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1.  Proceedings of the 14th annual conference of INEBRIA 
Holloway, Aisha S. | Ferguson, Jennifer | Landale, Sarah | Cariola, Laura | Newbury-Birch, Dorothy | Flynn, Amy | Knight, John R. | Sherritt, Lon | Harris, Sion K. | O’Donnell, Amy J. | Kaner, Eileen | Hanratty, Barbara | Loree, Amy M. | Yonkers, Kimberly A. | Ondersma, Steven J. | Gilstead-Hayden, Kate | Martino, Steve | Adam, Angeline | Schwartz, Robert P. | Wu, Li-Tzy | Subramaniam, Geetha | Sharma, Gaurav | McNeely, Jennifer | Berman, Anne H. | Kolaas, Karoline | Petersén, Elisabeth | Bendtsen, Preben | Hedman, Erik | Linderoth, Catharina | Müssener, Ulrika | Sinadinovic, Kristina | Spak, Fredrik | Gremyr, Ida | Thurang, Anna | Mitchell, Ann M. | Finnell, Deborah | Savage, Christine L. | Mahmoud, Khadejah F. | Riordan, Benjamin C. | Conner, Tamlin S. | Flett, Jayde A. M. | Scarf, Damian | McRee, Bonnie | Vendetti, Janice | Gallucci, Karen Steinberg | Robaina, Kate | Clark, Brendan J. | Jones, Jacqueline | Reed, Kathryne D. | Hodapp, Rachel M. | Douglas, Ivor | Burnham, Ellen L. | Aagaard, Laura | Cook, Paul F. | Harris, Brett R. | Yu, Jiang | Wolff, Margaret | Rogers, Meighan | Barbosa, Carolina | Wedehase, Brendan J. | Dunlap, Laura J. | Mitchell, Shannon G. | Dusek, Kristi A. | Gryczynski, Jan | Kirk, Arethusa S. | Oros, Marla T. | Hosler, Colleen | O’Grady, Kevin E. | Brown, Barry S. | Angus, Colin | Sherborne, Sidney | Gillespie, Duncan | Meier, Petra | Brennan, Alan | de Vargas, Divane | Soares, Janaina | Castelblanco, Donna | Doran, Kelly M. | Wittman, Ian | Shelley, Donna | Rotrosen, John | Gelberg, Lillian | Edelman, E. Jennifer | Maisto, Stephen A. | Hansen, Nathan B. | Cutter, Christopher J. | Deng, Yanhong | Dziura, James | Fiellin, Lynn E. | O’Connor, Patrick G. | Bedimo, Roger | Gibert, Cynthia | Marconi, Vincent C. | Rimland, David | Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C. | Simberkoff, Michael S. | Justice, Amy C. | Bryant, Kendall J. | Fiellin, David A. | Giles, Emma L. | Coulton, Simon | Deluca, Paolo | Drummond, Colin | Howel, Denise | McColl, Elaine | McGovern, Ruth | Scott, Stephanie | Stamp, Elaine | Sumnall, Harry | Vale, Luke | Alabani, Viviana | Atkinson, Amanda | Boniface, Sadie | Frankham, Jo | Gilvarry, Eilish | Hendrie, Nadine | Howe, Nicola | McGeechan, Grant J. | Ramsey, Amy | Stanley, Grant | Clephane, Justine | Gardiner, David | Holmes, John | Martin, Neil | Shevills, Colin | Soutar, Melanie | Chi, Felicia W. | Weisner, Constance | Ross, Thekla B. | Mertens, Jennifer | Sterling, Stacy A. | Shorter, Gillian W. | Heather, Nick | Bray, Jeremy | Cohen, Hildie A. | McPherson, Tracy L. | Adam, Cyrille | López-Pelayo, Hugo | Gual, Antoni | Segura-Garcia, Lidia | Colom, Joan | Ornelas, India J. | Doyle, Suzanne | Donovan, Dennis | Duran, Bonnie | Torres, Vanessa | Gaume, Jacques | Grazioli, Véronique | Fortini, Cristiana | Paroz, Sophie | Bertholet, Nicolas | Daeppen, Jean-Bernard | Satterfield, Jason M. | Gregorich, Steven | Alvarado, Nicholas J. | Muñoz, Ricardo | Kulieva, Gozel | Vijayaraghavan, Maya | Adam, Angéline | Cunningham, John A. | Díaz, Estela | Palacio-Vieira, Jorge | Godinho, Alexandra | Kushir, Vladyslav | O’Brien, Kimberly H. M. | Aguinaldo, Laika D. | Sellers, Christina M. | Spirito, Anthony | Chang, Grace | Blake-Lamb, Tiffany | LaFave, Lea R. Ayers | Thies, Kathleen M. | Pepin, Amy L. | Sprangers, Kara E. | Bradley, Martha | Jorgensen, Shasta | Catano, Nico A. | Murray, Adelaide R. | Schachter, Deborah | Andersen, Ronald M. | Rey, Guillermina Natera | Vahidi, Mani | Rico, Melvin W. | Baumeister, Sebastian E. | Johansson, Magnus | Sinadinovic, Christina | Hermansson, Ulric | Andreasson, Sven | O’Grady, Megan A. | Kapoor, Sandeep | Akkari, Cherine | Bernal, Camila | Pappacena, Kristen | Morley, Jeanne | Auerbach, Mark | Neighbors, Charles J. | Kwon, Nancy | Conigliaro, Joseph | Morgenstern, Jon | Magill, Molly | Apodaca, Timothy R. | Borsari, Brian | Hoadley, Ariel | Scott Tonigan, J. | Moyers, Theresa | Fitzgerald, Niamh M. | Schölin, Lisa | Barticevic, Nicolas | Zuzulich, Soledad | Poblete, Fernando | Norambuena, Pablo | Sacco, Paul | Ting, Laura | Beaulieu, Michele | Wallace, Paul George | Andrews, Matthew | Daley, Kate | Shenker, Don | Gallagher, Louise | Watson, Rod | Weaver, Tim | Bruguera, Pol | Oliveras, Clara | Gavotti, Carolina | Barrio, Pablo | Braddick, Fleur | Miquel, Laia | Suárez, Montse | Bruguera, Carla | Brown, Richard L. | Capell, Julie Whelan | Paul Moberg, D. | Maslowsky, Julie | Saunders, Laura A. | McCormack, Ryan P. | Scheidell, Joy | Gonzalez, Mirelis | Bauroth, Sabrina | Liu, Weiwei | Lindsay, Dawn L. | Lincoln, Piper | Hagle, Holly | Wallhed Finn, Sara | Hammarberg, Anders | Andréasson, Sven | King, Sarah E. | Vargo, Rachael | Kameg, Brayden N. | Acquavita, Shauna P. | Van Loon, Ruth Anne | Smith, Rachel | Brehm, Bonnie J. | Diers, Tiffiny | Kim, Karissa | Barker, Andrea | Jones, Ashley L. | Skinner, Asheley C. | Hinman, Agatha | Svikis, Dace S. | Thacker, Casey L. | Resnicow, Ken | Beatty, Jessica R. | Janisse, James | Puder, Karoline | Bakshi, Ann-Sofie | Milward, Joanna M. | Kimergard, Andreas | Garnett, Claire V. | Crane, David | Brown, Jamie | West, Robert | Michie, Susan | Rosendahl, Ingvar | Andersson, Claes | Gajecki, Mikael | Blankers, Matthijs | Donoghue, Kim | Lynch, Ellen | Maconochie, Ian | Phillips, Ceri | Pockett, Rhys | Phillips, Tom | Patton, R. | Russell, Ian | Strang, John | Stewart, Maureen T. | Quinn, Amity E. | Brolin, Mary | Evans, Brooke | Horgan, Constance M. | Liu, Junqing | McCree, Fern | Kanovsky, Doug | Oberlander, Tyler | Zhang, Huan | Hamlin, Ben | Saunders, Robert | Barton, Mary B. | Scholle, Sarah H. | Santora, Patricia | Bhatt, Chirag | Ahmed, Kazi | Hodgkin, Dominic | Gao, Wenwu | Merrick, Elizabeth L. | Drebing, Charles E. | Larson, Mary Jo | Sharma, Monica | Petry, Nancy M. | Saitz, Richard | Weisner, Constance M. | Young-Wolff, Kelly C. | Lu, Wendy Y. | Blosnich, John R. | Lehavot, Keren | Glass, Joseph E. | Williams, Emily C. | Bensley, Kara M. | Chan, Gary | Dombrowski, Julie | Fortney, John | Rubinsky, Anna D. | Lapham, Gwen T. | Forray, Ariadna | Olmstead, Todd A. | Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn | Kershaw, Trace | Dillon, Pamela | Weaver, Michael F. | Grekin, Emily R. | Ellis, Jennifer D. | McGoron, Lucy | McGoron, Lucy
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0087-8
PMCID: PMC5606215
2.  Brain mechanisms of Change in Addictions Treatment: Models, Methods, and Emerging Findings 
Current addiction reports  2016;3(3):332-342.
Increased understanding of “how” and “for whom” treatment works at the level of the brain has potential to transform addictions treatment through the development of innovative neuroscience-informed interventions. The 2015 Science of Change meeting bridged the fields of neuroscience and psychotherapy research to identify brain mechanisms of behavior change that are “common” across therapies, and “specific” to distinct behavioral interventions. Conceptual models of brain mechanisms underlying effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, mindfulness interventions, and Motivational Interviewing were discussed. Presentations covered methods for integrating neuroimaging into psychotherapy research, and novel analytic approaches. Effects of heavy substance use on the brain, and recovery of brain functioning with sustained abstinence, which may be facilitated by cognitive training, were reviewed. Neuroimaging provides powerful tools for determining brain mechanisms underlying psychotherapy and medication effects, predicting and monitoring outcomes, developing novel interventions that target specific brain circuits, and identifying for whom an intervention will be effective.
doi:10.1007/s40429-016-0113-z
PMCID: PMC5155705  PMID: 27990326
neuroimaging psychotherapy; addictive behaviors; translational; alcohol; substance use disorder
3.  A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of Different Mobile Messaging Interventions for Problem Drinking Compared to Weekly Drink Tracking 
PLoS ONE  2017;12(2):e0167900.
Introduction
Recent evidence suggests that text messaging may help to reduce problem drinking as an extension to in-person services, but very little is known about the effectiveness of remote messaging on problem drinking as a stand-alone intervention, or how different types of messages may improve drinking outcomes in those seeking to moderate their alcohol consumption.
Methods
We conducted an exploratory, single-blind randomized controlled pilot study comparing four different types of alcohol reduction-themed text messages sent daily to weekly drink self-tracking texts in order to determine their impact on drinking outcomes over a 12-week period in 152 participants (≈ 30 per group) seeking to reduce their drinking on the internet. Messaging interventions included: weekly drink self-tracking mobile assessment texts (MA), loss-framed texts (LF), gain-framed texts (GF), static tailored texts (ST), and adaptive tailored texts (TA). Poisson and least squares regressions were used to compare differences between each active messaging group and the MA control.
Results
When adjusting for baseline drinking, participants in all messaging groups except GF significantly reduced the number of drinks consumed per week and the number of heavy drinking days compared to MA. Only the TA and GF groups were significantly different from MA in reducing the number of drinking days. While the TA group yielded the largest effect sizes on all outcome measures, there were no significant differences between active messaging groups on any outcome measure. 79.6% of individuals enrolled in the study wanted to continue receiving messages for an additional 12 weeks at the end of the study.
Discussion
Results of this pilot study indicate that remote automated text messages delivered daily can help adult problem drinkers reduce drinking frequency and quantity significantly more than once-a-week self-tracking messages only, and that tailored adaptive texts yield the largest effect sizes across outcomes compared to MA. Larger samples are needed to understand differences between messaging interventions and to target their mechanisms of efficacy.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0167900
PMCID: PMC5287456  PMID: 28146560
4.  Randomized Trial of Family Therapy versus Non-Family Treatment for Adolescent Behavior Problems in Usual Care 
Objective
A major focus of implementation science is discovering whether evidence-based approaches can be delivered with fidelity and potency in routine practice. This randomized trial compared usual care family therapy (UC-FT), implemented without a treatment manual or extramural support as the standard-of-care approach in a community clinic, to non-family treatment (UC-Other) for adolescent conduct and substance use disorders.
Method
The study recruited 205 adolescents (mean age 15.7 years; 52% male; 59% Hispanic American, 21% African American) from a community referral network, enrolling 63% for primary mental health problems and 37% for primary substance use problems. Clients were randomly assigned to either the UC-FT site or one of five UC-Other sites. Implementation data confirmed that UC-FT showed adherence to the family therapy approach and differentiation from UC-Other. Follow-ups were completed at 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline.
Results
There was no between-group difference in treatment attendance. Both conditions demonstrated improvements in externalizing, internalizing, and delinquency symptoms. However, UC-FT produced greater reductions in youth-reported externalizing and internalizing among the whole sample, in delinquency among substance-using youth, and in alcohol and drug use among substance-using youth. The degree to which UC-FT outperformed UC-Other was consistent with effect sizes from controlled trials of manualized family therapy models.
Conclusions
Non-manualized family therapy can be effective for adolescent behavior problems within diverse populations in usual care, and it may be superior to non-family alternatives.
doi:10.1080/15374416.2014.963857
PMCID: PMC4465884  PMID: 25496283
adolescent mental health treatment; adolescent substance use treatment; family therapy; usual care; naturalistic study
5.  The Effects of Sexual Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Use on Risky Sexual Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex with Men 
AIDS and behavior  2015;19(3):431-439.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain most at risk for developing HIV infection. The best prevention in this population is to identify risk factors associated with unprotected sex. Recent research suggests that sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and level of average drinking moderates the relationship between drinking alcohol in the context of sex and risky sexual behavior in a young MSM population (ages 16–20 years). Current study is an exploratory analysis using multilevel modeling to examine if these results are consistent across a MSM population with a wider range of ages who are also heavy drinkers. Participants (n = 181) included MSM (ages 18–75 years) from a longitudinal clinical research trial. Results indicate that MSM with higher SSS were more likely to have unprotected anal sex if they drank alcohol 3 h prior to sex than those who did not, (OR = 1.07; 95 % CI 1.03–1.12). There was no significant interaction effect for average levels of drinking.
doi:10.1007/s10461-014-0871-3
PMCID: PMC4320029  PMID: 25096894
HIV; MSM; Alcohol; Sexual sensation seeking
6.  Characteristics of Individuals Screening Positive for Substance Use in a Welfare Setting: Implications for Welfare and Substance-Use Disorders Treatment Systems* 
Objective
This study examined barriers to employability, motivation to abstain from substances and to work, and involvement in multiple service systems among male and female welfare applicants with alcohol- and drug-use problems.
Method
A representative sample (N = 1,431) of all persons applying for public assistance who screened positive for substance involvement over a 2-year period in a large urban county were recruited in welfare offices. Legal, education, general health, mental health, employment, housing, and child welfare barriers to employability were assessed, as were readiness to abstain from substance use and readiness to work.
Results
Only 1 in 20 participants reported no barrier other than substance use, whereas 70% reported at least two other barriers and 40% reported three or more. Moreover, 70% of participants experienced at least one additional barrier classified as “severe” and 30% experienced two or more. The number and type of barriers differed by gender. Latent class analysis revealed four main barriers-plus-readiness profiles among participants: (1) multiple barriers, (2) work experienced, (3) criminal justice, and (4) unstable housing.
Conclusions
Findings suggest that comprehensive coordination among social service systems is needed to address the complex problems of low-income Americans with substance-use disorders. Classifying applicants based on barriers and readiness is a promising approach to developing innovative welfare programs to serve the diverse needs of men and women with substance-related problems.
PMCID: PMC4764122  PMID: 18612572
7.  Cognitive Regulation of Craving in Alcohol Dependent and Social Drinkers 
Background
Helping alcohol dependent individuals to cope with, or regulate, cue-induced craving using cognitive strategies is a therapeutic goal of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for alcohol dependence. An assumption that underlies this approach is that alcohol dependence is associated with deficits in such cognitive regulation abilities. To date, however, the ability to utilize such strategies for regulation of craving has never been tested in a laboratory setting.
Methods
Here we compared 19 non-treatment-seeking, alcohol dependent drinkers (AD) to 21 social drinkers (SD), using a laboratory task that measured the ability to reduce cue-induced alcohol craving by thinking about long-term negative consequences of drinking, which is a specific cognitive regulation strategy that is taught in CBT. The task also assessed the ability to reduce food craving elicited by high-calorie food cues using a similar strategy.
Results
The reduction in craving when using this cognitive regulation strategy was approximately double in SD, compared to AD, for both alcohol and food cues. Furthermore, in SD but not AD, the ability to regulate cue-induced alcohol craving was correlated with the ability to regulate food craving. There were no significant correlations found between the ability to regulate cue-induced alcohol craving and a number of self-report measures related to severity of alcohol dependence, baseline craving, impulsivity and general self-regulation ability, for either AD or SD.
Conclusions
The results suggest that alcohol dependence is associated with deficits in cognitive regulation of cue-induced craving, and that these deficits are not specific to the regulation of alcohol craving, but generalize to the regulation of other appetitive states, such as food craving. Future studies may use similar procedures to address the neural and cognitive processes that underlie such regulation deficits, as well as the effects of treatments such as CBT on these processes.
doi:10.1111/acer.12637
PMCID: PMC4331458  PMID: 25684053
Craving; self-regulation; coping skills; cue-exposure; cognitive behavioral therapy
8.  Profiles of confidence and commitment to change as predictors of moderated drinking: A person-centered approach 
Identifying who among problem drinkers is best suited for moderation and has the greatest likelihood to control drinking has important public health implications. The current study aimed to identify profiles of problem drinkers who may be more or less successful in moderating drinking within the context of a randomized clinical trial of a brief treatment for alcohol use disorder. A person-centered approach was implemented, utilizing composite, baseline daily diary values of confidence and commitment to reduce drinking. Problem drinkers (N=89) were assessed, provided feedback about their drinking, and randomly assigned to one of three conditions: two brief AUD treatments or a third group asked to change on their own. Global self-report assessments were administered at baseline and week 8 (end of treatment). Daily diary composites were created from data collected via an Interactive Voice Recording system during the week prior to baseline. A K-means cluster analysis identified three groups: High, Moderate, and Low confidence and commitment to change drinking. Group differences were explored, and then group membership was entered into generalized estimating equations (GEE) to predict drinking trajectories over time. Findings revealed that the groups differentially reduced their drinking, such that the High group had greater reduction in drinking and a faster rate of reduction than the other two groups, and the Moderate group had greater reduction than the Low group. Findings suggest that baseline motivation and self-efficacy are important to predicting prognoses related to successful moderated drinking. Limitations and arenas for future research are discussed.
doi:10.1037/a0036812
PMCID: PMC4274182  PMID: 25134034
moderation; controlled drinking; alcohol; problem drinkers; motivation; self-efficacy; person-centered approach; ecological momentary assessment
9.  5-HTTLPR moderates naltrexone and psychosocial treatment responses in heavy drinking men who have sex with men 
Background
A functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene has been widely studied as a risk factor and moderator of treatment for a variety of psychopathologic conditions. To evaluate whether 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of treatment to reduce heavy drinking, we studied 112 high-functioning European-American men who have sex with men (MSM). Subjects participated in a randomized clinical trial of naltrexone (NTX) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for problem drinking.
Methods
Subjects were treated for 12 weeks with 100 mg/day of oral NTX or placebo. All participants received medical management with adjusted Brief Behavioral Compliance Enhancement Treatment (BBCET) alone or in combination with Modified Behavioral Self-Control Therapy (MBSCT, an amalgam of motivational interviewing and CBT). Participants were genotyped for the tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (i.e., low-activity S′ or high-activity L′ alleles).
Results
During treatment, the number of weekly heavy drinking days (HDD, defined as 5 or more standard drinks per day) was significantly lower in subjects with the L′L′ (N=26, p=0.015) or L′S′ (N=52, p=0.016) genotype than those with the S′S′ (N=34) genotype regardless of treatment type. There was a significant interaction of genotype with treatment: For subjects with the S′S′ genotype, the effects of MBSCT or NTX on HDD were significantly greater than the minimal intervention (i.e., BBCET or placebo, p=0.007 and p=0.049, respectively). In contrast, for subjects with one or two L′ alleles, the effects of the more intensive psychosocial treatment (MBSCT) or NTX did not significantly differ from BBCET or placebo.
Conclusions
These preliminary findings support the utility of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism for personalizing treatment selection in problem drinkers.
doi:10.1111/acer.12492
PMCID: PMC4177453  PMID: 25070809
pharmacogenetics; stress reactivity; psychotherapy; MSM; plasticity
11.  Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Understanding Behavior Change in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatments 
Researchers have begun to apply cognitive neuroscience concepts and methods to study behavior change mechanisms in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. This review begins with an examination of the current state of treatment mechanisms research using clinical and social psychological approaches. It then summarizes what is currently understood about the pathophysiology of addiction from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, it reviews recent efforts to use cognitive neuroscience approaches to understand the neural mechanisms of behavior change in AUD, including studies that use neural functioning to predict relapse and abstinence; studies examining neural mechanisms that operate in current evidence-based behavioral interventions for AUD; as well as research on novel behavioral interventions that are being derived from our emerging understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms of behavior change in AUD. The article highlights how the regulation of sub-cortical regions involved in alcohol incentive motivation by prefrontal cortical regions involved in cognitive control may be a core mechanism that plays a role in these varied forms of behavior change in AUD. We also lay out a multilevel framework for integrating cognitive neuroscience approaches with more traditional methods for examining AUD treatment mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC4476602
Alcohol use, abuse, and dependence; alcohol use disorder; neuroscience; cognitive neuroscience; brain; cognition; neural mechanisms; pathophysiology; behavior change; behavioral intervention; relapse; abstinence; treatment
12.  Motivation and self-efficacy in the context of moderated drinking: Global self-report and ecological momentary assessment 
Despite ample research demonstrating the role of motivation and self-efficacy in predicting drinking in the context of abstinence, little research explicitly explores their role in the context of moderation, and none have utilized daily diary methods. The purpose of this study was to (1) explore the concordance between global self-report and daily diary composite measures of motivation and self-efficacy and (2) compare the ability of each in predicting drinking outcomes in the context of a study of brief AUD treatments focused on controlled drinking. Problem drinkers (N=89) were assessed, provided feedback about their drinking, and randomly assigned to one of three conditions: two brief AUD treatments or a third group asked to change on their own. Global self-report (GSR) measures were administered at baseline and week 8 (end of treatment). Daily diary composites (DDC) were created from data collected via an Interactive Voice Recording system during the week prior to baseline and the week prior to week 8. Findings revealed some concordance between GSR and DDC at both baseline and week eight, indicating the two methods capture some of the same construct; however, their respective relationships to drinking differed. DDC for both baseline and week eight significantly predicted week eight drinking outcomes, whereas only change in GSR significantly predicted drinking outcomes. Findings suggest that motivation and self-efficacy are important to moderated drinking, and that both GSR and daily diary methods are useful in understanding mechanisms of change in the context of moderation. Daily diary methods may provide significant advantages. Limitations and arenas for future research are discussed.
doi:10.1037/a0031194
PMCID: PMC3980541  PMID: 23276318
moderation; controlled drinking; alcohol; problem drinkers; motivation; self-efficacy; global self-report; ecological momentary assessment
13.  Medicaid care management: Description of high-cost addictions treatment clients 
High utilizers of alcohol and other drug treatment (AODTx) services are a priority for healthcare cost control. We examine characteristics of Medicaid-funded AODTx clients, comparing three groups: individuals < 90th percentile of AODTx expenditures (n = 41,054); high-cost clients in the top decile of AODTx expenditures (HC; n = 5,718); and 1760 enrollees in a chronic care management (CM) program for HC clients implemented in 22 counties in New York State. Medicaid and state AODTx registry databases were combined to draw demographic, clinical, social needs and treatment history data. HC clients accounted for 49% of AODTx costs funded by Medicaid. As expected, HC clients had significant social welfare needs, comorbid medical and psychiatric conditions, and use of inpatient services. The CM program was successful in enrolling some high-needs, high-cost clients but faced barriers to reaching the most costly and disengaged individuals.
doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2013.02.009
PMCID: PMC3783198  PMID: 23579079
Medicaid; Care management; Costs; Addictions treatment; Healthcare reform
14.  Alcohol Use Disorders among Substance Dependent Women on Temporary Assistance with Needy Families: More Information for Diagnostic Modifications for DSM-5 
Purpose
While modifications to alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria are proposed for DSM-5, examination of the criteria’s performance among highly vulnerable populations is lacking. This study determined the dimensionality and rank order severity of the DSM-IV AUD criteria among Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients with high rates of chemical dependency and co-morbid mental health disorders.
Method
Secondary analysis was performed on data from 461 TANF eligible women screened for AUD criteria using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed on the AUD criteria. Two-parameter Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis was performed to determine item location and discrimination of criteria for both abuse and dependence. Differential Item Functioning for those with an additional substance use disorder or with high levels of depressive symptoms was explored.
Results
41.2% met criteria for dependence, and 4.4% for abuse. EFA and CFA revealed a two-factor model provided adequate fit to criteria, and IRT indicated a potential hierarchical order between the criteria--abuse being more severe but dependence having greater reliability.
Conclusion
Contrary to existing literature, findings suggest that a two factor solution may more be more appropriate. Implications are discussed.
doi:10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.12042.x
PMCID: PMC3694602  PMID: 23795881
15.  Variation in Mu-Opioid Receptor Gene (OPRM1) as a Moderator of Naltrexone Treatment to Reduce Heavy Drinking in a High Functioning Cohort 
Background
It is well known that naltrexone, an FDA-approved medication for treatment of alcohol dependence, is effective for only a subset of individuals. Recent studies have examined the utility of a functional A118G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) as a predictor of naltrexone treatment response. Although the findings to date have generally been consistent with a moderating effect of the SNP, further evaluation of this hypothesis is warranted.
Objective
To evaluate whether problem drinkers with one or two copies of the 118G allele respond better to naltrexone treatment. The treatment goal in this cohort of high functioning men who have sex with men (MSM) was to reduce heavy drinking, rather than to promote abstinence.
Method
112 subjects of European ancestry from a randomized clinical trial of naltrexone and behavioral therapy for problem drinking MSM were included in the analysis. Subjects were treated for 12 weeks with 100 mg/day of oral naltrexone hydrochloride. All participants received medical management with a modified version of the Brief Behavioral Compliance Enhancement Treatment (BBCET), alone or in combination with Modified Behavioral Self-control Therapy (MBSCT).
Results
Naltrexone-treated subjects with one or two 118G alleles had a significantly greater percentage of non-hazardous drinking (NoH) (p < 0.01) than those treated with placebo or A118 homozygotes in either medication group.
Conclusions
These results are consistent with a modest moderating effect of the OPRM1 118G allele on the reduction of heavy drinking by naltrexone treatment.
doi:10.4172/2329-6488.1000101
PMCID: PMC3983993  PMID: 24729984
Alcohol; Moderation; Hazardous drinking; Pharmacogenetics
16.  The Short Inventory of Problems – Revised (SIP-R): Psychometric properties within a large, diverse sample of substance use disorder treatment seekers 
Assessment of the adverse consequences of substance use serves an important function in both clinical and research settings, yet there is no universally agreed upon measure of consequences relevant to multiple types of substance use disorders. One of the most commonly used measures, the Short Inventory of Problems (SIP), has been adapted and evaluated in several specific populations, but evidence of its reliability and validity across broader samples of persons with substance use disorders is needed. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a revised version of the SIP (SIP-R) in a large combined sample of alcohol and drug use disorder treatment-seekers, with participants pooled from two national, multisite randomized clinical trials. A total of 886 participants across 10 outpatient treatment facilities completed a common assessment battery that included the SIP-R, Addiction Severity Index (ASI), University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA), HIV Risk Behavior Scale (HRBS), and a substance use calendar. Results supported the SIP-R’s internal reliability (α=.95). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the hypothesized 5-factor model with one higher-order factor produced the best fit. Convergent validity was evident through the SIP-R’s correlation with several composite scores from the ASI and the URICA, and analyses supported its conceptual distinction from quantity indices of drug/alcohol use. The SIP-R also demonstrated an ability to predict treatment retention, with higher scores associated with poorer retention. These results provide support for the SIP-R’s psychometric properties as a measure of consequences across a broad sample of treatment-seeking drug and alcohol users.
doi:10.1037/a0028445
PMCID: PMC3434306  PMID: 22642856
assessment of consequences; short inventory of problems; reliability; validity
17.  Developing a Theory Driven Text Messaging Intervention for Addiction Care with User Driven Content 
The number of text messaging interventions designed to initiate and support behavioral health changes have been steadily increasing over the past five years. Messaging interventions can be tailored and adapted to an individual’s needs in their natural environment--fostering just-in-time therapies and making them a logical intervention for addiction continuing care. This study assessed the acceptability of using text messaging for substance abuse continuing care and the intervention preferences of individuals in substance abuse treatment in order to develop an interactive mobile text messaging intervention. Fifty individuals enrolled in intensive outpatient substance abuse treatment completed an assessment battery relating to preferred logistics of mobile interventions, behavior change strategies, and types of messages they thought would be most helpful to them at different time points. Results indicated that 98% participants were potentially interested in using text messaging as a continuing care strategy. Participants wrote different types of messages that they perceived might be most helpful based on various hypothetical situations often encountered during the recovery process. While individuals tended to prefer benefit driven over consequence driven messages, differences in the perceived benefits of change among individuals predicted message preference. Implications for the development of mobile messaging interventions for the addictions are discussed.
doi:10.1037/a0029963
PMCID: PMC3531566  PMID: 22963375
substance abuse treatment; mobile phone; text message; treatment development; behavior change
18.  Attributions of Change and Self-efficacy in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Medication and Psychotherapy for Problem Drinking 
Behavior therapy  2012;44(1):88-99.
The current study examines participants’ attributions of change in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of problem drinkers wanting to moderate their alcohol consumption. Participants were assigned to 12-weeks of naltrexone or placebo, which was paired with either combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy (MBSCT) along with an enhanced medication management intervention or enhanced medication management only. Upon treatment completion, a questionnaire assessed participants’ attributions of change along with their self-efficacy in their ability to maintain treatment gains. Participants differed in strength of attributions of change and self-efficacy according to both their therapy condition and their hypothesized medication condition. Specifically, those in the MBSCT condition who hypothesized that they received placebo displayed greater confidence in continuing changes without medication compared with the other groups. How treatment condition and attributions of change relate to self-efficacy for long-term maintenance of treatment gains are discussed.
doi:10.1016/j.beth.2012.07.001
PMCID: PMC3556396  PMID: 23312429
Naltrexone; cognitive behavioral therapy; attributions; self-efficacy
19.  Understanding Messaging Preferences to Inform Development of Mobile Goal-Directed Behavioral Interventions 
Background
Mobile messaging interventions have been shown to improve outcomes across a number of mental health and health-related conditions, but there are still significant gaps in our knowledge of how to construct and deliver the most effective brief messaging interventions. Little is known about the ways in which subtle linguistic variations in message content can affect user receptivity and preferences.
Objective
The aim of this study was to determine whether any global messaging preferences existed for different types of language content, and how certain characteristics moderate those preferences, in an effort to inform the development of mobile messaging interventions.
Methods
This study examined user preferences for messages within 22 content groupings. Groupings were presented online in dyads of short messages that were identical in their subject matter, but structurally or linguistically varied. Participants were 277 individuals residing in the United States who were recruited and compensated through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) system. Participants were instructed to select the message in each dyad that they would prefer to receive to help them achieve a personal goal of their choosing.
Results
Results indicate global preferences of more than 75% of subjects for certain types of messages, such as those that were grammatically correct, free of textese, benefit-oriented, polite, nonaggressive, and directive as opposed to passive, among others. For several classes of messages, few or no clear global preferences were found. There were few personality- and trait-based moderators of message preferences, but subtle manipulations of message structure, such as changing “Try to…” to “You might want to try to…” affected message choice.
Conclusions
The results indicate that individuals are sensitive to variations in the linguistic content of text messages designed to help them achieve a personal goal and, in some cases, have clear preferences for one type of message over another. Global preferences were indicated for messages that contained accurate spelling and grammar, as well as messages that emphasize the positive over the negative. Research implications and a guide for developing short messages for goal-directed behaviors are presented in this paper.
doi:10.2196/jmir.2945
PMCID: PMC3936297  PMID: 24500775
mHealth; text messaging; behavioral health; preferences; linguistics; tailoring; participatory design; agile design
20.  Ecological Momentary Assessment and Alcohol Use Disorder Treatment 
The ability to capture real-time data on human behavior inexpensively, efficiently, and accurately holds promise to transform and broaden our understanding of many areas of health science. One approach to acquiring this type of real-time data is ecological momentary assessment (EMA). This method has been used to collect data in many domains of addiction research, including research on the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that use of EMA can improve the quality of AUD treatment research when compared with standard assessment methods because it provides more accurate reporting, allows investigators to examine the dynamic unfolding of the behavior change process at an individual level, and can be used to augment and improve clinical assessment and treatment. Overall, the existing literature provides strong support for the advantages of EMA when combined with standard assessment of addictive behaviors in general. Nevertheless, use of EMA in AUD treatment research thus far has been limited, especially in the area of research on mechanisms of behavior change. Existing research indicates, however, that EMA can be used to deliver tailored feedback as a novel and potentially transformative approach to improving AUD treatment. This research area clearly warrants additional future efforts.
PMCID: PMC4432849
Alcohol use, abuse, and dependence; alcohol use disorders (AUDs); assessment; assessment methods; ecological momentary assessment (EMA); real-time assessment; feedback; mobile technologies; mHealth; literature review
21.  Motivational Interviewing: A Pilot Test of Active Ingredients and Mechanisms of Change 
Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an effective treatment for substance use disorders (SUD) that focuses on resolving ambivalence and increasing commitment to positive behavior change. While MI has a well developed clinical theory, research findings have been mixed in supporting its view of how change occurs. The primary aim of this pilot study was to test hypothesized MI active ingredients and mechanisms of change in reducing drinking during the initiation of a behavior change episode. Problem drinkers (N=89) seeking treatment were randomly assigned to MI, relational MI without directive elements (Spirit-Only MI, SOMI), or a self-change (SC) control condition. Participants were followed during an eight week treatment period. The first two of four treatment sessions were videotaped and coded for fidelity, discriminability, and change talk. Overall, conditions demonstrated high fidelity. As predicted, change talk significantly increased in MI relative to the SOMI condition. Drinking was significantly reduced at end treatment, but the reduction was equivalent across conditions. Post-hoc analyses found that MI reduced drinking more rapidly than SOMI and SC and that increased change talk mediated the effects of MI relative to SOMI during the week immediately following the first session. Findings are discussed in the context of the pilot nature of the study and the relative absence of experimental tests of mechanisms of behavior change in SUD treatment research.
doi:10.1037/a0029674
PMCID: PMC3509258  PMID: 22905896
motivational interviewing; mechanisms of action; active ingredients; alcohol; problem drinkers; moderation; alcohol use disorder treatment
22.  A Randomized Clinical Trial of Naltrexone and Behavioral Therapy for Problem Drinking Men who have Sex with Men 
Objective
This study tested the comparative effectiveness of Modified Behavioral Self-Control Therapy (MBSCT) and naltrexone (NTX), as well as the added benefit of combining the two, in problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking to reduce, but not quit drinking. Method: Participants (N=200) were recruited and urn randomized to one of two medication conditions, NTX or placebo (PBO) and either MSBCT or no behavioral intervention, yielding four conditions: PBO, NTX, MSBCT, and NTX+MSBCT. In addition, all participants received a brief medication compliance intervention. Participants were treated for 12 weeks and assessed one week after treatment completion. Two primary outcomes - sum of standard drinks and number of heavy drinking days - and one secondary outcome - percentage of those drinking in a non-hazardous manner (NoH) - were selected a-priori. Results: There was a significant main effect for MBSCT (all ps < .01), but not NTX on all three outcomes. In addition, the combination of NTX and MBSCT was not more effective than either MSCBT or PBO. There was a significant interaction effect on NoH, such that NTX significantly increased the likelihood (OR = 3.3) of achieving a non-hazardous drinking outcome relative to PBO. In addition, NTX was significantly more effective than PBO on a descriptive outcome: negative consequences of drinking.
Conclusions
There was no advantage to adding NTX to MBSCT. In addition, MBSCT showed stronger evidence of efficacy than NTX. At the same time, NTX delivered in the context of a minimal medication compliance intervention was significantly more effective than PBO on an important clinical indicator. Results provide new information to guide the treatment of problem drinking, including in primary care settings.
doi:10.1037/a0028615
PMCID: PMC3458143  PMID: 22612306
23.  Predictors of moderated drinking in a primarily alcohol dependent sample of men who have sex with men 
Understanding for whom moderated drinking is a viable, achievable, and sustainable goal among those with a range of alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains an important public health question. Despite common acceptance as severe risk factors, there is little empirical evidence to conclude whether co-occurring mental health disorders or drug dependence contribute to an individual’s inability to successfully moderate his drinking. Utilizing secondary data analysis, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of moderation among both treatment seeking and non-treatment seeking, primarily alcohol dependent, problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM), with an emphasis on the high risk factors psychiatric comorbidity and drug dependence. Problem drinkers (N=187) were assessed, provided feedback about their drinking, given the option to receive brief AUD treatment or change their drinking on their own, and then followed for 15 months. Findings revealed that neither psychiatric comorbidity or drug dependence predicted ability to achieve moderation when controlling for alcohol dependence severity. Those who were younger, more highly educated, and had more mild alcohol dependence were more likely to achieve moderated drinking. Impact of treatment on predictors is explored. Limitations of this study and arenas for future research are discussed.
doi:10.1037/a0026713
PMCID: PMC3384775  PMID: 22201219
moderation; controlled drinking; co-occurring mental health disorders; alcohol; drug dependence; problem drinkers; alcohol use disorder treatment
24.  The Contributions of Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging to Understanding Mechanisms of Behavior Change in Addiction 
In the last decade, there has been an upsurge of interest in understanding the mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) and effective behavioral interventions as a strategy to improve addiction-treatment efficacy. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about how treatment research should proceed to address the MOBC issue. In this article, we argue that limitations in the underlying models of addiction that inform behavioral treatment pose an obstacle to elucidating MOBC. We consider how advances in the cognitive neuroscience of addiction offer an alternative conceptual and methodological approach to studying the psychological processes that characterize addiction, and how such advances could inform treatment process research. In addition, we review neuroimaging studies that have tested aspects of neurocognitive theories as a strategy to inform addiction therapies and discuss future directions for transdisciplinary collaborations across cognitive neuroscience and MOBC research.
doi:10.1037/a0032435
PMCID: PMC3700582  PMID: 23586452
neuroimaging; addiction treatment mechanisms of behavior change; treatment process
25.  Impact of Intensive Case Management on Child Welfare System Involvement for Substance-Dependent Parenting Women on Public Assistance 
Children and youth services review  2012;34(7):1359-1366.
This study examined the impact of intensive case management (ICM) on decreasing child welfare system involvement in a sample of substance-dependent parenting women who participated in a welfare demonstration study comparing ICM to usual screen-and-refer models employed in welfare settings. Previous research established the effectiveness of ICM in both increasing engagement in substance abuse treatment and in promoting abstinence, and the current study tested whether ICM had downstream impacts on child welfare outcomes not directly targeted by the intervention. The sample included 302 mothers recruited from welfare offices and their 888 minor children. Child welfare outcomes were available from administrative records for four years following study entry and included incident reports and out-of-home child placements. An initial positive effect of ICM was found on child placements, but its impact lessened over time and was likely due to the increased contact with case managers that occurred early in the study. Overall, minimal benefits of ICM were found, suggesting that while ICM was effective in the areas of treatment engagement and abstinence, there were no downstream benefits for child welfare outcomes. Implications of findings in terms of increased need for cross-system collaboration are discussed.
doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.03.020
PMCID: PMC3363285  PMID: 22661798
substance abuse; child welfare; case management

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