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1.  Effect of Persian and almond gums as fat replacers on the physicochemical, rheological, and microstructural attributes of low‐fat Iranian White cheese 
Food Science & Nutrition  2016;5(3):669-677.
Abstract
The effect of Persian and almond gums (0, 0.1 and 0.2% (w/w)) as fat replacers and milk fat (0.4, 0.9, and 1.4% (w/w)) on physicochemical and rheological characteristics and microstructure of low‐fat Iranian White cheese was studied. Persian and almond gums both effectively increased moisture‐to‐protein (M:P) ratio of low‐fat cheese samples which in turn led to a significant reduction in the hardness parameters fracture stress and Young's and storage (G’) moduli (p < .05); however, the effect of Persian gum was more pronounced (p < .01). Gum addition promoted cheese yield and proteolysis rate (p < .05). Response surface optimization described that supplementation of cheese milk containing 0.9% fat with 0.2% Persian gum and 0.12% almond gum would result in a low‐fat cheese with textural properties similar to its full‐fat counterpart. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the fat replacers produced full‐fat‐like structure in the low‐fat Iranian White cheese, when incorporated at the optimum levels.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.446
PMCID: PMC5448388
Low‐fat Iranian White cheese; rheology; persian gum; almond gum; RSM
2.  Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice 
Foods  2016;5(4):81.
In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice.
doi:10.3390/foods5040081
PMCID: PMC5302423
aldehydes; furans; GC-MS; HS-SPME; Oryza sativa; phenol derivatives
3.  Elevated baseline plasma phospholipid protein (PLTP) levels are an independent predictor of long-term all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus and known or suspected coronary artery disease 
Atherosclerosis  2015;239(2):503-508.
STRUCTURED ABSTRACT
Objectives
To investigate the long-term prognostic significance of baseline plasma PLTP levels in a group of well-characterized male patients with diabetes mellitus and known or suspected coronary artery disease referred for coronary angiography.
Background
PLTP is a plasma protein that mediates net transfer and exchange of phospholipids between lipoproteins. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and elevated plasma levels have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Methods
Baseline plasma PLTP levels were measured in 154 male patients with diabetes mellitus who were referred for coronary angiography and followed prospectively for the development of all-cause mortality for 5 years.
Results
After adjustment for a variety of baseline clinical, angiographic and laboratory parameters, plasma PLTP levels (analyzed as a continuous variable) were an independent predictor of all-cause mortality at 5 years (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.22–2.00; P=0.0009). Furthermore, in 3 additional multivariate models that also included a wide variety of contemporary biomarkers with established prognostic efficacy (i.e., ST2, GDF-15, Cystatin C, Fibrinogen, and NT-proBNP), PLTP remained an independent predictor of all-cause mortality at 5 years.
Conclusions
Elevated baseline plasma levels of PLTP are associated with an increased risk of long-term all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes and known or suspected coronary disease. Furthermore, this association is independent of a variety of clinical, angiographic, laboratory variables, including a whole host of contemporary biomarkers with established prognostic efficacy.
doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.02.017
PMCID: PMC4361262  PMID: 25710294
PLTP; phospholipid transfer protein; biomarkers; acute coronary syndrome; prognosis; mortality; diabetes mellitus
4.  Stabilization of canthaxanthin produced by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 with spray drying microencapsulation 
The strain bacterium Dietzia natronolimnaea has propounded as a source for biological production of canthaxanthin. Because of sensitivity of this pigment, examine on its stability is important. In this study, stability of encapsulated canthaxanthin from D. natronolimnaea HS-1 using soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS), gum acacia (GA), and maltodextrin (MD) as wall materials was investigated at 4, 25, and 45 °C in light and dark conditions during 4 months of storage. It was shown that the type of walls influenced the size of emulsion droplets; spray dried particles, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), and retention of canthaxanthin in microcapsules. SSPS and MD produced the smallest and the biggest emulsion droplets and spray dried particles, respectively. Microcapsules made with SSPS resulted in better ME and higher stability for canthaxanthin. Samples were degraded in all conditions, especially in light and 45 °C. Degradation of microencapsulated canthaxanthin with SSPS and GA proceeded more slowly than did with MD. Regardless of the type of wall materials, total canthaxanthin contents of the microencapsulated products decreased by an increase in time or temperature. Also, samples exposed to light indicated less stability at 4 and 25 °C when compared to the storage at dark conditions. According to the results of this study, SSPS can be considered as potential wall material for the encapsulation of carotenoids.
doi:10.1007/s13197-012-0713-0
PMCID: PMC4152546  PMID: 25190874
Microencapsulation; Canthaxanthin; Dietzia natronolimnaea; Spray drying
5.  Effect of Rheum Ribes Hydro-Alcoholic Extract on Memory Impairments in Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease 
Some animal models have been used to study Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is an irreversible progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia. Animal studies have shown that there is a relation between decrease in cholinergic functions in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and loss of learning capability and memory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Rheum ribes extract (RR) on memory deficit in one of the rat models of AD. Plant (1500gr) was collected from Saman (kahkesh) region of Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari province in Iran. RR hydro-alcoholic extracts were prepared using maceration method. Rat model of Alzheimer was induced by Nucleus Basalis of Meynert lesions (NBML). Animals (n = 32) received extracts for 20 days and then passive avoidance and Morris water maze tasks were performed for memory evaluation. FRAP and HPLC methods were used for measurement of the antioxidant and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in blood. In water maze experiment, probe trial results showed that NBML group spent significantly less time in target quadrant, in which the platform was located on the preceding day. In addition, the time spent in target quadrant was significantly increased in NBML + RR groups (250 and 500 mg/kg) compared to the NBML group. In passive avoidance task, mean initial latency time and step-though latency were significantly decreased in NBML group. RR extracts significantly prolonged step-through latency in NBML + RR groups. Results of this study suggest that Rheum ribes extracts can improve memory deficits induced by bilateral NBM lesions in rats.
PMCID: PMC4673948  PMID: 26664387
Rat model of Alzheimer's disease; Rheum ribes; Shuttle box; Spatial learning; Memory
6.  Evaluation of Alloimmunization Rate and Necessity of Blood Type and Screening Test among Patients Candidate for Elective Surgery 
Introduction
Alloimmunization is a reaction of the immune system to foreign antigens. For prevention of alloantibody formation, performing of type and screen test is necessary on a patient’s blood specimen as part of pre-transfusion testing.
Materials and method
In this cross-sectional study, type and screen test done for 1420 patients with elective surgery for detection of alloantibody in Imam Khomeini hospital in Ardabil.
Results
Prevalence of alloantibody in this population was 0.92% (13 patients) and 99.2% (1407 patients) showed no alloantibody in their serum. The most prevalent alloantibody was anti-K, anti-E and anti-c. No significant relationship observed between sex and alloimmunization rate.
Conclusion
Performance of type and screen test play an important role in reducing the rate of alloimmunization, and also, could reduce the demands for blood reservation in hospital blood banks.
PMCID: PMC3913156  PMID: 24505544
Alloimmunization; Type and screen test; Elective surgery
7.  A Rare Pairing 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2013;40(4):500-501.
WEBSITE FEATURE
PMCID: PMC3783144  PMID: 24082392
9.  Allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction for the determination of Rh C/c and Rh E/e antigens in thalassaemic patients 
Blood Transfusion  2011;9(3):301-305.
Background
Thalassaemia is a genetic disease in which there is a relative or complete lack of alpha or beta globin chains. Patients with moderate to severe forms of thalassaemia need transfusions from the early years of life. Antibody production against blood group antigens may cause many problems in preparing compatible blood units for transfusion. The identification of definite blood group phenotypes by the haemagglutination method can be difficult because of the mixed population of red blood cells from the donor and recipient.
Materials and methods
Forty multiply transfused thalassaemic patients and ten healthy controls with no history of blood transfusion were enrolled in this study. Allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction (ASO-PCR) and haemagglutination methods were used to determine the presence of Rhesus (Rh) C, c, E and e antigens.
Results
In this study four primer sets were used for ASO-PCR amplification of RhC/c and RhE/e. Although PCR assays for RhC/c and RHE/e genotyping have been described previously, in this study we used a new condition for PCR by decreasing the annealing temperature from 63 °C to 58 °C in order to amplify all four genes in the same condition. In order to evaluate this single run molecular method, we used the haemagglutination test as the standard method and compared the results from the two methods. We found discrepancies between phenotype and genotype results among patients with beta thalassaemia, but complete agreement between phenotype and genotype in the control group.
Conclusions
The advantage of this new ASO-PCR method compared to a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) PCR method is that with the former all four genes can be amplified at the same time by PCR, and electrophoresis can be performed immediately to determine individual antigen profiles. The simplicity of the ASO-PCR method makes it suitable for routine use in medical centres and it is also cheaper than RFLP-PCR. Furthermore, as shown by previous studies, the results of haemagglutination and PCR tests often differ because the existence of donor red blood cells in the patient’s circulation can interfere with the interpretation of the haemagglutination test.
doi:10.2450/2011.0055-10
PMCID: PMC3136598  PMID: 21251469
Rh typing; polymerase chain reaction; thalassaemia; allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction; ASO-PCR
10.  Kinase activity is not required for αCaMKII-dependent presynaptic plasticity at CA3-CA1 synapses 
Nature neuroscience  2007;10(9):1125-1127.
Using targeted mouse mutants and pharmacologic inhibition of αCaMKII, we demonstrate that the αCaMKII protein, but not its activation, autophosphorylation or its ability to phosphorylate synapsin I, is required for normal short-term presynaptic plasticity. Furthermore, αCaMKII regulates the number of docked vesicles independent of its ability to be activated. These results indicate that αCaMKII has a nonenzymatic role in short-term presynaptic plasticity at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses.
doi:10.1038/nn1946
PMCID: PMC2804046  PMID: 17660813
11.  Modulation of Presynaptic Plasticity and Learning by the H-ras/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase/Synapsin I Signaling Pathway 
Molecular and cellular studies of the mechanisms underlying mammalian learning and memory have focused almost exclusively on postsynaptic function. We now reveal an experience-dependent presynaptic mechanism that modulates learning and synaptic plasticity in mice. Consistent with a presynaptic function for endogenous H-ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, we observed that, under normal physiologic conditions in wild-type mice, hippocampus-dependent learning stimulated the ERK-dependent phosphorylation of synapsin I, and MEK (MAP kinase kinase)/ERK inhibition selectively decreased the frequency of miniature EPSCs. By generating transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of H-ras (H-rasG12V), which is abundantly localized in axon terminals, we were able to increase the ERK-dependent phosphorylation of synapsin I. This resulted in several presynaptic changes, including a higher density of docked neurotransmitter vesicles in glutamatergic terminals, an increased frequency of miniature EPSCs, and increased paired-pulse facilitation. In addition, we observed facilitated neurotransmitter release selectively during high-frequency activity with consequent increases in long-term potentiation. Moreover, these mice showed dramatic enhancements in hippocampus-dependent learning. Importantly, deletion of synapsin I, an exclusively presynaptic protein, blocked the enhancements of learning, presynaptic plasticity, and long-term potentiation. Together with previous invertebrate studies, these results demonstrate that presynaptic plasticity represents an important evolutionarily conserved mechanism for modulating learning and memory.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2836-05.2005
PMCID: PMC2802213  PMID: 16237176
Ras; ERK; synapsin; LTP; miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents; mEPSCs; learning; presynaptic

Results 1-11 (11)