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1.  Electronic Brief Intervention and Text Messaging for Marijuana Use During Pregnancy: Initial Acceptability of Patients and Providers 
JMIR mHealth and uHealth  2017;5(11):e172.
Background
Marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance during pregnancy. Technology-delivered brief interventions and text messaging have shown promise in general and pregnant samples but have not yet been applied to marijuana use in pregnancy.
Objective
The objective of the study was to evaluate, among pregnant women and prenatal care providers, the acceptability of an electronic brief intervention and text messaging plan for marijuana use in pregnancy.
Methods
Participants included patients (n=10) and medical staff (n=12) from an urban prenatal clinic. Patient-participants were recruited directly during a prenatal care visit. Those who were eligible reviewed the interventions individually and provided quantitative and qualitative feedback regarding software acceptability and helpfulness during a one-on-one interview with research staff. Provider-participants took part in focus groups in which the intervention materials were reviewed and discussed. Qualitative and focus group feedback was transcribed, coded manually, and classified by category and theme.
Results
Patient-participants provided high ratings for satisfaction, with mean ratings for respectfulness, interest, ease of use, and helpfulness ranging between 4.4 and 4.7 on a 5-point Likert scale. Of the 10 participants, 5 reported that they preferred working with the program versus their doctor, and 9 of 10 said the intervention made them more likely to reduce their marijuana use. Provider-participants received the program favorably, stating the information presented was both relevant and important for their patient population.
Conclusions
The findings support the acceptability of electronic brief intervention and text messaging for marijuana use during pregnancy. This, combined with their ease of use and low barrier to initiation, suggests that further evaluation in a randomized trial is appropriate.
doi:10.2196/mhealth.7927
PMCID: PMC5700401  PMID: 29117931
pregnancy; marijuana; intervention study; text messaging
2.  A randomised trial of a computer-delivered screening and brief intervention for postpartum alcohol use 
Drug and alcohol review  2016;35(6):710-718.
Introduction and Aims
Most women cut down or quit alcohol use during pregnancy, but return to pre-pregnancy levels of use after giving birth. Universal screening and brief intervention (SBI) for alcohol use has shown promise, but has proven challenging to implement and has rarely been evaluated with postpartum women. This trial evaluated a single 20-minute, electronic SBI (e-SBI) for alcohol use among postpartum women.
Design and Methods
In this parallel group randomised trial, 123 postpartum, low-income, primarily African-American women meeting criteria for unhealthy alcohol use were randomly assigned to either a tailored e-SBI (n=61) or a time-matched control condition (n=62), with follow-up at 3 and 6 months. Hypotheses predicted that 7-day point-prevalence abstinence and drinking days would favour the e-SBI condition.
Results
No group differences were significant. Blinded follow-up evaluation revealed 7-day point prevalence of 75% for the e-SBI condition vs. 82% for control at 3 months (odds ratio = 1.6) and 72% vs. 73%, respectively, at 6 months. Drinking days in the past 90 and mean number of drinks per week also showed no significant differences.
Discussion and Conclusions
This pilot trial failed to support a single-session e-SBI for alcohol use among postpartum women, although findings at the three month time point suggested that greater power might confirm transient effects of the e-SBI. As efficacy is likely to vary with e-SBI content and approach, future research should leverage technology’s reproducibility and modularity to isolate key components.
doi:10.1111/dar.12389
PMCID: PMC5035162  PMID: 27004474
pregnancy; alcohol drinking; motivation; computers; randomised clinical trial
3.  Proceedings of the 14th annual conference of INEBRIA 
Holloway, Aisha S. | Ferguson, Jennifer | Landale, Sarah | Cariola, Laura | Newbury-Birch, Dorothy | Flynn, Amy | Knight, John R. | Sherritt, Lon | Harris, Sion K. | O’Donnell, Amy J. | Kaner, Eileen | Hanratty, Barbara | Loree, Amy M. | Yonkers, Kimberly A. | Ondersma, Steven J. | Gilstead-Hayden, Kate | Martino, Steve | Adam, Angeline | Schwartz, Robert P. | Wu, Li-Tzy | Subramaniam, Geetha | Sharma, Gaurav | McNeely, Jennifer | Berman, Anne H. | Kolaas, Karoline | Petersén, Elisabeth | Bendtsen, Preben | Hedman, Erik | Linderoth, Catharina | Müssener, Ulrika | Sinadinovic, Kristina | Spak, Fredrik | Gremyr, Ida | Thurang, Anna | Mitchell, Ann M. | Finnell, Deborah | Savage, Christine L. | Mahmoud, Khadejah F. | Riordan, Benjamin C. | Conner, Tamlin S. | Flett, Jayde A. M. | Scarf, Damian | McRee, Bonnie | Vendetti, Janice | Gallucci, Karen Steinberg | Robaina, Kate | Clark, Brendan J. | Jones, Jacqueline | Reed, Kathryne D. | Hodapp, Rachel M. | Douglas, Ivor | Burnham, Ellen L. | Aagaard, Laura | Cook, Paul F. | Harris, Brett R. | Yu, Jiang | Wolff, Margaret | Rogers, Meighan | Barbosa, Carolina | Wedehase, Brendan J. | Dunlap, Laura J. | Mitchell, Shannon G. | Dusek, Kristi A. | Gryczynski, Jan | Kirk, Arethusa S. | Oros, Marla T. | Hosler, Colleen | O’Grady, Kevin E. | Brown, Barry S. | Angus, Colin | Sherborne, Sidney | Gillespie, Duncan | Meier, Petra | Brennan, Alan | de Vargas, Divane | Soares, Janaina | Castelblanco, Donna | Doran, Kelly M. | Wittman, Ian | Shelley, Donna | Rotrosen, John | Gelberg, Lillian | Edelman, E. Jennifer | Maisto, Stephen A. | Hansen, Nathan B. | Cutter, Christopher J. | Deng, Yanhong | Dziura, James | Fiellin, Lynn E. | O’Connor, Patrick G. | Bedimo, Roger | Gibert, Cynthia | Marconi, Vincent C. | Rimland, David | Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C. | Simberkoff, Michael S. | Justice, Amy C. | Bryant, Kendall J. | Fiellin, David A. | Giles, Emma L. | Coulton, Simon | Deluca, Paolo | Drummond, Colin | Howel, Denise | McColl, Elaine | McGovern, Ruth | Scott, Stephanie | Stamp, Elaine | Sumnall, Harry | Vale, Luke | Alabani, Viviana | Atkinson, Amanda | Boniface, Sadie | Frankham, Jo | Gilvarry, Eilish | Hendrie, Nadine | Howe, Nicola | McGeechan, Grant J. | Ramsey, Amy | Stanley, Grant | Clephane, Justine | Gardiner, David | Holmes, John | Martin, Neil | Shevills, Colin | Soutar, Melanie | Chi, Felicia W. | Weisner, Constance | Ross, Thekla B. | Mertens, Jennifer | Sterling, Stacy A. | Shorter, Gillian W. | Heather, Nick | Bray, Jeremy | Cohen, Hildie A. | McPherson, Tracy L. | Adam, Cyrille | López-Pelayo, Hugo | Gual, Antoni | Segura-Garcia, Lidia | Colom, Joan | Ornelas, India J. | Doyle, Suzanne | Donovan, Dennis | Duran, Bonnie | Torres, Vanessa | Gaume, Jacques | Grazioli, Véronique | Fortini, Cristiana | Paroz, Sophie | Bertholet, Nicolas | Daeppen, Jean-Bernard | Satterfield, Jason M. | Gregorich, Steven | Alvarado, Nicholas J. | Muñoz, Ricardo | Kulieva, Gozel | Vijayaraghavan, Maya | Adam, Angéline | Cunningham, John A. | Díaz, Estela | Palacio-Vieira, Jorge | Godinho, Alexandra | Kushir, Vladyslav | O’Brien, Kimberly H. M. | Aguinaldo, Laika D. | Sellers, Christina M. | Spirito, Anthony | Chang, Grace | Blake-Lamb, Tiffany | LaFave, Lea R. Ayers | Thies, Kathleen M. | Pepin, Amy L. | Sprangers, Kara E. | Bradley, Martha | Jorgensen, Shasta | Catano, Nico A. | Murray, Adelaide R. | Schachter, Deborah | Andersen, Ronald M. | Rey, Guillermina Natera | Vahidi, Mani | Rico, Melvin W. | Baumeister, Sebastian E. | Johansson, Magnus | Sinadinovic, Christina | Hermansson, Ulric | Andreasson, Sven | O’Grady, Megan A. | Kapoor, Sandeep | Akkari, Cherine | Bernal, Camila | Pappacena, Kristen | Morley, Jeanne | Auerbach, Mark | Neighbors, Charles J. | Kwon, Nancy | Conigliaro, Joseph | Morgenstern, Jon | Magill, Molly | Apodaca, Timothy R. | Borsari, Brian | Hoadley, Ariel | Scott Tonigan, J. | Moyers, Theresa | Fitzgerald, Niamh M. | Schölin, Lisa | Barticevic, Nicolas | Zuzulich, Soledad | Poblete, Fernando | Norambuena, Pablo | Sacco, Paul | Ting, Laura | Beaulieu, Michele | Wallace, Paul George | Andrews, Matthew | Daley, Kate | Shenker, Don | Gallagher, Louise | Watson, Rod | Weaver, Tim | Bruguera, Pol | Oliveras, Clara | Gavotti, Carolina | Barrio, Pablo | Braddick, Fleur | Miquel, Laia | Suárez, Montse | Bruguera, Carla | Brown, Richard L. | Capell, Julie Whelan | Paul Moberg, D. | Maslowsky, Julie | Saunders, Laura A. | McCormack, Ryan P. | Scheidell, Joy | Gonzalez, Mirelis | Bauroth, Sabrina | Liu, Weiwei | Lindsay, Dawn L. | Lincoln, Piper | Hagle, Holly | Wallhed Finn, Sara | Hammarberg, Anders | Andréasson, Sven | King, Sarah E. | Vargo, Rachael | Kameg, Brayden N. | Acquavita, Shauna P. | Van Loon, Ruth Anne | Smith, Rachel | Brehm, Bonnie J. | Diers, Tiffiny | Kim, Karissa | Barker, Andrea | Jones, Ashley L. | Skinner, Asheley C. | Hinman, Agatha | Svikis, Dace S. | Thacker, Casey L. | Resnicow, Ken | Beatty, Jessica R. | Janisse, James | Puder, Karoline | Bakshi, Ann-Sofie | Milward, Joanna M. | Kimergard, Andreas | Garnett, Claire V. | Crane, David | Brown, Jamie | West, Robert | Michie, Susan | Rosendahl, Ingvar | Andersson, Claes | Gajecki, Mikael | Blankers, Matthijs | Donoghue, Kim | Lynch, Ellen | Maconochie, Ian | Phillips, Ceri | Pockett, Rhys | Phillips, Tom | Patton, R. | Russell, Ian | Strang, John | Stewart, Maureen T. | Quinn, Amity E. | Brolin, Mary | Evans, Brooke | Horgan, Constance M. | Liu, Junqing | McCree, Fern | Kanovsky, Doug | Oberlander, Tyler | Zhang, Huan | Hamlin, Ben | Saunders, Robert | Barton, Mary B. | Scholle, Sarah H. | Santora, Patricia | Bhatt, Chirag | Ahmed, Kazi | Hodgkin, Dominic | Gao, Wenwu | Merrick, Elizabeth L. | Drebing, Charles E. | Larson, Mary Jo | Sharma, Monica | Petry, Nancy M. | Saitz, Richard | Weisner, Constance M. | Young-Wolff, Kelly C. | Lu, Wendy Y. | Blosnich, John R. | Lehavot, Keren | Glass, Joseph E. | Williams, Emily C. | Bensley, Kara M. | Chan, Gary | Dombrowski, Julie | Fortney, John | Rubinsky, Anna D. | Lapham, Gwen T. | Forray, Ariadna | Olmstead, Todd A. | Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn | Kershaw, Trace | Dillon, Pamela | Weaver, Michael F. | Grekin, Emily R. | Ellis, Jennifer D. | McGoron, Lucy | McGoron, Lucy
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0087-8
PMCID: PMC5606215
4.  Immediate vs. delayed computerized brief intervention for illicit drug misuse 
Journal of addiction medicine  2016;10(5):344-351.
Objective
Computerized brief interventions are a promising approach for integrating substance use interventions into primary care settings. We sought to examine the effectiveness of a computerized brief intervention for illicit drug misuse, which prior research showed performed no worse than a traditional in-person brief intervention.
Methods
Community health center patients were screened for eligibility using the World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Participants were adult patients (ages 18-62; 53% female) with moderate-risk illicit drug use (N=80), randomized to receive the computerized brief intervention either immediately, or at their 3-month follow-up. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 3-, and 6-month follow-up, and included the ASSIST and drug hair testing.
Results
Most participants in the sample (90%) reported moderate-risk marijuana use. Although the sample as a whole reported significant decreases in ASSIST Global Drug Risk scores and ASSIST marijuana-specific scores, no significant differences were detected between Immediate and Delayed conditions on either of these measures. Likewise, no significant differences were detected between conditions in drug-positive hair test results at either follow-up.
Conclusions
This study did not find differences between immediate vs. delayed computerized brief intervention in reducing drug use or associated risks, suggesting potential regression to the mean or reactivity to the consent, screening, or assessment process. The findings are discussed in light of the study's limitations and directions for future research.
doi:10.1097/ADM.0000000000000248
PMCID: PMC5042843  PMID: 27504925
brief intervention; computerized brief intervention; marijuana; primary care
5.  Process evaluation of a technology-delivered screening and brief intervention for substance use in primary care 
Psychotherapy process research examines the content of treatment sessions and their association with outcomes in an attempt to better understand the interactions between therapists and clients, and to elucidate mechanisms of behavior change. A similar approach is possible in technology-delivered interventions, which have an interaction process that is always perfectly preserved and rigorously definable. The present study sought to examine the process of participants’ interactions with a computer-delivered brief intervention for drug use, from a study comparing computer- and therapist-delivered brief interventions among adults at two primary health care centers in New Mexico. Specifically, we sought to describe the pattern of participants’ (N=178) choices and reactions throughout the computer-delivered brief intervention, and to examine associations between that process and intervention response at 3-month follow-up. Participants were most likely to choose marijuana as the first substance they wished to discuss (n = 114, 64.0%). Most participants indicated that they had not experienced any problems as a result of their drug use (n = 108, 60.7%), but nearly a third of these (n = 32, 29.6%) nevertheless indicated a desire to stop or reduce its use; participants who did report negative consequences were most likely to endorse financial or relationship concerns. However, participant ratings of the importance of change or of the helpfulness of personalized normed feedback were unrelated to changes in substance use frequency. Design of future e-interventions should consider emphasizing possible benefits of quitting rather than the negative consequences of drug use, and—when addressing consequences—should consider focusing on the impacts of substance use on relationship and financial aspects. These findings are an early but important step toward using process evaluation to optimize e-intervention content.
doi:10.1016/j.invent.2016.01.004
PMCID: PMC4836054  PMID: 27110494
e-Health; brief intervention; substance abuse; process research; adults
6.  Key Intervention Characteristics in e-Health: Steps Towards Standardized Communication 
Purpose
This paper reports expert opinion on e-health intervention characteristics that enable effective communication of characteristics across the diverse field of e-health interventions. The paper presents a visualization tool to support communication of the defining characteristics.
Methods
An initial list of e-health intervention characteristics was developed through an iterative process of item generation and discussion among the 12 authors. The list was distributed to 123 experts in the field, who were emailed an invitation to assess and rank the items. Participants were asked to evaluate these characteristics in three separate ways.
Results
A total of 50 responses were received for a response rate of 40.7%. Six respondents who reported having little or no expertise in e-health research were removed from the dataset.
Our results suggest that 10 specific intervention characteristics were consistently supported as of central importance by the panel of 44 e-intervention experts. The weight and perceived relevance of individual items differed between experts; oftentimes, this difference is a result of the individual theoretical perspective and/or behavioral target of interest.
Conclusions
The first iteration of the visualization of salient characteristics represents an ambitious effort to develop a tool that will support communication of the defining characteristics for e-health interventions aimed to assist e-health developers and researchers to communicate the key characteristics of their interventions in a standardized manner that facilitates dialog.
doi:10.1007/s12529-016-9630-3
PMCID: PMC5608867  PMID: 28405917
e-Health intervention; Technology; Behavior; Guideline; Standardized reporting
7.  Computer-Delivered Screening and Brief Intervention for Alcohol Use in Pregnancy: A Pilot Randomized Trial 
Background
Although screening and brief intervention (SBI) for unhealthy alcohol use has demonstrated efficacy in some trials, its implementation has been limited. Technology-delivered approaches are a promising alternative, particularly during pregnancy when the importance of alcohol use is amplified. The present trial evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of an interactive, empathic, video-enhanced, and computer-delivered SBI (e-SBI) plus three separate tailored mailings, and estimated intervention effects.
Methods
We recruited 48 pregnant women who screened positive for alcohol risk at an urban prenatal care clinic. Participants were randomly assigned to the e-SBI plus mailings or to a control session on infant nutrition, and were reevaluated during their postpartum hospitalization. The primary outcome was 90-day period-prevalence abstinence as measured by timeline follow-back interview.
Results
Participants rated the intervention as easy to use and helpful (4.7-5.0 on a 5-point scale). Blinded follow-up evaluation at childbirth revealed medium-size intervention effects on 90-day period prevalence abstinence (OR = 3.4); similarly, intervention effects on a combined healthy pregnancy outcome variable (live birth, normal birthweight, and no NICU stay) were also of moderate magnitude in favor of e-SBI participants (OR=3.3). As expected in this intentionally under-powered pilot trial, these effects were non-significant (p = .19 and .09, respectively).
Conclusions
This pilot trial demonstrated the acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a computer-delivered screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) plus tailored mailings for alcohol use in pregnancy. These findings mirror the promising results of other trials using a similar approach, and should be confirmed in a fully-powered trial.
doi:10.1111/acer.12747
PMCID: PMC4490994  PMID: 26010235
8.  Commercial Ethyl Glucuronide (EtG) and Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) Testing is not Vulnerable to Incidental Alcohol Exposure in Pregnant Women 
Substance use & misuse  2016;51(1):126-130.
Background
Ethyl Glucoronide (EtG) and Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) have shown promise as biomarkers for alcohol and may be sensitive enough for use with pregnant women in whom even low-level alcohol use is important. However, there have been reports of over-sensitivity of EtG and EtS to incidental exposure to sources such as alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Further, few studies have evaluated these biomarkers among pregnant women, in whom the dynamics of these metabolites may differ.
Objectives
This study evaluated whether commercial EtG-EtS testing was vulnerable to high levels of environmental exposure to alcohol in pregnant women.
Methods
Two separate samples of five nurses—one pregnant and the other postpartum, all of whom reported high levels of alcohol-based hand sanitizer use—provided urine samples before and 4–8 hours after rinsing with alcohol-based mouthwash and using hand sanitizer. The five pregnant nurses provided urine samples before, during, and after an 8-hour nursing shift, during which they repeatedly cleansed with alcohol-based hand sanitizer (mean 33.8 uses). The five postpartum nurses used hand sanitizer repeatedly between baseline and follow-up urine samples.
Results
No urine samples were positive for EtG-EtS at baseline or follow-up, despite use of mouthwash and—in the pregnant sample—heavy use of hand sanitizer (mean of 33.8 uses) throughout the 8-hour shift.
Conclusions/Importance
Current, commercially available EtG-EtS testing does not appear vulnerable to even heavy exposure to incidental sources of alcohol among pregnant and postpartum women.
doi:10.3109/10826084.2015.1073324
PMCID: PMC4832416  PMID: 26771303
ethyl glucuronide; ethyl sulfate; substance abuse detection/methods; pregnancy; Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder
9.  Acceptability of a Computerized Brief Intervention for Alcohol among Abstinent but at-Risk Pregnant Women 
Background
Limitations in time and training have hindered widespread implementation of alcohol-based interventions in prenatal clinics. Also, despite the possibility of under-reporting or relapse, many at risk women report that they quit drinking after pregnancy confirmation so that interventions focusing on current drinking may seem unnecessary. The Computerized Brief Intervention for Alcohol Use in Pregnancy (C-BIAP) was designed to (a) be implemented via a handheld device in prenatal clinics, and (b) use a modified brief intervention strategy with women who screen at-risk but report no current drinking.
Methods
We administered the C-BIAP to 18 T-ACE (Tolerance, Annoyance, Cut Down, and Eye Opener) positive, pregnant African-American women who provided quantitative and qualitative feedback.
Results
The C-BIAP received high ratings of acceptability; qualitative feedback was also positive overall and suggested good acceptance of abstinence themes.
Conclusions
Technology may be a feasible and acceptable method for brief intervention delivery with pregnant women who do not report current drinking.
doi:10.1080/08897077.2013.857631
PMCID: PMC4031312  PMID: 24266770
alcohol/alcoholism; intervention programs; pregnancy; research; mixed methods; technology
10.  Potential radiating effects of misusing substances among medical patients receiving brief intervention 
Background
The societal benefits of substance use interventions are largely driven not by reducing use per se, but by the broader implications of those reductions. This encompasses “potential radiating effects of misusing substances” (PREMiS) such as utilization of high-cost hospital and emergency care, injury, productivity losses, incarceration, and driving while impaired.
Methods
This study is a secondary analysis from a randomized trial comparing in-person vs. computerized brief intervention among 360 adult community health center patients with moderate-risk illicit drug use (N= 302 with complete data through 12 months of follow-up). This study aims to examine four aspects of PREMiS outcomes in this sample: (1) their frequency; and their association with (2) type of brief intervention received (by random assignment), (3) type of drug misused, and (4) baseline drug problem severity (within the moderate risk range).
Results
12-month prevalence was 18.5% for hospitalization (399 cumulative days), 33.1% for emergency department utilization (166 cumulative visits), 39.1% for injury (1818 injury-days), and 8.3% for incarceration (278 days of detention). There were 729 missed work days among those who reported employment. Fifty percent reported driving under the influence (DUI) of substances. There were no differences in PREMiS outcomes by type of brief intervention. Participants with only marijuana misuse at baseline were not at lower risk of experiencing PREMiS events than participants with other drug misuse. Higher baseline drug problem severity was predictive of future hospitalization (p<.05) and number of hospitalization days (p<.01).
Conclusion
This community health center sample with moderate-risk illicit drug use reported considerable high-cost healthcare utilization, injury, missed work, and DUI. Interventions are needed that can reliably lower risk of negative outcomes among drug users.
doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2015.02.003
PMCID: PMC4456200  PMID: 25812927
primary care; brief intervention; drug misuse; Potential Radiating Effects of Misusing Substances (PREMiS); hospitalization; injury; productivity losses
11.  Computer-delivered screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) for postpartum drug use: A randomized trial 
Journal of substance abuse treatment  2013;46(1):10.1016/j.jsat.2013.07.013.
Electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) approaches for substance use have shown early promise. This trial was designed to replicate previous findings from a single 20-minute e-SBI for drug use among postpartum women. A total of 143 postpartum, primarily low-income African-American women meeting criteria for drug use, were randomly assigned to either a tailored e-SBI or a time-matched control condition. Blinded follow-up evaluation 3- and 6-months following childbirth revealed strong effects for confirmed illicit drug use abstinence at the 3-month observation (OR = 3.3, p = .01), as did hair analysis at 6 months (OR = 4.8, p = .018). Additional primary outcomes suggested small to moderate effect sizes in favor of the e-SBI, but did not reach significance. This result replicates previous findings but fails to show durable effects. Assessment reactivity, e-SBI design, and possible extension of e-SBI via tailored messaging all merit careful consideration.
doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2013.07.013
PMCID: PMC3818299  PMID: 24051077
Pregnancy; drug abuse screening; brief intervention; drug users; motivation; computers
12.  Enhancing Parental Motivation to Monitor African American Adolescents’ Diabetes Care: Development and Beta Test of a Brief Computer-Delivered Intervention 
JMIR Research Protocols  2014;3(3):e43.
Background
African American youth are at increased risk for poor diabetes management. Parenting behaviors such as parental monitoring are significant predictors of youth diabetes management and metabolic control, but no intervention has targeted parental monitoring of daily diabetes care.
Objective
The purpose of the present study was to develop and pilot test a three-session computer-delivered intervention to enhance parental motivation to monitor African American pre-adolescents’ diabetes management.
Methods
The 3 Ms (Medication, Meter, and Meals) intervention was based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior change and Motivational Interviewing approaches. Five caregivers of African American youth aged 10-13 years diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a minimum of one year (ie, the target population) reviewed the intervention and provided feedback via semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis.
Results
Caregivers’ responses to interview questions suggest that The 3 Ms was helpful (minimum rating was 8 out of 10) and they would recommend the program to another parent of a child with diabetes (minimum rating was 9 out of 10). Three of five reported that The 3 Ms program increased the likelihood that they would talk to their child about diabetes. Thematic analysis suggested two primary themes: caregivers found the intervention to be a useful reminder of the importance of supervising their child’s diabetes care and that it evoked a feeling of shared experience with other parents.
Conclusions
The 3 Ms computer-delivered intervention for increasing parental monitoring of African-American youth with type 1 diabetes was well-received and highly rated by a small sample of representative caregivers.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01515930; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01515930 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Rm0vq9pn).
doi:10.2196/resprot.3220
PMCID: PMC4180328  PMID: 25236503
parenting; diabetes mellitus, Type 1; motivational interviewing; health behavior; intervention studies; African Americans; computer-assisted instruction
13.  A Randomized Trial of Computerized vs. In-person Brief Intervention for Illicit Drug Use in Primary Care: Outcomes through 12 months 
This study examined outcomes through 12 months from a randomized trial comparing computerized brief intervention (CBI) vs. in-person brief intervention (IBI) delivered by behavioral health counselors for adult community health center patients with moderate-level drug misuse (N= 360). Data were collected at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, and included the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and laboratory analysis of hair samples. Repeated measures analyses examined differential change over time. There were no significant differences in drug-positive hair tests over time or by condition. Global ASSIST scores decreased in both conditions (p< .001), but there were no significant differences between conditions in overall change across 12 months of follow-up (p= .13). CBI produced greater overall reductions in alcohol (p= .04) and cocaine (p= .02) ASSIST scores than IBI, with initial differences dissipating over time. Computerized brief interventions present a viable alternative to traditional in-person brief interventions.
doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2014.09.002
PMCID: PMC4304885  PMID: 25282578
14.  Drug Use During Pregnancy: Validating the Drug Abuse Screening Test Against Physiological Measures 
This study examined the ability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) to identify prenatal drug use using hair and urine samples as criterion variables. In addition, this study was the first to use “best practices,” such as anonymity, ACASI technology, and a written screener, to facilitate disclosure in this vulnerable population. 300 low-income, post-partum women (90.3% African-American) were recruited from their hospital rooms after giving birth. Participation involved (a) completing a computerized assessment battery that contained the DAST-10 and (b) providing urine and hair samples. Twenty-four percent of the sample had a positive drug screen. The sensitivity of the DAST-10 was only .47. Nineteen percent of the sample had a positive toxicology screen but denied drug use on the DAST-10. Findings suggest that brief drug use screeners may have limited utility for pregnant women and that efforts to facilitate disclosure via reassurance and anonymity are unlikely to be sufficient in this population.
doi:10.1037/a0021741
PMCID: PMC3878301  PMID: 21198230
DAST-10; pregnancy; drug use; screening
15.  Development and Preliminary Validation of an Indirect Screener for Drug Use in the Perinatal Period 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2012;107(12):2099-2106.
Aims
This study sought to develop and begin validation of an indirect screener for identification of drug use during pregnancy, without reliance on direct disclosure.
Design
Women were recruited from their hospital rooms after giving birth. Participation involved (a) completing a computerized assessment battery containing three types of items: direct (asking directly about drug use), semi-indirect (asking only about drug use prior to pregnancy) and indirect (with no mention of drug use), and (b) providing urine and hair samples. An optimal subset of indirect items was developed and cross-validated based on ability to predict urine/hair test results.
Setting
Obstetric unit of a university-affiliated hospital in Detroit.
Participants
400 low-income, African American, post-partum women (300 in the developmental sample and 100 in the cross-validation sample); all available women were recruited without consideration of substance abuse risk or other characteristics.
Measurements
Women first completed the series of direct and indirect items using a Tablet PC; they were then asked for separate consent to obtain urine and hair samples that were tested for evidence of illicit drug use.
Findings
In the cross-validation sample, the brief screener consisting of 6 indirect items predicted toxicology results more accurately than direct questions about drug use (area under the ROC curve = .74, p < .001). Traditional direct screening questions were highly specific but identified only a small minority of women who used drugs during the last trimester of pregnancy.
Conclusions
Indirect screening may increase the accuracy of mothers’ self-reports of prenatal drug use.
doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03982.x
PMCID: PMC3499681  PMID: 22882721
16.  Commission Versus Receipt of Violence During Pregnancy: Associations With Substance Abuse Variables 
Journal of interpersonal violence  2009;25(10):10.1177/0886260509354507.
The tendency for women to report both commission and receipt of violence is an understudied phenomenon. In particular, little is known about individual differences as a function of commission vs. receipt of partner violence among pregnant women. Using a sample of 78 cohabiting low-SES pregnant women, the current study examines three violence subtypes based on self-report (primarily commission of violence, primarily receipt of violence, and no report of violence) and investigated differences in a range of other risk factors among these subtypes. In this sample, 47% reported higher levels of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration than victimization; 14% reported more IPV victimization than perpetration; and 39% reported no IPV. Results demonstrate clear differences between women reporting IPV and those not reporting IPV and clear differences between IPV subtypes in terms of partner substance use, with women reporting primarily receipt of violence also reporting more drug and alcohol abuse by their partners. Although preliminary, these findings suggest that the commission of violence may be more common during pregnancy than the receipt of violence, but that risks for these two subgroups are similar.
doi:10.1177/0886260509354507
PMCID: PMC3826822  PMID: 19966245
substance abuse; pregnancy; risk factors; intimate partner violence
17.  Pre-Treatment Change in a Randomized Trial with Pregnant Substance-Abusing Women in Community-Based Outpatient Treatment 
Contemporary clinical trials  2012;33(5):1074-1079.
Participants in clinical trials of interventions for substance use frequently show substantial pre-treatment reductions in use. However, pre-treatment change has not been studied among pregnant women, a group with unique motivational characteristics. It is also not clear whether pre-treatment reduction in substance use can be clearly linked to research activities such as pretreatment assessment, or if it is the result of more general factors such as the decision to seek treatment. Using an interrupted longitudinal design, we evaluated pre-treatment change among 148 pregnant women, all of whom had completed a clinical trial comparing motivational enhancement therapy to treatment as usual. When baseline period was compared to the period after randomization and before treatment, the change in substance use was substantial (dropping from an average of substance use on 30.5% of days during baseline to 16.7% of days during the pre-treatment phase; p < .001), and was greater in magnitude than change following initiation of study-related treatment. Further, this reduction was significant after controlling for a longitudinal time effect and did not apply to tobacco use. These findings suggest that change following pre-treatment research activities is independent of the decision to seek treatment and is present even among pregnant women, many of whom have already reduced their substance use. These findings also suggest the possible need for re-evaluation of the nature and causes of behavior change, as well as trial design, in clinical trials for substance abuse.
doi:10.1016/j.cct.2012.06.002
PMCID: PMC3415274  PMID: 22710564
substance-related disorders; pregnancy; pregnant women; motivation; clinical trials as topic
18.  A Randomized Trial of Computer-Delivered Brief Intervention and Low-Intensity Contingency Management for Smoking During Pregnancy 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2011;14(3):351-360.
Introduction:
Implementation of evidence-based interventions for smoking during pregnancy is challenging. We developed 2 highly replicable interventions for smoking during pregnancy: (a) a computer-delivered 5As-based brief intervention (CD-5As) and (b) a computer-assisted, simplified, and low-intensity contingency management (CM-Lite).
Methods:
A sample of 110 primarily Black pregnant women reporting smoking in the past week were recruited from prenatal care clinics and randomly assigned to CD-5As (n = 26), CM-Lite (n = 28), CD-5As plus CM-Lite (n = 30), or treatment as usual (n = 26). Self-report of smoking, urine cotinine, and breath CO were measured 10 weeks following randomization.
Results:
Participants rated both interventions highly (e.g., 87.5% of CD-5As participants reported increases in likelihood of quitting), but most CM-Lite participants did not initiate reinforcement sessions and did not show increased abstinence. CD-5As led to increased abstinence as measured by cotinine (43.5% cotinine negative vs. 17.4%; odds ratio [OR] = 10.1, p = .02) but not for CO-confirmed 7-day point prevalence (30.4% abstinent vs. 8.7%; OR = 5.7, p = .06). Collapsing across CM-Lite status, participants receiving the CD-5As intervention were more likely to talk to a doctor or nurse about their smoking (60.5% vs. 30.8%; OR = 3.0, p = .02).
Conclusions:
Low-intensity participant-initiated CM did not affect smoking in this sample, but the CD-5As intervention was successful in increasing abstinence during pregnancy. Further research should seek to replicate these results in larger and more diverse samples. Should CD-5As continue to prove efficacious, it could greatly increase the proportion of pregnant smokers who receive an evidence-based brief intervention.
doi:10.1093/ntr/ntr221
PMCID: PMC3281243  PMID: 22157229
19.  Hair Drug Testing Results and Self-reported Drug Use among Primary Care Patients with Moderate-risk Illicit Drug Use 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2014;141:44-50.
Background
This study sought to examine the utility of hair testing as a research measure of drug use among individuals with moderate-risk drug use based on the internationally-validated Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST).
Methods
This study is a secondary analysis using baseline data from a randomized trial of brief intervention for drug misuse, in which 360 adults with moderate-risk drug use were recruited from two community clinics in New Mexico, USA. The current study compared self-reported drug use on the ASSIST with laboratory analysis of hair samples using a standard commercially-available 5-panel test with assay screening and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) confirmation. Both self-report and hair testing covered a 3 month period.
Results
Overall concordance between hair testing and self-report was 57.5% (marijuana), 86.5% (cocaine), 85.8% (amphetamines), and 74.3% (opioids). Specificity of hair testing at standard laboratory cut-offs exceeded 90% for all drugs, but sensitivity of hair testing relative to self-report was low, identifying only 52.3% (127/243) of self-disclosed marijuana users, 65.2% (30/46) of cocaine users, 24.2% (8/33) of amphetamine users, and 2.9% (2/68) of opioid users. Among participants who disclosed using marijuana or cocaine in the past 3 months, participants with a negative hair test tended to report lower-frequency use of those drugs (p< .001 for marijuana and cocaine).
Conclusions
Hair testing can be useful in studies with moderate-risk drug users, but the potential for under-identification of low-frequency use suggests that researchers should consider employing low detection cut-offs and using hair testing in conjunction with self-report.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.05.001
PMCID: PMC4080811  PMID: 24932945
Hair testing; self-report; moderate-risk drug use; brief intervention; primary care
20.  Computerized v. In-person Brief Intervention for Drug Misuse: A Randomized Clinical Trial 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2014;109(7):1091-1098.
Background and aims
Several studies have found that brief interventions (BIs) for drug misuse have superior effectiveness to no-treatment controls. However, many health centers do not provide BIs for drug use consistently due to insufficient behavioral health staff capacity. Computerized BIs for drug use are a promising approach, but their effectiveness compared with in-person BIs has not been established. This study compared the effectiveness of a computerized brief intervention (CBI) to an in-person brief intervention (IBI) delivered by a behavioral health counselor.
Methods
Two-arm randomized clinical trial, conducted in two health centers in New Mexico, USA. Participants were 360 adult primary care patients with moderate-risk drug scores on the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) who were randomly assigned on a 1:1 basis to a computerized brief intervention (CBI) or to an in-person brief intervention (IBI) delivered by a behavioral health counselor. Assessments were conducted at baseline and 3-month follow-up, and included the ASSIST and drug testing on hair samples.
Results
The IBI and CBI conditions did not differ at 3 months on global ASSIST drug scores (b=−1.79; 95% CI=−4.37,0.80) or drug-positive hair tests (OR=.97; 95% CI= 0.47,2.02). There was a statistically significant advantage of CBI over IBI in substance-specific ASSIST scores for marijuana (b=−1.73; 95% CI= −2.91,−0.55; Cohen’s d=.26; p=.004) and cocaine (b= −4.48; 95% CI= −8.26,−0.71; Cohen’s d=.50; p=.021) at 3 months.
Conclusions
Computerized brief intervention can be an effective alternative to in-person brief intervention for addressing moderate drug use in primary care.
doi:10.1111/add.12502
PMCID: PMC4086904  PMID: 24520906
brief intervention; computer technology; substance abuse
21.  MAPIT: Development of a Web-Based Intervention Targeting Substance Abuse Treatment in the Criminal Justice System 
Journal of substance abuse treatment  2013;46(1):10.1016/j.jsat.2013.07.003.
Although drug and alcohol treatment are common requirements in the U.S. criminal justice system, only a minority of clients actually initiate treatment. This paper describes a two-session, web-based intervention to increase motivation for substance abuse treatment among clients using illicit substances. MAPIT (Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment) integrates the extended parallel process model, motivational interviewing, and social cognitive theory. The first session (completed near the start of probation) targets motivation to complete probation, to make changes in substance use (including treatment initiation), and to obtain HIV testing and care. The second session (completed approximately 30 days after session 1) focuses on goal setting, coping strategies, and social support. Both sessions can generate emails or mobile texts to remind clients of their goals. MAPIT uses theory-based algorithms and a text-to-speech engine to deliver custom feedback and suggestions. In an initial test, participants indicated that the program was respectful, easy to use, and would be helpful in making changes in substance use. MAPIT is being tested in a randomized trial in two large U.S. probation agencies. MAPIT addresses the difficulties of many probation agencies to maximize client involvement in treatment, in a way that is cost effective and compatible with the existing service delivery system.
doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2013.07.003
PMCID: PMC3818291  PMID: 23954392
criminal justice; substance abuse; treatment initiation; HIV; e-Health
22.  Computer-Based Brief Intervention: A Randomized Trial With Postpartum Women 
Background
Drug use among parenting women is a significant risk factor for a range of negative child outcomes, including exposure to violence, child maltreatment, and child behavior problems. Implementation of brief interventions with this population may be greatly facilitated by computer-based interventions.
Design
Randomized clinical trial with 4-month follow-up.
Setting/participants
Participants were 107 postpartum women recruited from an urban obstetric hospital primarily serving a low-income population. Women were randomized into assessment only versus assessment plus brief intervention conditions; 76 (71%) returned for follow-up evaluation.
Intervention
A 20-minute, single-session computer-based brief motivational intervention (based on Motivational Interviewing methods) combined with two nontailored mailings and voucher-based reinforcement of attendance at an initial intake/treatment session.
Main outcome measures
Illicit drug use as measured by qualitative urinalysis and self-report.
Results
Frequency of illicit drug use other than marijuana increased slightly for the control group, but declined among intervention group participants (p <0.05, between-groups Mann-Whitney U; d = 0.50); the magnitude of intervention effects on changes in marijuana use frequency was similar, but did not reach statistical significance. Point-prevalence analysis at follow-up did not show significant group differences in drug use. However, trends under a range of assumptions regarding participants lost to follow-up all favored the intervention group, with most effect sizes in the moderate range (ORs 1.4 to 4.7).
Conclusions
Results tentatively support the efficacy of this high-reach, replicable brief intervention. Further research should seek to replicate these findings and to further develop the computer as a platform for validated brief interventions.
doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2006.11.003
PMCID: PMC1858656  PMID: 17236741
23.  Motivational Enhancement System for Adherence (MESA): Pilot Randomized Trial of a Brief Computer-Delivered Prevention Intervention for Youth Initiating Antiretroviral Treatment 
Journal of Pediatric Psychology  2013;38(6):638-648.
Objective To pilot test a two-session computer-delivered motivational intervention to facilitate adherence among youth with HIV newly prescribed antiretroviral treatment (ART). Methods Youth (N = 76) newly prescribed ART were recruited from 8 sites, and were randomized to the intervention or an active nutrition and physical activity control. Primary outcomes were HIV-1 viral load at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, and self-reported adherence at 3 and 6 months. Results Satisfaction ratings were high. Effect sizes suggested that the intervention group showed a greater drop than controls in viral load from baseline to 6 months (Cohen’s d = 0.39 at 3 months; d = 0.19 at 6 months), and had greater percent undetectable by 6 months (d = 0.28). Effects sizes were medium to large for 7-day and weekend adherence. Conclusions A brief computer-delivered motivational intervention showed promise for youth starting ART and is ready to be tested in a full-scale clinical trial.
doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jss132
PMCID: PMC3701125  PMID: 23359664
adherence; adolescent; eHealth; HIV
24.  The relationship between prenatal care, personal alcohol abuse and alcohol abuse in the home environment 
Drugs (Abingdon, England)  2009;16(5):10.1080/09687630802570239.
Aims
Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been inconsistent, perhaps because (a) alcohol use during pregnancy is substantially under-reported and (b) studies have not considered the wider social network in which maternal alcohol use takes place. The current study attempts to clarify relationships between personal alcohol use, alcohol use in the home environment, and prenatal care in a sample of post-partum women.
Methods
Participants were 107 low-income, primarily African-American women. All participants completed a computer-based screening which assessed personal and environmental alcohol use, prenatal care and mental health.
Findings
Environmental alcohol use was related to delayed prenatal care while personal alcohol use was not. More specifically, after controlling for demographic variables, the presence of more than three person-episodes of binge drinking in a woman’s home environment increased the odds of seriously compromized prenatal care by a factor of seven.
Conclusions
Findings suggest the need to further assess environmental alcohol use and to examine the reliability of personal alcohol use measures.
doi:10.1080/09687630802570239
PMCID: PMC3878306  PMID: 24391354
25.  Computer-based brief motivational intervention for perinatal drug use☆ 
Journal of substance abuse treatment  2005;28(4):10.1016/j.jsat.2005.02.004.
Computer-based brief motivational interventions may be able to reach a high proportion of at-risk individuals and thus have potential for significant population impact. The present studies were conducted to determine the acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a computer-based brief motivational intervention (the motivation enhancement system, or MES). In Study 1, quantitative and qualitative feedback from 30 postpartum women and 17 women in treatment for drug use were used to modify the software. In Study 2, 50 urban postpartum women who reported drug use in the month before pregnancy completed the intervention and provided repeated within-session ratings of state motivation. In Study 3, 30 women were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions with 1-month follow-up. Overall, women rated the MES as highly acceptable and easy to use and reported significant increases in state motivation at postintervention and at 1-month follow-up (d = .49). These preliminary results are encouraging and suggest that further work in this area is warranted.
doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2005.02.004
PMCID: PMC3836613  PMID: 15925264
Drugs; Computer-based; Perinatal; Motivation; Brief intervention

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