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1.  A phase I study of TPI 287 in combination with temozolomide for patients with metastatic melanoma 
Melanoma research  2016;26(6):604-608.
TPI 287 is a synthetic taxane derivative with structural modifications allowing for central nervous system (CNS) penetration and potential circumvention of multi-drug resistance efflux pump mechanisms. The objective of this Phase I study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the combination of TPI 287 and temozolomide in metastatic melanoma.
Patients with stage IV unresectable or recurrent stage III melanoma were eligible. Stable untreated or treated brain metastases were allowed. Patients with prior taxane exposure were excluded. TPI 287 was given intravenously (i.v.) on Day 1, 8, and 15 and temozolomide was taken oral daily on days 1–5 of a 28-day cycle. Responses were assessed every 2 cycles per WHO criteria.
A total of 21 patients were enrolled. The MTD of the combination at this schedule was determined to be 125 mg/m2 i.v. of TPI 287 and 110 mg/m2 of oral temozolomide. The dose-limiting toxicity was neuropathy and 6 patients experienced Grade III neuropathy. All patients were evaluable for tumor response. There were no complete responses; there were two partial responses and seven patients had stable disease (overall response rate 9.5% and disease control rate 42.9%). Three patients had stable disease in the brain despite progressive extracranial disease.
The combination of TPI 287 and temozolomide is well-tolerated in patients with metastatic melanoma with the exception of neuropathy. The CNS penetration of both agents makes this a rational combination for further testing in primary and metastatic brain lesions.
PMCID: PMC5336360  PMID: 27540836
melanoma; TPI 287; temozolomide; brain metastases
2.  HSP90 inhibition enhances cancer immunotherapy by upregulating interferon response genes 
Nature Communications  2017;8:451.
T-cell-based immunotherapies are promising treatments for cancer patients. Although durable responses can be achieved in some patients, many patients fail to respond to these therapies, underscoring the need for improvement with combination therapies. From a screen of 850 bioactive compounds, we identify HSP90 inhibitors as candidates for combination with immunotherapy. We show that inhibition of HSP90 with ganetespib enhances T-cell-mediated killing of patient-derived human melanoma cells by their autologous T cells in vitro and potentiates responses to anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 therapy in vivo. Mechanistic studies reveal that HSP90 inhibition results in upregulation of interferon response genes, which are essential for the enhanced killing of ganetespib treated melanoma cells by T cells. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that HSP90 inhibition can potentiate T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immune responses, and rationale to explore the combination of immunotherapy and HSP90 inhibitors.
Many patients fail to respond to T cell based immunotherapies. Here, the authors, through a high-throughput screening, identify HSP90 inhibitors as a class of preferred drugs for treatment combination with immunotherapy.
PMCID: PMC5587668  PMID: 28878208
3.  Genomic and immune heterogeneity are associated with differential responses to therapy in melanoma 
NPJ genomic medicine  2017;2:10.
Appreciation for genomic and immune heterogeneity in cancer has grown though the relationship of these factors to treatment response has not been thoroughly elucidated. To better understand this, we studied a large cohort of melanoma patients treated with targeted therapy or immune checkpoint blockade (n = 60). Heterogeneity in therapeutic responses via radiologic assessment was observed in the majority of patients. Synchronous melanoma metastases were analyzed via deep genomic and immune profiling, and revealed substantial genomic and immune heterogeneity in all patients studied, with considerable diversity in T cell frequency, and few shared T cell clones (<8% on average) across the cohort. Variables related to treatment response were identified via these approaches and through novel radiomic assessment. These data yield insight into differential therapeutic responses to targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockade in melanoma, and have key translational implications in the age of precision medicine.
PMCID: PMC5557036
4.  Parallel profiling of immune infiltrate subsets in uveal melanoma versus cutaneous melanoma unveils similarities and differences: A pilot study 
Oncoimmunology  2017;6(6):e1321187.
The low response rates to immunotherapy in uveal melanoma (UM) sharply contrast with reputable response rates in cutaneous melanoma (CM) patients. To characterize the mechanisms responsible for resistance to immunotherapy in UM, we performed immune profiling in tumors from 10 metastatic UM patients and 10 metastatic CM patients by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Although there is no difference in infiltrating CD8+ T cells between UM and CM, a significant decrease in programmed death-1 (PD-1)-positive lymphocytes was observed and lower levels of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) in UM metastases compared with CM metastases. Tumors from metastatic UM patients showed a lower success rate of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) growth compared with metastatic CM (45% vs. 64% success), with a significantly lower quantity of UM TIL expanded overall. These studies suggest that UM and CM are immunologically distinct, and provide potential explanation for the impaired success of immunotherapy in UM.
PMCID: PMC5486182
Cutaneous melanoma; immune profile; tumor infiltrating lymphocytes; uveal melanoma
5.  Correlation between early FDG PET/CT response to BRAF and MEK inhibition and survival in patients with BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma 
Nuclear medicine communications  2016;37(2):122-128.
Metabolic response to treatment measured by FDG PET has prognostic implications in many cancers. This study investigated the association between survival and early changes on FDG PET/CT for patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma receiving combined BRAF and MEK inhibition therapy.
24 patients with advanced BRAF-mutant melanoma were included. Patients were treated with a BRAF inhibitor (Vemurafenib or Dabrafenib) and a MEK inhibitor (Cobimetinib or Trametinib) and were imaged at baseline, and shortly thereafter with FDG PET/CT. Each scan yielded two values of SUVmax: one for the most metabolically active focus and one for the least responsive focus. Short-term treatment response was assessed by evaluating the target lesions using EROTC criteria. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine associations between overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) and changes in SUVmax.
Mean time to follow-up FDG PET/CT was 26 days. At follow-up, 2 patients had a complete response. For the most metabolically active focus, 22 patients had a partial response. For the least responsive focus, 18 patients had a partial response, 2 had stable disease, and 2 had progressive disease.
16 patients were living at the end of the study. For the most metabolically active tumor, no association was observed between changes in SUVmax and OS (p=0.73) or PFS (p=0.17). For the least responsive tumor, change in SUVmax was associated with PFS (HR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.71, p=0.01) but not OS (p=0.52). ECOG score was associated with OS (HR=11.81, 95% CI: 1.42 to 97.60, p=0.02) and PFS (HR=24.72, 95% CI: 3.23 to 189.42, p=0.002).
Change in SUVmax for the least responsive tumor and baseline functional performance may be useful prognostic indicators for progression-free survival in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma.
PMCID: PMC4689629  PMID: 26440571
melanoma; FDG; PET/CT; BRAF; MEK; vemurafenib; dabrafenib; cobimetinib; trametinib
6.  A Novel Method to Generate and Expand Clinical-Grade, Genetically Modified, Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes 
Following the clinical success achieved with the first generation of adoptive cell therapy (ACT) utilizing in vitro expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), the second and third generations of TIL ACT are evolving toward the use of genetically modified TIL. TIL therapy generally involves the transfer of a high number of TIL, ranging from 109 to 1011 cells. One of the technical difficulties in genetically modifying TIL, using a retroviral vector, is the ability to achieve large expansion of transduced TIL, while keeping the technique suitable to a Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) environment. Consequently, we developed and optimized a novel method for the efficient production of large numbers of GMP-grade, gene-modified TIL for the treatment of patients with ACT. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 was used as the gene of interest for methodology development. The optimized procedure is currently used in the production of gene-modified TIL for two clinical trials for the treatment of metastatic melanoma at MD Anderson Cancer Center.
PMCID: PMC5539190
tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes; retroviral-transduction; adoptive cell therapy; genetic modification; Good Manufacturing Practice; clinical-grade
7.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part one 
Lundqvist, Andreas | van Hoef, Vincent | Zhang, Xiaonan | Wennerberg, Erik | Lorent, Julie | Witt, Kristina | Sanz, Laia Masvidal | Liang, Shuo | Murray, Shannon | Larsson, Ola | Kiessling, Rolf | Mao, Yumeng | Sidhom, John-William | Bessell, Catherine A. | Havel, Jonathan | Schneck, Jonathan | Chan, Timothy A. | Sachsenmeier, Eliot | Woods, David | Berglund, Anders | Ramakrishnan, Rupal | Sodre, Andressa | Weber, Jeffrey | Zappasodi, Roberta | Li, Yanyun | Qi, Jingjing | Wong, Philip | Sirard, Cynthia | Postow, Michael | Newman, Walter | Koon, Henry | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Callahan, Margaret K. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Lum, Lawrence G. | Choi, Minsig | Thakur, Archana | Deol, Abhinav | Dyson, Gregory | Shields, Anthony | Haymaker, Cara | Uemura, Marc | Murthy, Ravi | James, Marihella | Wang, Daqing | Brevard, Julie | Monaghan, Catherine | Swann, Suzanne | Geib, James | Cornfeld, Mark | Chunduru, Srinivas | Agrawal, Sudhir | Yee, Cassian | Wargo, Jennifer | Patel, Sapna P. | Amaria, Rodabe | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Woodman, Scott | Hwu, Wen-Jen | Davies, Michael A. | Hwu, Patrick | Overwijk, Willem W. | Bernatchez, Chantale | Diab, Adi | Massarelli, Erminia | Segal, Neil H. | Ribrag, Vincent | Melero, Ignacio | Gangadhar, Tara C. | Urba, Walter | Schadendorf, Dirk | Ferris, Robert L. | Houot, Roch | Morschhauser, Franck | Logan, Theodore | Luke, Jason J. | Sharfman, William | Barlesi, Fabrice | Ott, Patrick A. | Mansi, Laura | Kummar, Shivaani | Salles, Gilles | Carpio, Cecilia | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | McDonald, Dan | Maurer, Matthew | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Levy, Ronald | Khushalani, Nikhil | Wu, Jennifer | Zhang, Jinyu | Basher, Fahmin | Rubinstein, Mark | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | MacDonald, Cameron | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Chatterjee, Shilpak | Daenthanasanmak, Anusara | Chakraborty, Paramita | Toth, Kyle | Meek, Megan | Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth | Nishimura, Michael | Paulos, Chrystal | Beeson, Craig | Yu, Xuezhong | Mehrotra, Shikhar | Zhao, Fei | Evans, Kathy | Xiao, Christine | Holtzhausen, Alisha | Hanks, Brent A. | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Moreci, Rebecca | Whetstone, Ryan | Dadey, Rebekah | Watkins, Simon | Ferris, Robert | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Peled, Jonathan | Devlin, Sean | Staffas, Anna | Lumish, Melissa | Rodriguez, Kori Porosnicu | Ahr, Katya | Perales, Miguel | Giralt, Sergio | Taur, Ying | Pamer, Eric | van den Brink, Marcel R. M. | Jenq, Robert | Annels, Nicola | Pandha, Hardev | Simpson, Guy | Mostafid, Hugh | Harrington, Kevin | Melcher, Alan | Grose, Mark | Davies, Bronwyn | Au, Gough | Karpathy, Roberta | Shafren, Darren | Ricca, Jacob | Merghoub, Taha | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Zamarin, Dmitriy | Batista, Luciana | Marliot, Florence | Vasaturo, Angela | Carpentier, Sabrina | Poggionovo, Cécile | Frayssinet, Véronique | Fieschi, Jacques | Van den Eynde, Marc | Pagès, Franck | Galon, Jérôme | Hermitte, Fabienne | Smith, Sean G. | Nguyen, Khue | Ravindranathan, Sruthi | Koppolu, Bhanu | Zaharoff, David | Schvartsman, Gustavo | Bassett, Roland | McQuade, Jennifer L. | Haydu, Lauren E. | Davies, Michael A. | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Kline, Douglas | Chen, Xiufen | Fosco, Dominick | Kline, Justin | Overacre, Abigail | Chikina, Maria | Brunazzi, Erin | Shayan, Gulidanna | Horne, William | Kolls, Jay | Ferris, Robert L. | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Bruno, Tullia C. | Workman, Creg | Vignali, Dario | Adusumilli, Prasad S. | Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A | Li, Zihai | Gerry, Andrew | Sanderson, Joseph P. | Howe, Karen | Docta, Roslin | Gao, Qian | Bagg, Eleanor A. L. | Tribble, Nicholas | Maroto, Miguel | Betts, Gareth | Bath, Natalie | Melchiori, Luca | Lowther, Daniel E. | Ramachandran, Indu | Kari, Gabor | Basu, Samik | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Chagin, Karen | Pandite, Lini | Holdich, Tom | Amado, Rafael | Zhang, Hua | Glod, John | Bernstein, Donna | Jakobsen, Bent | Mackall, Crystal | Wong, Ryan | Silk, Jonathan D. | Adams, Katherine | Hamilton, Garth | Bennett, Alan D. | Brett, Sara | Jing, Junping | Quattrini, Adriano | Saini, Manoj | Wiedermann, Guy | Gerry, Andrew | Jakobsen, Bent | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Brewer, Joanna | Duong, MyLinh | Lu, An | Chang, Peter | Mahendravada, Aruna | Shinners, Nicholas | Slawin, Kevin | Spencer, David M. | Foster, Aaron E. | Bayle, J. Henri | Bergamaschi, Cristina | Ng, Sinnie Sin Man | Nagy, Bethany | Jensen, Shawn | Hu, Xintao | Alicea, Candido | Fox, Bernard | Felber, Barbara | Pavlakis, George | Chacon, Jessica | Yamamoto, Tori | Garrabrant, Thomas | Cortina, Luis | Powell, Daniel J. | Donia, Marco | Kjeldsen, Julie Westerlin | Andersen, Rikke | Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff | Bianchi, Valentina | Legut, Mateusz | Attaf, Meriem | Dolton, Garry | Szomolay, Barbara | Ott, Sascha | Lyngaa, Rikke | Hadrup, Sine Reker | Sewell, Andrew Kelvin | Svane, Inge Marie | Fan, Aaron | Kumai, Takumi | Celis, Esteban | Frank, Ian | Stramer, Amanda | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wardell, Seth | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Goff, Stephanie L. | Zacharakis, Nikolaos | Assadipour, Yasmine | Prickett, Todd D. | Gartner, Jared J. | Somerville, Robert | Black, Mary | Xu, Hui | Chinnasamy, Harshini | Kriley, Isaac | Lu, Lily | Wunderlich, John | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven | Feldman, Steven A. | Trebska-McGowan, Kasia | Kriley, Isaac | Malekzadeh, Parisa | Payabyab, Eden | Sherry, Richard | Rosenberg, Steven | Goff, Stephanie L. | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Kopits, Charlene | Rabinovich, Brian | Lotze, Michael T. | Green, Daniel S. | Kamenyeva, Olena | Zoon, Kathryn C. | Annunziata, Christina M. | Hammill, Joanne | Helsen, Christopher | Aarts, Craig | Bramson, Jonathan | Harada, Yui | Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu | Helsen, Christopher | Hammill, Joanne | Mwawasi, Kenneth | Denisova, Galina | Bramson, Jonathan | Giri, Rajanish | Jin, Benjamin | Campbell, Tracy | Draper, Lindsey M. | Stevanovic, Sanja | Yu, Zhiya | Weissbrich, Bianca | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Trimble, Cornelia L. | Rosenberg, Steven | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Tsang, Kwong | Fantini, Massimo | Hodge, James W. | Fujii, Rika | Fernando, Ingrid | Jochems, Caroline | Heery, Christopher | Gulley, James | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Schlom, Jeffrey | Jing, Weiqing | Gershan, Jill | Blitzer, Grace | Weber, James | McOlash, Laura | Johnson, Bryon D. | Kiany, Simin | Gangxiong, Huang | Kleinerman, Eugenie S. | Klichinsky, Michael | Ruella, Marco | Shestova, Olga | Kenderian, Saad | Kim, Miriam | Scholler, John | June, Carl H. | Gill, Saar | Moogk, Duane | Zhong, Shi | Yu, Zhiya | Liadi, Ivan | Rittase, William | Fang, Victoria | Dougherty, Janna | Perez-Garcia, Arianne | Osman, Iman | Zhu, Cheng | Varadarajan, Navin | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Frey, Alan | Krogsgaard, Michelle | Landi, Daniel | Fousek, Kristen | Mukherjee, Malini | Shree, Ankita | Joseph, Sujith | Bielamowicz, Kevin | Byrd, Tiara | Ahmed, Nabil | Hegde, Meenakshi | Lee, Sylvia | Byrd, David | Thompson, John | Bhatia, Shailender | Tykodi, Scott | Delismon, Judy | Chu, Liz | Abdul-Alim, Siddiq | Ohanian, Arpy | DeVito, Anna Marie | Riddell, Stanley | Margolin, Kim | Magalhaes, Isabelle | Mattsson, Jonas | Uhlin, Michael | Nemoto, Satoshi | Villarroel, Patricio Pérez | Nakagawa, Ryosuke | Mule, James J. | Mailloux, Adam W. | Mata, Melinda | Nguyen, Phuong | Gerken, Claudia | DeRenzo, Christopher | Spencer, David M. | Gottschalk, Stephen | Mathieu, Mélissa | Pelletier, Sandy | Stagg, John | Turcotte, Simon | Minutolo, Nicholas | Sharma, Prannda | Tsourkas, Andrew | Powell, Daniel J. | Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine | Mauer, Daniela | Drechsel, Katharina | Barth, Carola | Freese, Katharina | Kolrep, Ulrike | Schult, Silke | Assenmacher, Mario | Kaiser, Andrew | Mullinax, John | Hall, MacLean | Le, Julie | Kodumudi, Krithika | Royster, Erica | Richards, Allison | Gonzalez, Ricardo | Sarnaik, Amod | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Nielsen, Morten | Krarup-Hansen, Anders | Hovgaard, Dorrit | Petersen, Michael Mørk | Loya, Anand Chainsukh | Junker, Niels | Svane, Inge Marie | Rivas, Charlotte | Parihar, Robin | Gottschalk, Stephen | Rooney, Cliona M. | Qin, Haiying | Nguyen, Sang | Su, Paul | Burk, Chad | Duncan, Brynn | Kim, Bong-Hyun | Kohler, M. Eric | Fry, Terry | Rao, Arjun A. | Teyssier, Noam | Pfeil, Jacob | Sgourakis, Nikolaos | Salama, Sofie | Haussler, David | Richman, Sarah A. | Nunez-Cruz, Selene | Gershenson, Zack | Mourelatos, Zissimos | Barrett, David | Grupp, Stephan | Milone, Michael | Rodriguez-Garcia, Alba | Robinson, Matthew K. | Adams, Gregory P. | Powell, Daniel J. | Santos, João | Havunen, Riikka | Siurala, Mikko | Cervera-Carrascón, Víctor | Parviainen, Suvi | Antilla, Marjukka | Hemminki, Akseli | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Santiago, Laurelis | Chen, Jie Qing | Dai, Zhimin | Wardell, Seth | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Sha, Huizi | Su, Shu | Ding, Naiqing | Liu, Baorui | Stevanovic, Sanja | Pasetto, Anna | Helman, Sarah R. | Gartner, Jared J. | Prickett, Todd D. | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Bhatia, Shailender | Burgess, Melissa | Zhang, Hui | Lee, Tien | Klingemann, Hans | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Nghiem, Paul | Kirkwood, John M. | Rossi, John M. | Sherman, Marika | Xue, Allen | Shen, Yueh-wei | Navale, Lynn | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Kochenderfer, James N. | Bot, Adrian | Veerapathran, Anandaraman | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Stramer, Amanda | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wiener, Doris | Frank, Ian | Santiago, Laurelis | Rabinovich, Brian | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Waller, Edmund K. | Li, Jian-Ming | Petersen, Christopher | Blazar, Bruce R. | Li, Jingxia | Giver, Cynthia R. | Wang, Ziming | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Sturgill, Ian | Canter, Robert J. | Murphy, William J. | Zhang, Congcong | Burger, Michael C. | Jennewein, Lukas | Waldmann, Anja | Mittelbronn, Michel | Tonn, Torsten | Steinbach, Joachim P. | Wels, Winfried S. | Williams, Jason B. | Zha, Yuanyuan | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Williams, LaTerrica C. | Krenciute, Giedre | Kalra, Mamta | Louis, Chrystal | Gottschalk, Stephen | Xin, Gang | Schauder, David | Jiang, Aimin | Joshi, Nikhil | Cui, Weiguo | Zeng, Xue | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Zhao, Zeguo | Hamieh, Mohamad | Eyquem, Justin | Gunset, Gertrude | Bander, Neil | Sadelain, Michel | Askmyr, David | Abolhalaj, Milad | Lundberg, Kristina | Greiff, Lennart | Lindstedt, Malin | Angell, Helen K. | Kim, Kyoung-Mee | Kim, Seung-Tae | Kim, Sung | Sharpe, Alan D. | Ogden, Julia | Davenport, Anna | Hodgson, Darren R. | Barrett, Carl | Lee, Jeeyun | Kilgour, Elaine | Hanson, Jodi | Caspell, Richard | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ansari, Tameem | Schiller, Annemarie | Sundararaman, Srividya | Lehmann, Paul | Hanson, Jodi | Roen, Diana | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ayers, Mark | Levitan, Diane | Arreaza, Gladys | Liu, Fang | Mogg, Robin | Bang, Yung-Jue | O’Neil, Bert | Cristescu, Razvan | Friedlander, Philip | Wassman, Karl | Kyi, Chrisann | Oh, William | Bhardwaj, Nina | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gustafson, Michael P. | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Parney, Ian F. | Dietz, Allan B. | Carvajal-Hausdorf, Daniel | Mani, Nikita | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Schalper, Kurt | Rimm, David | Chang, Serena | Levy, Ronald | Kurland, John | Krishnan, Suba | Ahlers, Christoph Matthias | Jure-Kunkel, Maria | Cohen, Lewis | Maecker, Holden | Kohrt, Holbrook | Chen, Shuming | Crabill, George | Pritchard, Theresa | McMiller, Tracee | Pardoll, Drew | Pan, Fan | Topalian, Suzanne | Danaher, Patrick | Warren, Sarah | Dennis, Lucas | White, Andrew M. | D’Amico, Leonard | Geller, Melissa | Disis, Mary L. | Beechem, Joseph | Odunsi, Kunle | Fling, Steven | Derakhshandeh, Roshanak | Webb, Tonya J. | Dubois, Sigrid | Conlon, Kevin | Bryant, Bonita | Hsu, Jennifer | Beltran, Nancy | Müller, Jürgen | Waldmann, Thomas | Duhen, Rebekka | Duhen, Thomas | Thompson, Lucas | Montler, Ryan | Weinberg, Andrew | Kates, Max | Early, Brandon | Yusko, Erik | Schreiber, Taylor H. | Bivalacqua, Trinity J. | Ayers, Mark | Lunceford, Jared | Nebozhyn, Michael | Murphy, Erin | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Albright, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Kang, S. Peter | Shankaran, Veena | Piha-Paul, Sarina A. | Yearley, Jennifer | Seiwert, Tanguy | Ribas, Antoni | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Cristescu, Razvan | Mogg, Robin | Ayers, Mark | Albright, Andrew | Murphy, Erin | Yearley, Jennifer | Sher, Xinwei | Liu, Xiao Qiao | Nebozhyn, Michael | Lunceford, Jared | Joe, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Plimack, Elizabeth | Ott, Patrick A. | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Forrest-Hay, Alex | Guyre, Cheryl A. | Narumiya, Kohei | Delcommenne, Marc | Hirsch, Heather A. | Deshpande, Amit | Reeves, Jason | Shu, Jenny | Zi, Tong | Michaelson, Jennifer | Law, Debbie | Trehu, Elizabeth | Sathyanaryanan, Sriram | Hodkinson, Brendan P. | Hutnick, Natalie A. | Schaffer, Michael E. | Gormley, Michael | Hulett, Tyler | Jensen, Shawn | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Dubay, Christopher | Afentoulis, Michael | Reddy, Ashok | David, Larry | Fox, Bernard | Jayant, Kumar | Agrawal, Swati | Agrawal, Rajendra | Jeyakumar, Ghayathri | Kim, Seongho | Kim, Heejin | Silski, Cynthia | Suisham, Stacey | Heath, Elisabeth | Vaishampayan, Ulka | Vandeven, Natalie | Viller, Natasja Nielsen | O’Connor, Alison | Chen, Hui | Bossen, Bolette | Sievers, Eric | Uger, Robert | Nghiem, Paul | Johnson, Lisa | Kao, Hsiang-Fong | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Lai, Shu-Chuan | Wang, Chun-Wei | Ko, Jenq-Yuh | Lou, Pei-Jen | Lee, Tsai-Jan | Liu, Tsang-Wu | Hong, Ruey-Long | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Landis, Benjamin J. | Koegler, Sally | Hirsch, Brooke | Gianani, Roberto | Kim, Jeffrey | He, Ming-Xiao | Zhang, Bingqing | Su, Nan | Luo, Yuling | Ma, Xiao-Jun | Park, Emily | Kim, Dae Won | Copploa, Domenico | Kothari, Nishi | doo Chang, Young | Kim, Richard | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Knaus, Hanna A. | Berglund, Sofia | Hackl, Hubert | Karp, Judith E. | Gojo, Ivana | Luznik, Leo | Hong, Henoch S. | Koch, Sven D. | Scheel, Birgit | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Wiegand, Volker | Backert, Linus | Kohlbacher, Oliver | Hoerr, Ingmar | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Billingsley, James M. | Koguchi, Yoshinobu | Conrad, Valerie | Miller, William | Gonzalez, Iliana | Poplonski, Tomasz | Meeuwsen, Tanisha | Howells-Ferreira, Ana | Rattray, Rogan | Campbell, Mary | Bifulco, Carlo | Dubay, Christopher | Bahjat, Keith | Curti, Brendan | Urba, Walter | Vetsika, E-K | Kallergi, G. | Aggouraki, Despoina | Lyristi, Z. | Katsarlinos, P. | Koinis, Filippos | Georgoulias, V. | Kotsakis, Athanasios | Martin, Nathan T. | Aeffner, Famke | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Cerkovnik, Logan | Pratte, Luke | Kim, Rebecca | Hirsch, Brooke | Krueger, Joseph | Gianani, Roberto | Martínez-Usatorre, Amaia | Jandus, Camilla | Donda, Alena | Carretero-Iglesia, Laura | Speiser, Daniel E. | Zehn, Dietmar | Rufer, Nathalie | Romero, Pedro | Panda, Anshuman | Mehnert, Janice | Hirshfield, Kim M. | Riedlinger, Greg | Damare, Sherri | Saunders, Tracie | Sokol, Levi | Stein, Mark | Poplin, Elizabeth | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Silk, Ann | Chan, Nancy | Frankel, Melissa | Kane, Michael | Malhotra, Jyoti | Aisner, Joseph | Kaufman, Howard L. | Ali, Siraj | Ross, Jeffrey | White, Eileen | Bhanot, Gyan | Ganesan, Shridar | Monette, Anne | Bergeron, Derek | Amor, Amira Ben | Meunier, Liliane | Caron, Christine | Morou, Antigoni | Kaufmann, Daniel | Liberman, Moishe | Jurisica, Igor | Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie | Hamzaoui, Kamel | Lapointe, Rejean | Mongan, Ann | Ku, Yuan-Chieh | Tom, Warren | Sun, Yongming | Pankov, Alex | Looney, Tim | Au-Young, Janice | Hyland, Fiona | Conroy, Jeff | Morrison, Carl | Glenn, Sean | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Gardner, Mark | Mongan, Ann | Omilian, Angela R. | Conroy, Jeff | Bshara, Wiam | Angela, Omilian | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Glenn, Sean | Morrison, Carl | Mongan, Ann | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Smolkin, Mark E. | Deacon, Donna H. | Patterson, James W. | Chen, Lieping | Bullock, Timothy N. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Deacon, Donna H. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Bullock, Timothy N. | Loffredo, John T. | Vuyyuru, Raja | Beyer, Sophie | Spires, Vanessa M. | Fox, Maxine | Ehrmann, Jon M. | Taylor, Katrina A. | Korman, Alan J. | Graziano, Robert F. | Page, David | Sanchez, Katherine | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Martel, Maritza | Bifulco, Carlo | Urba, Walter | Fox, Bernard | Patel, Sapna P. | De Macedo, Mariana Petaccia | Qin, Yong | Reuben, Alex | Spencer, Christine | Guindani, Michele | Bassett, Roland | Wargo, Jennifer | Racolta, Adriana | Kelly, Brian | Jones, Tobin | Polaske, Nathan | Theiss, Noah | Robida, Mark | Meridew, Jeffrey | Habensus, Iva | Zhang, Liping | Pestic-Dragovich, Lidija | Tang, Lei | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Logan, Theodore | Khushalani, Nikhil | Margolin, Kim | Koon, Henry | Olencki, Thomas | Hutson, Thomas | Curti, Brendan | Roder, Joanna | Blackmon, Shauna | Roder, Heinrich | Stewart, John | Amin, Asim | Ernstoff, Marc S. | Clark, Joseph I. | Atkins, Michael B. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Sosman, Jeffrey | Weber, Jeffrey | McDermott, David F. | Weber, Jeffrey | Kluger, Harriet | Halaban, Ruth | Snzol, Mario | Roder, Heinrich | Roder, Joanna | Asmellash, Senait | Steingrimsson, Arni | Blackmon, Shauna | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Wang, Chichung | Roman, Kristin | Clement, Amanda | Downing, Sean | Hoyt, Clifford | Harder, Nathalie | Schmidt, Guenter | Schoenmeyer, Ralf | Brieu, Nicolas | Yigitsoy, Mehmet | Madonna, Gabriele | Botti, Gerardo | Grimaldi, Antonio | Ascierto, Paolo A. | Huss, Ralf | Athelogou, Maria | Hessel, Harald | Harder, Nathalie | Buchner, Alexander | Schmidt, Guenter | Stief, Christian | Huss, Ralf | Binnig, Gerd | Kirchner, Thomas | Sellappan, Shankar | Thyparambil, Sheeno | Schwartz, Sarit | Cecchi, Fabiola | Nguyen, Andrew | Vaske, Charles | Hembrough, Todd
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):1-106.
PMCID: PMC5123387
8.  Clinical, molecular and immune analysis of dabrafenib and trametinib in metastatic melanoma patients that progressed on BRAF inhibitor monotherapy: a phase II clinical trial 
JAMA oncology  2016;2(8):1056-1064.
Combined treatment with dabrafenib and trametinib (CombiDT) achieves clinical responses in only ~15% of BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi)-refractory metastatic melanoma patients, in contrast to the high activity observed in BRAFi-naïve patients. Identifying correlates of response and mechanisms of resistance in this population will facilitate clinical management and rational therapeutic development.
To determine correlates of benefit from CombiDT therapy in BRAFi-refractory metastatic melanoma patients.
Single-center, single-arm prospective phase II study of CombiDT in patients with BRAFV600 metastatic melanoma resistant to BRAFi monotherapy conducted between September 2012 and October 2014.
University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
28 patients were screened and 23 enrolled. Key eligibility criteria included: BRAFV600 metastatic melanoma, prior BRAFi monotherapy, measurable disease (RECIST 1.1), and accessible tumor for biopsy.
Patients were treated with dabrafenib (150 mg twice daily) and trametinib (2 mg daily) continuously until disease progression or intolerance. All participants underwent a mandatory baseline biopsy, and optional biopsies were performed on-treatment and at progression. Whole-exome sequencing, RT-PCR for BRAF splicing, RNAseq and IHC were performed on tumor samples, and blood was analyzed for levels of circulating BRAFV600.
Main outcome measures
Primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were secondary clinical endpoints.
Among evaluable patients, the confirmed ORR was 10%, disease control rate (DCR) was 45%, and median PFS was 13 weeks. Clinical benefit was associated with duration of prior BRAFi >6 months (DCR 73% vs. 11% for ≤6 months, p=0.02) and decrease in circulating BRAFV600 at day 8 of cycle 1 (DCR 75% vs. 18% for no decrease, p=0.015), but not by pre-treatment MAPK pathway mutations or activation. On-treatment biopsies demonstrated that CombiDT failed to achieve significant MAPK pathway inhibition or immune infiltration in most patients.
Conclusions and relevance
The baseline presence of MAPK pathway alterations was not associated with benefit from CombiDT in BRAFi-refractory metastatic melanoma patients. Failure to inhibit the MAPK pathway provides a likely explanation for the limited clinical benefit of CombiDT in this setting. Circulating BRAF V600 is a promising early biomarker of clinical response.
PMCID: PMC4982774  PMID: 27124486
9.  Loss of PTEN promotes resistance to T cell-mediated immunotherapy 
Cancer discovery  2015;6(2):202-216.
T cell-mediated immunotherapies are promising cancer treatments. However, most patients still fail to respond to these therapies. The molecular determinants of immune resistance are poorly understood. We show that loss of PTEN in tumor cells in preclinical models of melanoma inhibits T cell-mediated tumor killing and decreases T cell trafficking into tumors. In patients, PTEN loss correlates with decreased T cell infiltration at tumor sites, reduced likelihood of successful T cell expansion from resected tumors, and inferior outcomes with PD-1 inhibitor therapy. PTEN loss in tumor cells increased the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines, resulting in decreased T cell infiltration in tumors, and inhibited autophagy, which decreased T cell-mediated cell death. Treatment with a selective PI3Kβ inhibitor improved the efficacy of both anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA4 antibodies in murine models. Together these findings demonstrate that PTEN loss promotes immune resistance and support the rationale to explore combinations of immunotherapies and PI3K-AKT pathway inhibitors.
PMCID: PMC4744499  PMID: 26645196
PTEN loss; Immunotherapy
10.  Melanoma and immunotherapy bridge 2015 
Nanda, Vashisht G. Y. | Peng, Weiyi | Hwu, Patrick | Davies, Michael A. | Ciliberto, Gennaro | Fattore, Luigi | Malpicci, Debora | Aurisicchio, Luigi | Ascierto, Paolo Antonio | Croce, Carlo M. | Mancini, Rita | Spranger, Stefani | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Wang, Yangyang | Ferrone, Soldano | Vanpouille-Box, Claire | Wennerberg, Erik | Pilones, Karsten A. | Formenti, Silvia C. | Demaria, Sandra | Tang, Haidong | Wang, Yang | Fu, Yang-Xin | Dummer, Reinhard | Puzanov, Igor | Tarhini, Ahmad | Chauvin, Joe-Marc | Pagliano, Ornella | Fourcade, Julien | Sun, Zhaojun | Wang, Hong | Sanders, Cindy | Kirkwood, John M. | Chen, Tseng-hui Timothy | Maurer, Mark | Korman, Alan J. | Zarour, Hassane M. | Stroncek, David F. | Huber, Veronica | Rivoltini, Licia | Thurin, Magdalena | Rau, Tilman | Lugli, Alessandro | Pagès, Franck | Camarero, Jorge | Sancho, Arantxa | Jommi, Claudio | de Coaña, Yago Pico | Wolodarski, Maria | Yoshimoto, Yuya | Gentilcore, Giusy | Poschke, Isabel | Masucci, Giuseppe V. | Hansson, Johan | Kiessling, Rolf | Scognamiglio, Giosuè | Sabbatino, Francesco | Marino, Federica Zito | Anniciello, Anna Maria | Cantile, Monica | Cerrone, Margherita | Scala, Stefania | D’alterio, Crescenzo | Ianaro, Angela | Cirin, Giuseppe | Liguori, Giuseppina | Bott, Gerardo | Chapman, Paul B. | Robert, Caroline | Larkin, James | Haanen, John B. | Ribas, Antoni | Hogg, David | Hamid, Omid | Testori, Alessandro | Lorigan, Paul | Sosman, Jeffrey A. | Flaherty, Keith T. | Yue, Huibin | Coleman, Shelley | Caro, Ivor | Hauschild, Axel | McArthur, Grant A. | Sznol, Mario | Callahan, Margaret K. | Kluger, Harriet | Postow, Michael A. | Gordan, RuthAnn | Segal, Neil H. | Rizvi, Naiyer A. | Lesokhin, Alexander | Atkins, Michael B. | Burke, Matthew M. | Ralabate, Amanda | Rivera, Angel | Kronenberg, Stephanie A. | Agunwamba, Blessing | Ruisi, Mary | Horak, Christine | Jiang, Joel | Wolchok, Jedd | Ascierto, Paolo A. | Liszkay, Gabriella | Maio, Michele | Mandalà, Mario | Demidov, Lev | Stoyakovskiy, Daniil | Thomas, Luc | de la Cruz-Merino, Luis | Atkinson, Victoria | Dutriaux, Caroline | Garbe, Claus | Wongchenko, Matthew | Chang, Ilsung | Koralek, Daniel O. | Rooney, Isabelle | Yan, Yibing | Dréno, Brigitte | Sullivan, Ryan | Patel, Manish | Hodi, Stephen | Amaria, Rodabe | Boasberg, Peter | Wallin, Jeffrey | He, Xian | Cha, Edward | Richie, Nicole | Ballinger, Marcus | Smith, David C. | Bauer, Todd M. | Wasser, Jeffrey S. | Luke, Jason J. | Balmanoukian, Ani S. | Kaufman, David R. | Zhao, Yufan | Maleski, Janet | Leopold, Lance | Gangadhar, Tara C. | Long, Georgina V. | Michielin, Olivier | VanderWalde, Ari | Andtbacka, Robert H. I. | Cebon, Jonathan | Fernandez, Eugenio | Malvehy, Josep | Olszanski, Anthony J. | Gause, Christine | Chen, Lisa | Chou, Jeffrey | Stephen Hodi, F. | Brady, Benjamin | Mortier, Laurent | Hassel, Jessica C. | Rutkowski, Piotr | McNeil, Catriona | Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa | Lebbé, Celeste | Ny, Lars | Chacon, Matias | Queirolo, Paola | Loquai, Carmen | Cheema, Parneet | Berrocal, Alfonso | Eizmendi, Karmele Mujika | Bar-Sela, Gil | Horak, Christine | Hardy, Helene | Weber, Jeffrey S. | Grob, Jean-Jacques | Marquez-Rodas, Ivan | Schmidt, Henrik | Briscoe, Karen | Baurain, Jean-François | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Pinto, Rosamaria | De Summa, Simona | Garrisi, Vito Michele | Strippoli, Sabino | Azzariti, Amalia | Guida, Gabriella | Guida, Michele | Tommasi, Stefania | Jacquelot, Nicolas | Enot, David | Flament, Caroline | Pitt, Jonathan M. | Vimond, Nadège | Blattner, Carolin | Yamazaki, Takahiro | Roberti, Maria-Paula | Vetizou, Marie | Daillere, Romain | Poirier-Colame, Vichnou | la Semeraro, Michaë | Caignard, Anne | Slingluff, Craig L | Sallusto, Federica | Rusakiewicz, Sylvie | Weide, Benjamin | Marabelle, Aurélien | Kohrt, Holbrook | Dalle, Stéphane | Cavalcanti, Andréa | Kroemer, Guido | Di Giacomo, Anna Maria | Maio, Michaele | Wong, Phillip | Yuan, Jianda | Umansky, Viktor | Eggermont, Alexander | Zitvogel, Laurence | Anna, Passarelli | Marco, Tucci | Stefania, Stucci | Francesco, Mannavola | Mariaelena, Capone | Gabriele, Madonna | Antonio, Ascierto Paolo | Franco, Silvestris | Roberti, María Paula | Enot, David P. | Semeraro, Michaela | Jégou, Sarah | Flores, Camila | Chen, Tseng-hui Timothy | Kwon, Byoung S. | Anderson, Ana Carrizossa | Borg, Christophe | Aubin, François | Ayyoub, Maha | De Presbiteris, Anna Lisa | Cordaro, Fabiola Gilda | Camerlingo, Rosa | Fratangelo, Federica | Mozzillo, Nicola | Pirozzi, Giuseppe | Patriarca, Eduardo J. | Caputo, Emilia | Motti, Maria Letizia | Falcon, Rosaria | Miceli, Roberta | Capone, Mariaelena | Madonna, Gabriele | Mallardo, Domenico | Carrier, Maria Vincenza | Panza, Elisabetta | De Cicco, Paola | Armogida, Chiara | Ercolano, Giuseppe | Botti, Gerardo | Cirino, Giuseppe | Sandru, Angela | Blank, Miri | Balatoni, Timea | Olasz, Judit | Farkas, Emil | Szollar, Andras | Savolt, Akos | Godeny, Maria | Csuka, Orsolya | Horvath, Szabolcs | Eles, Klara | Shoenfeld, Yehuda | Kasler, Miklos | Costantini, Susan | Capone, Francesca | Moradi, Farnaz | Berglund, Pontus | Leandersson, Karin | Linnskog, Rickard | Andersson, Tommy | Prasad, Chandra Prakash | Nigro, Cristiana Lo | Lattanzio, Laura | Wang, Hexiao | Proby, Charlotte | Syed, Nelofer | Occelli, Marcella | Cauchi, Carolina | Merlano, Marco | Harwood, Catherine | Thompson, Alastair | Crook, Tim | Bifulco, Katia | Ingangi, Vincenzo | Minopoli, Michele | Ragone, Concetta | Pessi, Antonello | Mannavola, Francesco | D’Oronzo, Stella | Felici, Claudia | Tucci, Marco | Doronzo, Antonio | Silvestris, Franco | Ferretta, Anna | Guida, Stefania | Maida, Imma | Cocco, Tiziana | Passarelli, Anna | Quaresmini, Davide | Franzese, Ornella | Palermo, Belinda | Di Donna, Cosmo | Sperduti, Isabella | Foddai, MariaLaura | Stabile, Helena | Gismondi, Angela | Santoni, Angela | Nisticò, Paola | Sponghini, Andrea P. | Platini, Francesca | Marra, Elena | Rondonotti, David | Alabiso, Oscar | Fierro, Maria T. | Savoia, Paola | Stratica, Florian | Quaglino, Pietro |  Di Monta, Gianluca | Corrado, Caracò |  Di Marzo, Massimiliano | Ugo, Marone |  Di Cecilia, Maria Luisa | Nicola, Mozzillo | Fusciello, Celeste | Marra, Antonio | Guarrasi, Rosario | Baldi, Carlo | Russo, Rosa |  Di Giulio, Giovanni | Faiola, Vincenzo | Zeppa, Pio | Pepe, Stefano | Gambale, Elisabetta | Carella, Consiglia | Di Paolo, Alessandra | De Tursi, Michele | Marra, Laura | De Murtas, Fara | Sorrentino, Valeria | Voinea, Silviu | Panaitescu, Eugenia | Bolovan, Madalina | Stanciu, Adina | Cinca, Sabin | Botti, Chiara | Aquino, Gabriella | Anniciello, Annamaria | Fortes, Cristina | Mastroeni, Simona | Caggiati, Alessio | Passarelli, Francesca | Zappalà, Alba | Capuano, Maria | Bono, Riccardo | Nudo, Maurizio | Marino, Claudia | Michelozzi, Paola | De Biasio, Valeria | Battarra, Vincenzo C. | Formenti, Silvia | Ascierto, Maria Libera | McMiller, Tracee L. | Berger, Alan E. | Danilova, Ludmila | Anders, Robert A. | Netto, George J. | Xu, Haiying | Pritchard, Theresa S. | Fan, Jinshui | Cheadle, Chris | Cope, Leslie | Drake, Charles G. | Pardoll, Drew M. | Taube, Janis M. | Topalian, Suzanne L. | Gnjatic, Sacha | Nataraj, Sarah | Imai, Naoko | Rahman, Adeeb | Jungbluth, Achim A. | Pan, Linda | Venhaus, Ralph | Park, Andrew | Lehmann, Frédéric F. | Lendvai, Nikoletta | Cohen, Adam D. | Cho, Hearn J. | Daniel, Speiser | Hirsh, Vera
Journal of Translational Medicine  2016;14(Suppl 1):65.
Table of contents
Molecular and immuno-advances
K1 Immunologic and metabolic consequences of PI3K/AKT/mTOR activation in melanoma
Vashisht G. Y. Nanda, Weiyi Peng, Patrick Hwu, Michael A. Davies
K2 Non-mutational adaptive changes in melanoma cells exposed to BRAF and MEK inhibitors help the establishment of drug resistance
Gennaro Ciliberto, Luigi Fattore, Debora Malpicci, Luigi Aurisicchio, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Carlo M. Croce, Rita Mancini
K3 Tumor-intrinsic beta-catenin signaling mediates tumor-immune avoidance
Stefani Spranger, Thomas F. Gajewski
K4 Intracellular tumor antigens as a source of targets of antibody-based immunotherapy of melanoma
Yangyang Wang, Soldano Ferrone
Combination therapies
K5 Harnessing radiotherapy to improve responses to immunotherapy in cancer
Claire Vanpouille-Box, Erik Wennerberg, Karsten A. Pilones, Silvia C. Formenti, Sandra Demaria
K6 Creating a T cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment overcomes resistance to checkpoint blockade
Haidong Tang, Yang Wang, Yang-Xin Fu
K7 Biomarkers for treatment decisions?
Reinhard Dummer
K8 Combining oncolytic therapies in the era of checkpoint inhibitors
Igor Puzanov
K9 Immune checkpoint blockade for melanoma: should we combine or sequence ipilimumab and PD-1 antibody therapy?
Michael A. Postow
News in immunotherapy
K10 An update on adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy for melanom
Ahmad Tarhini
K11 Targeting multiple inhibitory receptors in melanoma
Joe-Marc Chauvin, Ornella Pagliano, Julien Fourcade, Zhaojun Sun, Hong Wang, Cindy Sanders, John M. Kirkwood, Tseng-hui Timothy Chen, Mark Maurer, Alan J. Korman, Hassane M. Zarour
K12 Improving adoptive immune therapy using genetically engineered T cells
David F. Stroncek
Tumor microenvironment and biomarkers
K13 Myeloid cells and tumor exosomes: a crosstalk for assessing immunosuppression?
Veronica Huber, Licia Rivoltini
K14 Update on the SITC biomarker taskforce: progress and challenges
Magdalena Thurin
World-wide immunoscore task force: an update
K15 The immunoscore in colorectal cancer highlights the importance of digital scoring systems in surgical pathology
Tilman Rau, Alessandro Lugli
K16 The immunoscore: toward an integrated immunomonitoring from the diagnosis to the follow up of cancer’s patients
Franck Pagès
Economic sustainability of melanoma treatments: regulatory, health technology assessment and market access issues
K17 Nivolumab, the regulatory experience in immunotherapy
Jorge Camarero, Arantxa Sancho
K18 Evidence to optimize access for immunotherapies
Claudio Jommi
Molecular and immuno-advances
O1 Ipilimumab treatment results in CD4 T cell activation that is concomitant with a reduction in Tregs and MDSCs
Yago Pico de Coaña, Maria Wolodarski, Yuya Yoshimoto, Giusy Gentilcore, Isabel Poschke, Giuseppe V. Masucci, Johan Hansson, Rolf Kiessling
O2 Evaluation of prognostic and therapeutic potential of COX-2 and PD-L1 in primary and metastatic melanoma
Giosuè Scognamiglio, Francesco Sabbatino, Federica Zito Marino, Anna Maria Anniciello, Monica Cantile, Margherita Cerrone, Stefania Scala, Crescenzo D’alterio, Angela Ianaro, Giuseppe Cirino, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Giuseppina Liguori, Gerardo Botti
O3 Vemurafenib in patients with BRAFV600 mutation–positive metastatic melanoma: final overall survival results of the BRIM-3 study
Paul B. Chapman, Caroline Robert, James Larkin, John B. Haanen, Antoni Ribas, David Hogg, Omid Hamid, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Alessandro Testori, Paul Lorigan, Reinhard Dummer, Jeffrey A. Sosman, Keith T. Flaherty, Huibin Yue, Shelley Coleman, Ivor Caro, Axel Hauschild, Grant A. McArthur
O4 Updated survival, response and safety data in a phase 1 dose-finding study (CA209-004) of concurrent nivolumab (NIVO) and ipilimumab (IPI) in advanced melanoma
Mario Sznol, Margaret K. Callahan, Harriet Kluger, Michael A. Postow, RuthAnn Gordan, Neil H. Segal, Naiyer A. Rizvi, Alexander Lesokhin, Michael B. Atkins, John M. Kirkwood, Matthew M. Burke, Amanda Ralabate, Angel Rivera, Stephanie A. Kronenberg, Blessing Agunwamba, Mary Ruisi, Christine Horak, Joel Jiang, Jedd Wolchok
Combination therapies
O5 Efficacy and correlative biomarker analysis of the coBRIM study comparing cobimetinib (COBI) + vemurafenib (VEM) vs placebo (PBO) + VEM in advanced BRAF-mutated melanoma patients (pts)
Paolo A. Ascierto, Grant A. McArthur, James Larkin, Gabriella Liszkay, Michele Maio, Mario Mandalà, Lev Demidov, Daniil Stoyakovskiy, Luc Thomas, Luis de la Cruz-Merino, Victoria Atkinson, Caroline Dutriaux, Claus Garbe, Matthew Wongchenko, Ilsung Chang, Daniel O. Koralek, Isabelle Rooney, Yibing Yan, Antoni Ribas, Brigitte Dréno
O6 Preliminary clinical safety, tolerability and activity results from a Phase Ib study of atezolizumab (anti-PDL1) combined with vemurafenib in BRAFV600-mutant metastatic melanoma
Ryan Sullivan, Omid Hamid, Manish Patel, Stephen Hodi, Rodabe Amaria, Peter Boasberg, Jeffrey Wallin, Xian He, Edward Cha, Nicole Richie, Marcus Ballinger, Patrick Hwu
O7 Preliminary safety and efficacy data from a phase 1/2 study of epacadostat (INCB024360) in combination with pembrolizumab in patients with advanced/metastatic melanoma
Thomas F. Gajewski, Omid Hamid, David C. Smith, Todd M. Bauer, Jeffrey S. Wasser, Jason J. Luke, Ani S. Balmanoukian, David R. Kaufman, Yufan Zhao, Janet Maleski, Lance Leopold, Tara C. Gangadhar
O8 Primary analysis of MASTERKEY-265 phase 1b study of talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) and pembrolizumab (pembro) for unresectable stage IIIB-IV melanoma
Reinhard Dummer, Georgina V. Long, Antoni Ribas, Igor Puzanov, Olivier Michielin, Ari VanderWalde, Robert H.I. Andtbacka, Jonathan Cebon, Eugenio Fernandez, Josep Malvehy, Anthony J. Olszanski, Thomas F. Gajewski, John M. Kirkwood, Christine Gause, Lisa Chen, David R. Kaufman, Jeffrey Chou, F. Stephen Hodi
News in immunotherapy
O9 Two-year survival and safety update in patients (pts) with treatment-naïve advanced melanoma (MEL) receiving nivolumab (NIVO) or dacarbazine (DTIC) in CheckMate 066
Victoria Atkinson, Paolo A. Ascierto, Georgina V. Long, Benjamin Brady, Caroline Dutriaux, Michele Maio, Laurent Mortier, Jessica C. Hassel, Piotr Rutkowski, Catriona McNeil, Ewa Kalinka-Warzocha, Celeste Lebbé, Lars Ny, Matias Chacon, Paola Queirolo, Carmen Loquai, Parneet Cheema, Alfonso Berrocal, Karmele Mujika Eizmendi, Luis De La Cruz-Merino, Gil Bar-Sela, Christine Horak, Joel Jiang, Helene Hardy, Caroline Robert
O10 Efficacy and safety of nivolumab (NIVO) in patients (pts) with advanced melanoma (MEL) who were treated beyond progression in CheckMate 066/067
Georgina V. Long, Jeffrey S. Weber, James Larkin, Victoria Atkinson, Jean-Jacques Grob, Reinhard Dummer, Caroline Robert, Ivan Marquez-Rodas, Catriona McNeil, Henrik Schmidt, Karen Briscoe, Jean-François Baurain, F. Stephen Hodi, Jedd D. Wolchok
Tumor microenvironment and biomarkers
O11 New biomarkers for response/resistance to BRAF inhibitor therapy in metastatic melanoma
Rosamaria Pinto, Simona De Summa, Vito Michele Garrisi, Sabino Strippoli, Amalia Azzariti, Gabriella Guida, Michele Guida, Stefania Tommasi
O12 Chemokine receptor patterns in lymphocytes mirror metastatic spreading in melanoma and response to ipilimumab
Nicolas Jacquelot, David Enot, Caroline Flament, Jonathan M. Pitt, Nadège Vimond, Carolin Blattner, Takahiro Yamazaki, Maria-Paula Roberti, Marie Vetizou, Romain Daillere, Vichnou Poirier-Colame, Michaëla Semeraro, Anne Caignard, Craig L Slingluff Jr, Federica Sallusto, Sylvie Rusakiewicz, Benjamin Weide, Aurélien Marabelle, Holbrook Kohrt, Stéphane Dalle, Andréa Cavalcanti, Guido Kroemer, Anna Maria Di Giacomo, Michaele Maio, Phillip Wong, Jianda Yuan, Jedd Wolchok, Viktor Umansky, Alexander Eggermont, Laurence Zitvogel
O13 Serum levels of PD1- and CD28-positive exosomes before Ipilimumab correlate with therapeutic response in metastatic melanoma patients
Passarelli Anna, Tucci Marco, Stucci Stefania, Mannavola Francesco, Capone Mariaelena, Madonna Gabriele, Ascierto Paolo Antonio, Silvestris Franco
O14 Immunological prognostic factors in stage III melanomas
María Paula Roberti, Nicolas Jacquelot, David P Enot, Sylvie Rusakiewicz, Michaela Semeraro, Sarah Jégou, Camila Flores, Lieping Chen, Byoung S. Kwon, Ana Carrizossa Anderson, Caroline Robert, Christophe Borg, Benjamin Weide, François Aubin, Stéphane Dalle, Michele Maio, Jedd D. Wolchok, Holbrook Kohrt, Maha Ayyoub, Guido Kroemer, Aurélien Marabelle, Andréa Cavalcanti, Alexander Eggermont, Laurence Zitvogel
Molecular and immuno-advances
P1 Human melanoma cells resistant to B-RAF and MEK inhibition exhibit mesenchymal-like features
Anna Lisa De Presbiteris, Fabiola Gilda Cordaro, Rosa Camerlingo, Federica Fratangelo, Nicola Mozzillo, Giuseppe Pirozzi, Eduardo J. Patriarca, Paolo A. Ascierto, Emilia Caputo
P2 Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of ABT888 on melanoma cell lines and its potential role in the treatment of melanoma resistant to B-RAF inhibitors
Federica Fratangelo, Rosa Camerlingo, Emilia Caputo, Maria Letizia Motti, Rosaria Falcone, Roberta Miceli, Mariaelena Capone, Gabriele Madonna, Domenico Mallardo, Maria Vincenza Carriero, Giuseppe Pirozzi and Paolo Antonio Ascierto
P3 Involvement of the L-cysteine/CSE/H2S pathway in human melanoma progression
Elisabetta Panza, Paola De Cicco, Chiara Armogida, Giuseppe Ercolano, Rosa Camerlingo, Giuseppe Pirozzi, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Gerardo Botti, Giuseppe Cirino, Angela Ianaro
P4 Cancer stem cell antigen revealing pattern of antibody variable region genes were defined by immunoglobulin repertoire analysis in patients with malignant melanoma
Beatrix Kotlan, Gabriella Liszkay, Miri Blank, Timea Balatoni, Judit Olasz, Emil Farkas, Andras Szollar, Akos Savolt, Maria Godeny, Orsolya Csuka, Szabolcs Horvath, Klara Eles, Yehuda Shoenfeld and Miklos Kasler
P5 Upregulation of Neuregulin-1 expression is a hallmark of adaptive response to BRAF/MEK inhibitors in melanoma
Debora Malpicci, Luigi Fattore, Susan Costantini, Francesca Capone, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Rita Mancini, Gennaro Ciliberto
P6 HuR positively regulates migration of HTB63 melanoma cells
Farnaz Moradi, Pontus Berglund, Karin Leandersson, Rickard Linnskog, Tommy Andersson, Chandra Prakash Prasad
P7 Prolyl 4- (C-P4H) hydroxylases have opposing effects in malignant melanoma: implication in prognosis and therapy
Cristiana Lo Nigro, Laura Lattanzio, Hexiao Wang, Charlotte Proby, Nelofer Syed, Marcella Occelli, Carolina Cauchi, Marco Merlano, Catherine Harwood, Alastair Thompson, Tim Crook
P8 Urokinase receptor antagonists: novel agents for the treatment of melanoma
Maria Letizia Motti, Katia Bifulco, Vincenzo Ingangi, Michele Minopoli, Concetta Ragone, Federica Fratangelo, Antonello Pessi, Gennaro Ciliberto, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Maria Vincenza Carriero
P9 Exosomes released by melanoma cell lines enhance chemotaxis of primary tumor cells
Francesco Mannavola, Stella D’Oronzo, Claudia Felici, Marco Tucci, Antonio Doronzo, Franco Silvestris
P10 New insights in mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming in melanoma
Anna Ferretta, Gabriella Guida, Stefania Guida, Imma Maida, Tiziana Cocco, Sabino Strippoli, Stefania Tommasi, Amalia Azzariti, Michele Guida
P11 Lenalidomide restrains the proliferation in melanoma cells through a negative regulation of their cell cycle
Stella D’Oronzo, Anna Passarelli, Claudia Felici, Marco Tucci, Davide Quaresmini, Franco Silvestris
Combination therapies
P12 Chemoimmunotherapy elicits polyfunctional anti-tumor CD8 + T cells depending on the activation of an AKT pathway sustained by ICOS
Ornella Franzese, Belinda Palermo, Cosmo Di Donna, Isabella Sperduti, MariaLaura Foddai, Helena Stabile, Angela Gismondi, Angela Santoni, Paola Nisticò
P13 Favourable toxicity profile of combined BRAF and MEK inhibitors in metastatic melanoma patients
Andrea P. Sponghini, Francesca Platini, Elena Marra, David Rondonotti, Oscar Alabiso, Maria T. Fierro, Paola Savoia, Florian Stratica, Pietro Quaglino
P14 Electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing system dissection reduces seroma output or time to drain removal following axillary and ilio-inguinal node dissection in melanoma patients: a pilot study
Di Monta Gianluca, Caracò Corrado, Di Marzo Massimiliano, Marone Ugo, Di Cecilia Maria Luisa, Mozzillo Nicola
News in immunotherapy
P15 Clinical and immunological response to ipilimumab in a metastatic melanoma patient with HIV infection
Francesco Sabbatino, Celeste Fusciello1, Antonio Marra, Rosario Guarrasi, Carlo Baldi, Rosa Russo, Di Giulio Giovanni, Vincenzo Faiola, Pio Zeppa, Stefano Pepe
P16 Immunotherapy and hypophysitis: a case report
Elisabetta Gambale, Consiglia Carella, Alessandra Di Paolo, Michele De Tursi
Tumor microenvironment and biomarkers
P17 New immuno- histochemical markers for the differential diagnosis of atypical melanocytic lesions with uncertain malignant potential
Laura Marra, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Monica Cantile, Margherita Cerrone, Fara De Murtas, Valeria Sorrentino, Anna Maria Anniciello, Gerardo Botti
P18 Utility of simultaneous measurement of three serum tumor markers in melanoma patients
Angela Sandru, Silviu Voinea, Eugenia Panaitescu, Madalina Bolovan, Adina Stanciu, Sabin Cinca
P19 The significance of various cut-off levels of melanoma inhibitory activity in evaluation of cutaneous melanoma patients
Angela Sandru, Silviu Voinea, Eugenia Panaitescu, Madalina Bolovan, Adina Stanciu, Sabin Cinca
P20 The long noncoding RNA HOTAIR is associated to metastatic progression of melanoma and it can be identified in the blood of patients with advanced disease
Chiara Botti, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Laura Marra, Gabriella Aquino, Rosaria Falcone, Annamaria Anniciello, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Gerardo Botti, Monica Cantile
P21 The effect of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in melanoma mortality: timing of dissection
Cristina Fortes, Simona Mastroeni, Alessio Caggiati, Francesca Passarelli, Alba Zappalà, Maria Capuano, Riccardo Bono, Maurizio Nudo, Claudia Marino, Paola Michelozzi
P22 Epidemiological survey on related psychopathology in melanoma
Valeria De Biasio, Vincenzo C. Battarra
Immunotherapy beyond melanoma
K19 Predictor of response to radiation and immunotherapy
Silvia Formenti
K20 Response and resistance to PD-1 pathway blockade: clues from the tumor microenvironment
Maria Libera Ascierto, Tracee L. McMiller, Alan E. Berger, Ludmila Danilova, Robert A. Anders, George J. Netto, Haiying Xu, Theresa S. Pritchard, Jinshui Fan, Chris Cheadle, Leslie Cope, Charles G. Drake, Drew M. Pardoll, Janis M. Taube and Suzanne L. Topalian
K21 Combination immunotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation, protein immunization, and PBMC reinfusion in myeloma patients
Sacha Gnjatic, Sarah Nataraj, Naoko Imai, Adeeb Rahman, Achim A. Jungbluth, Linda Pan, Ralph Venhaus, Andrew Park, Frédéric F. Lehmann, Nikoletta Lendvai, Adam D. Cohen, and Hearn J. Cho
K22 Anti-cancer immunity despite T cell “exhaustion”
Speiser Daniel
Immunotherapy in oncology (I-O): data from clinical trial
K23 The Checkpoint Inhibitors for the Treatment of Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
Vera Hirsh
PMCID: PMC4965835  PMID: 27461275
11.  Distinct clinical patterns and immune infiltrates are observed at time of progression on targeted therapy versus immune checkpoint blockade for melanoma 
Oncoimmunology  2016;5(3):e1136044.
We have made major advances in the treatment of melanoma through the use of targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockade; however, clinicians are posed with therapeutic dilemmas regarding timing and sequence of therapy. There is a growing appreciation of the impact of antitumor immune responses to these therapies, and we performed studies to test the hypothesis that clinical patterns and immune infiltrates differ at progression on these treatments. We observed rapid clinical progression kinetics in patients on targeted therapy compared to immune checkpoint blockade. To gain insight into possible immune mechanisms behind these differences, we performed deep immune profiling in tumors of patients on therapy. We demonstrated low CD8+ T-cell infiltrate on targeted therapy and high CD8+ T-cell infiltrate on immune checkpoint blockade at clinical progression. These data have important implications, and suggest that antitumor immune responses should be assessed when considering therapeutic options for patients with melanoma.
PMCID: PMC4839346  PMID: 27141370
Immune checkpoint blockade; melanoma; targeted therapy; BRAF; CTLA-4; PD-1
12.  Evidence of synergy with combined BRAF-targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockade for metastatic melanoma 
Oncoimmunology  2014;3(9):e954956.
Significant advances in the treatment of melanoma have been made with BRAF-targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockade, and these strategies are now being combined empirically in clinical trials. Potential synergy is demonstrated in murine models and in analysis of longitudinal biopsies from patients on trial, however important questions remain regarding toxicity, optimal timing and sequence of therapy.
PMCID: PMC4292518  PMID: 25941608
BRAF; immune checkpoint; PD-1; PD-L1; melanoma
15.  Beyond BRAFV600: clinical mutation panel testing by next-generation sequencing in advanced melanoma 
The management of melanoma has evolved due to improved understanding of its molecular drivers. To augment the current understanding of the prevalence, patterns, and associations of mutations in this disease, the results of clinical testing of 699 advanced melanoma patients using a pan-cancer next generation sequencing (NGS) panel of hotspot regions in 46 genes were reviewed. Mutations were identified in 43 of the 46 genes on the panel. The most common mutations were BRAFV600 (36%), NRAS (21%), TP53 (16%), BRAFNon-V600 (6%), and KIT (4%). Approximately one-third of melanomas had >1 mutation detected, and the number of mutations per tumor was associated with melanoma subtype. Concurrent TP53 mutations were the most frequent event in tumors with BRAFV600 and NRAS mutations. Melanomas with BRAFNon-V600 mutations frequently harbored concurrent NRAS mutations (18%), which were rare in tumors with BRAFV600 mutations (1.6%). The prevalence of BRAFV600 and KIT mutations were significantly associated with melanoma subtypes, and BRAFV600 and TP53 mutations were significantly associated with cutaneous primary tumor location. Multiple potential therapeutic targets were identified in metastatic unknown primary and cutaneous melanomas that lacked BRAFV600 and NRAS mutations. These results enrich our understanding of the patterns and clinical associations of oncogenic mutations in melanoma.
PMCID: PMC4289407  PMID: 25148578
melanoma; sequencing; mutation; BRAF; NRAS; TP53
16.  Update on use of aldesleukin for treatment of high-risk metastatic melanoma 
High-dose interleukin-2 has been used for the treatment of metastatic melanoma since 1998 based on data proving durable complete responses in up to 10% of treated patients. The immunomodulatory effects of this critical cytokine have been instrumental in the development of immunotherapy for melanoma and other cancers. However, with the advent of new therapies, its use as a front-line agent has come into question. Nonetheless, there is still a role for interleukin-2 as monotherapy, as well as in combination with other agents and in clinical trials. In this article, we review preclinical and clinical data regarding interleukin-2, its pharmacology and mechanism of action, its toxicity profile, and its use in ongoing and planned clinical trials. We also explore the future of this agent within the treatment landscape for melanoma.
PMCID: PMC4918260  PMID: 27471714
aldesleukin; melanoma; immunotherapy
17.  Myeloid-derived suppressor cells are associated with disease progression and decreased overall survival in advanced-stage melanoma patients 
Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII  2013;62(11):1711-1722.
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells are increased in the peripheral blood of advanced-stage cancer patients; however, no studies have shown a correlation of these immunosuppressive cells with clinical outcomes in melanoma patients. We characterized the frequency and suppressive function of multiple subsets of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the peripheral blood of 34 patients with Stage IV melanoma, 20 patients with Stage I melanoma, and 15 healthy donors. The frequency of CD14+ MDSCs (Lin− CD11b+ HLA-DR− CD14+ CD33+) and CD14− MDSCs (Lin− CD11b+ HLA-DR− CD14− CD33+) were increased in the peripheral blood of Stage IV melanoma patients relative to healthy donors. The frequency of CD14+ and CD14− MDSCs correlated with each other and with the increased frequency of regulatory T cells, but not with classically-defined monocytes. CD14− MDSCs isolated from the peripheral blood of Stage IV melanoma patients suppressed T cell activation more than those isolated from healthy donors and the frequency of these cells correlated with disease progression and decreased overall survival. Our study provides the first evidence that the frequency of CD14− MDSCs negatively correlates with clinical outcomes in advanced-stage melanoma patients. These data indicate that suppressive MDSCs should be considered as targets for future immunotherapies.
PMCID: PMC4176615  PMID: 24072401
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells; immunotherapy; immunosuppression; melanoma
18.  Therapeutic options in cutaneous melanoma: latest developments 
Melanoma is a malignancy that is highly curable in the early stages but has devastating consequences in later stages due to lack of response to traditional treatments. Improved understanding of the basic science of tumorigenesis has helped lead to novel targeted therapies which are producing beneficial results in patients with melanoma. Enhancement of the immune system by blockade of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 by the monoclonal antibody ipilimumab is now approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in patients with unresectable melanoma. The approval of this drug was based on the first ever data in melanoma showing an improvement in overall survival. New advances in targeting components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway are showing impressive responses in clinical trials in most patients harboring activating mutations in BRAF. Thus, this is a new era in the management of melanoma and we review the recent progress made in treating patients with advanced disease.
PMCID: PMC3169931  PMID: 21957431
BRAF mutation; ipilimumab; metastatic melanoma; targeted therapy; vemurafenib

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