TORS; Minimally invasive surgery
17.  Reversing EGFR Mediated Immunoescape by Targeted Monoclonal Antibody Therapy 
Uncontrolled growth is a signature of carcinogenesis, in part mediated by overexpression or overstimulation of growth factor receptors. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediates activation of multiple oncogenic signaling pathways and escape from recognition by the host immune system. We discuss how EGFR signaling downregulates tumor antigen presentation, upregulates suppressive checkpoint receptor ligand programmed death ligand (PD-L1), induces secretion of inhibitory molecules such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and reprograms the metabolic pathways in cancer cells to upregulate aerobic glycolysis and lactate secretion that ultimately lead to impaired cellular immunity mediated by natural killer (NK) cell and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Ultimately, our understanding of EGFR-mediated escape mechanisms has led us to design EGFR-specific monoclonal antibody therapies that not only inhibit tumor cell metabolic changes and intrinsic oncogenic signaling but also activates immune cells that mediate tumor clearance. Importantly, targeted immunotherapy may also benefit from combination with antibodies that target other immunosuppressive pathways such PD-L1 or TGFβ and ultimately enhance clinical efficacy.
doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00332
PMCID: PMC5447743
EGFR; PD-L1; PD-1; HLA class I; Immunoescape; aerobic glycolysis; T cells
18.  Utility of up-front transoral robotic surgery in tailoring adjuvant therapy 
Head & neck  2016;38(8):1201-1207.
Background
The purpose of this study was to describe how the up-front transoral robotic surgery (TORS) approach could be used to individually tailor adjuvant therapy based on surgical pathology.
Methods
Between January 2009 and December 2013, 76 patients received TORS for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Clinical predictors of adjuvant therapy were analyzed and comparisons were made between recommended treatment guidelines for up-front surgery versus definitive nonsurgical approaches.
Results
Advanced N classification, human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive tumor, extracapsular spread (ECS; 26 of 76), perineural invasion (PNI; 14 of 76), and positive margins (7 of 76) were significant predictors of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (p < .05). Up-front TORS deintensified adjuvant therapy; 76% of stage I/II and 46% of stage III/IV patients avoided CRT. Conversely, pathologic staging resulted in 33% of patients who would have received radiotherapy (RT) alone based on clinical staging, to be intensified to receive adjuvant CRT.
Conclusion
The TORS approach deintensifies adjuvant therapy and provides valuable pathologic information to intensify treatment in select patients. TORS may be less effective in deintensification of adjuvant therapy in patients with clinically advanced N classification disease.
doi:10.1002/hed.24390
PMCID: PMC5436619  PMID: 27225507
transoral robotic surgery (TORS); adjuvant therapy; oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC); oropharynx; decision-making
19.  Current Role of Surgery in the Management of Oropharyngeal Cancer 
Journal of oncology practice  2016;12(11):1176-1183.
The 1990s saw an increased use of chemoradiotherapy protocols, commonly referred to as organ-sparing therapy, for the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer after the Groupe d’Oncologie Radiothérapie Tête Cou trial. Since that time, human papillomavirus–associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma has been identified as a unique disease, with improved survival regardless of treatment modality. The improved outcomes of this population has led to re-evaluation of treatment paradigms in the past decade, with a desire to spare young, human papillomavirus–positive patients the treatment-related toxicities of chemoradiotherapy and to use new minimally invasive surgical techniques to improve outcomes. Numerous retrospective and prospective studies have investigated the role of surgery in treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma and have demonstrated equivalent oncologic outcomes and improved functional outcomes compared with chemoradiotherapy protocols. Ongoing and future clinical trials may help delineate the role of surgery in the future.
doi:10.1200/JOP.2016.015263
PMCID: PMC5423357  PMID: 27858544
20.  Inhibition of soluble tumor necrosis factor prevents chemically-induced carcinogenesis in mice 
Cancer immunology research  2016;4(5):441-451.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a potent promoter of carcinogenesis and potentially important target for cancer prevention. TNF is produced as functionally distinct transmembrane and soluble molecules (tmTNF and sTNF, respectively), but their individual roles in carcinogenesis are unexplored. We investigated the participation of tmTNF and sTNF in chemically induced carcinogenesis in mice. We found that injection of XPro1595, a dominant-negative TNF biologic (DN-TNF) and specific antagonist of sTNF, decreased tumor incidence and growth, and prolonged survival of 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-injected mice. Similar results were obtained following the exclusion of both TNF forms by either TNF-receptor 2–Fc fusion protein (TNFR2-Fc) treatment or TNF-gene deletion. In addition, gene-deletion of TNFR1, which is preferentially triggered by sTNF, temporarily blocked, whereas gene-deletion of TNFR2, which is preferentially triggered by tmTNF, enhanced MCA-induced carcinogenesis. Concomitantly with carcinogenesis induction, MCA increased circulating IL1α, accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor-cells (MDSCs), STAT3 phosphorylation, and immunosuppression in the spleen. In sharp contrast, DN-TNF treatment dramatically decreased IL1α and increased the essential immunoregulatory cytokines IL1β, IL12p70, and IL17 in the peripheral blood of MCA-injected mice. In addition, MDSC accumulation, STAT3 phosphorylation, and immunosuppression in MCA-injected mice were prevented by DN-TNF treatment, TNFR2-Fc treatment, and/or gene deletion of TNF or TNFR1, but not deletion of TNFR2. These findings reveal that sTNF is both an essential promoter of carcinogenesis and a pivotal regulator of MDSCs; and indicate that sTNF could be a significant target for cancer prevention and therapy.
doi:10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-15-0104
PMCID: PMC4873325  PMID: 26896171
3-methylcholanthrene; carcinogenesis; soluble TNF; transmembrane TNF; myeloid-derived suppressor cells; immunosuppression
22.  Tumor volume as a predictor of survival in HPV positive oropharyngeal cancer 
Head & neck  2015;38(Suppl 1):E1613-E1617.
Background
Increasing evidence exists that tumor volume may be a superior prognostic model than traditional TNM staging. It has been observed that OPSCC in the setting of human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity have a greater propensity for cystic nodal metastases, and thus presumably larger volume with relatively smaller primary tumors. The influence of HPV status on the predictive value of tumor volume is unknown.
Methods
Fifty-three patients with HPV-positive OPSCC were treated with definitive chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).
Results
The estimated 2-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was 92.2% and 83.6%, respectively. Nodal classification did not predict OS (p=0.096) or DFS (p=0.170). Similarly, T classification did not predict OS (p=0.057) or DFS (p=0.309). Lower nodal volume was associated with greater DFS (p=0.001).
Conclusions
Nodal tumor volume was found to be predictive of DFS. DFS was best predicted by nodal gross tumor volume at 24 months.
doi:10.1002/hed.24287
PMCID: PMC4844840  PMID: 26681273
oropharyngeal cancer; neoplasm staging; tumor burden; human papillomavirus; IMRT
23.  Current understanding of the tumor microenvironment of laryngeal dysplasia and progression to invasive cancer 
Purpose of review
This review examines the historical tumor progression genetic model of laryngeal carcinomas, from dysplasia to invasive carcinoma and the role of infiltrating immune and inflammatory cells as contributors to this process.
Recent findings
Classically, the genetic model of carcinogenesis describes overexpression of oncogenes and/or silencing of tumor suppressor genes which, when combined with exposure to environmental carcinogens over the course of time, results in damage to cellular DNA. Increasing evidence indicates that innate and adaptive immune mediators also play an important role in tumor progression of laryngeal carcinomas. Cellular mediators of immune suppression are often over represented in the tumor microenvironment and these cells release cytokines, which perpetuate immune suppression allowing for tumor immune evasion.
Summary
Future therapies targeting laryngeal malignancies should focus on a combined approach which targets both genetic variations and immune mediators.
doi:10.1097/MOO.0000000000000245
PMCID: PMC5240963  PMID: 26963671
dysplasia; genetic mutations; immune mediators; laryngeal carcinoma
24.  Randomized, placebo-controlled window trial of EGFR, Src, or combined blockade in head and neck cancer 
JCI Insight  null;2(6):e90449.
BACKGROUND. EGFR and Src family kinases are upregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). EGFR interacts with Src to activate STAT3 signaling, and dual EGFR-Src targeting is synergistic in HNSCC preclinical models. pSrc overexpression predicted resistance to the EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib, in a prior window trial. We conducted a 4-arm window trial to identify biomarkers associated with response to EGFR and/or Src inhibition.
METHODS. Patients with operable stage II–IVa HNSCC were randomized to 7–21 days of neoadjuvant erlotinib, the Src inhibitor dasatinib, the combination of both, or placebo. Paired tumor specimens were collected before and after treatment. Pharmacodynamic expression of EGFR and Src pathway components was evaluated by IHC of tissue microarrays and reverse-phase protein array of tissue lysates. Candidate biomarkers were assessed for correlation with change in tumor size.
RESULTS. From April 2009 to December 2012, 58 patients were randomized and 55 were treated. There was a significant decrease in tumor size in both erlotinib arms (P = 0.0014); however, no effect was seen with dasatinib alone (P = 0.24). High baseline pMAPK expression was associated with response to erlotinib (P = 0.03). High baseline pSTAT3 was associated with resistance to dasatinib (P = 0.099).
CONCLUSIONS. Brief exposure to erlotinib significantly decreased tumor size in operable HNSCC, with no additive effect from dasatinib. Baseline pMAPK expression warrants further study as a response biomarker for anti-EGFR therapy. Basal expression of pSTAT3 may be independent of Src, explain therapeutic resistance, and preclude development of dasatinib in biomarker-unselected cohorts.
TRIAL REGISTRATION. NCT00779389.
FUNDING. National Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society, Pennsylvania Department of Health, V Foundation for Cancer Research, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Astellas Pharma.
doi:10.1172/jci.insight.90449
PMCID: PMC5358497
25.  Enhanced cytotoxic CD8 T cell priming using DC expressing HPV-16 E6/E7-p16INK4 fusion protein with sequenced anti-PD1 
The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has increased in recent decades, though HPV prevention vaccines may reduce this rise in the future. HPV related cancers express the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. The latter inactivates the tumor suppressor protein retinoblastoma (Rb), which leads to the overexpression of p16INK4 protein, providing unique antigens for therapeutic HPV-specific cancer vaccination. We developed potential adenoviral vaccines that express a fusion protein of HPV-16 E6 and E7 (Ad.E6E7) alone or fused with p16 (Ad.E6E7p16), and also encoding an anti-programmed death (PD)-1 antibody. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) transduced with Ad.E6E7 or Ad.E6E7p16 with or without Ad.αPD1 were used to activate autologous CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in vitro. CTL responses were tested against naturally HPV-infected HNSCC cells using IFNγ ELISPOT and 51Cr release assay. Surprisingly, stimulation and antitumor activity of CTL were increased after incubation with Ad.E6E7p16-transduced DC (DC.E6E7p16) compared to Ad.E6E7 (DC.E6E7), a result that may be due to an effect of p16 on CDK4 levels and IL-12 secretion by DC. Moreover, the beneficial effect was most prominent when anti-PD1 was introduced during the second round of stimulation (after initial priming). These data suggest that careful sequencing of Ad.E6E7.p16 with Ad.αPD1 could improve anti-tumor immunity against HPV-related tumors and that p16 may enhance the immunogenicity of DC, through cyclin-dependent pathways, Th1 cytokine secretion and by adding a non-viral antigen highly overexpressed in HPV-induced cancers.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1502027
PMCID: PMC4779745  PMID: 26851223

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