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1.  THE LANGUAGE OF BLACK GAY MEN’S SEXUAL BEHAVIOR: IMPLICATIONS FOR AIDS RISK REDUCTION 
Journal of sex research  1992;29(3):425-434.
The development of appropriate AIDS risk reduction interventions targeted at African-American gay men could be aided by an awareness of their terminology for specific sexual behaviors and types of sexual encounters. This paper explores similarities and differences between the HIV-related sexual language of Black and White gay men. While much of the vernacular is shared, differences in some terms and greater or lesser emphasis on others are apparent.
doi:10.1080/00224499209551657
PMCID: PMC4222679  PMID: 25382870
Black gay men; AIDS; sexual language
2.  Prevalence of Mental Disorders, Psychological Distress, and Mental Health Services Use Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in the United States 
Recent estimates of mental health morbidity among adults reporting same-gender sexual partners suggest that lesbians, gay men, and bisexual individuals may experience excess risk for some mental disorders as compared with heterosexual individuals. However, sexual orientation has not been measured directly. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 2,917 midlife adults, the authors examined possible sexual orientation-related differences in morbidity, distress, and mental health services use. Results indicate that gay–bisexual men evidenced higher prevalence of depression, panic attacks, and psychological distress than heterosexual men. Lesbian–bisexual women showed greater prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder than heterosexual women. Services use was more frequent among those of minority sexual orientation. Findings support the existence of sexual orientation differences in patterns of morbidity and treatment use.
PMCID: PMC4197971  PMID: 12602425
3.  Estimates of Alcohol Use and Clinical Treatment Needs Among Homosexually Active Men and Women in the U.S. Population 
Concerns about dysfunctional alcohol use among lesbians and gay men are longstanding. The authors examined alcohol use patterns and treatment utilization among adults interviewed in the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Sexually active respondents were classified into 2 groups: those with at least 1 same-gender sexual partner (n = 194) in the year prior to interview and those with only opposite-gender sexual partners (n = 9,714). The authors compared these 2 groups separately by gender. For men, normative alcohol use patterns or morbidity did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. However, homosexually active women reported using alcohol more frequently and in greater amounts and experienced greater alcohol-related morbidity than exclusively heterosexually active women. Findings suggest higher risk for alcohol-related problems among lesbians as compared with other women, perhaps because of a more common pattern of moderate alcohol consumption.
PMCID: PMC4197972  PMID: 11142540
4.  Issues in the Perception of AIDS Risk and Risk Reduction Activities by Black and Hispanic/Latina Women 
The American psychologist  1988;43(11):949-957.
Although to date most cases of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) have occurred among men, AIDS poses a serious threat for Black and Latina women, particularly for those who are poor and live in geographic areas of higher AIDS incidence. Yet many may not perceive themselves to be at risk from what has generally been portrayed as a “White gay disease.” This article examines patterns of AIDS infection in women and factors associated with risk perception and behavior change. In doing so, the influence of ethnic minority culture on the behavior of individual women is explored.
PMCID: PMC4196373  PMID: 3214007
5.  Optimal Scaling of HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors in Ethnically Diverse Homosexually Active Men 
As HIV-related behavioral research moves increasingly in the direction of seeking to determine predictors of high-risk sexual behavior, more efficient methods of specifying patterns are needed. Two statistical techniques, homogeneity analysis and latent class analysis, useful in scaling binary multivariate data profiles are presented. Both were used to analyze reported sexual behavior patterns in two samples of homosexually active men, one sample of 343 primarily White gay men attending an HIV workshop and one sample of 837 African American gay men recruited nationally. Results support the existence of a single, nonlinear, latent dimension underlying male homosexual behaviors consistent with HIV-related risk taking. Both statistical methods provide an efficient means to optimally scale sexual behavior patterns, a critical outcome variable in HIV-related research.
PMCID: PMC4196998  PMID: 7751488
8.  Faith-Based Organizations and the Affordable Care Act: Reducing Latino Mental Healthcare Disparities 
Psychological services  2016;13(1):92-104.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is expected to increase access to mental healthcare through provisions aimed at increasing health coverage among the nation's uninsured, including 10.2 million eligible Latino non-elderly adults. The ACA will increase health coverage by expanding Medicaid eligibility to individuals living below 138% of the federal poverty level, subsidizing the purchase of private insurance among individuals not eligible for Medicaid, and requiring employers with 50 or more employees to offer health insurance. An anticipated result of this landmark legislation is improvement in the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders in racial/ethnic minorities, particularly for Latinos, who traditionally have had less access to these services. However, these efforts alone may not sufficiently ameliorate mental healthcare disparities for Latinos. Faith-based organizations (FBOs) could play an integral role in the mental healthcare of Latinos by increasing help-seeking, providing religion-based mental health services, and delivering supportive services that address common access barriers among Latinos. Thus, in determining ways to eliminate Latino mental healthcare disparities under the ACA, examining pathways into care through the faith-based sector offers unique opportunities to address some of the cultural barriers confronted by this population. We examine how partnerships between FBOs and primary care patient-centered medical homes (PCMH) may help reduce the gap of unmet mental health needs among Latinos in this era of health reform. We also describe the challenges FBOs and PCMH providers need to overcome in order to be partners in integrated care efforts.
doi:10.1037/a0038515
PMCID: PMC4743548  PMID: 26845492
Mental healthcare; Latinos; faith-based organizations; ACA; disparities
9.  Suicidality and sexual orientation: Characteristics of symptom severity, disclosure, and timing across the life course 
This investigation explored suicide-related characteristics and help-seeking behavior by sexual orientation. Population-based data are from the California Quality of Life Surveys, which included 1,478 sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and homosexually experienced individuals) and 3,465 heterosexual individuals. Bisexual women had nearly 6-fold increased risk of lifetime suicide attempts than heterosexual women (RR=5.88, 95%CI: 3.89–8.90), and homosexually experienced men had almost 7 times higher risk of lifetime suicide attempts than heterosexual men (RR=6.93, 95%CI: 3.65–13.15). Sexual minority men and women were more likely than heterosexual men and women to have disclosed suicide attempts to a medical professional (RR=1.48 and RR=1.44, respectively). Among persons who ever attempted suicide, sexual minority women had a younger age of index attempt than heterosexual women (15.9 versus 19.6 years of age, respectively). Health care professionals should be aware of suicidal risk heterogeneity among sexual minority individuals, including vulnerable points of risk and evidenced-based treatments.
doi:10.1037/ort0000112
PMCID: PMC4720972  PMID: 26752446
mental disorders; gay; lesbian; bisexual; sexual minority; suicide
10.  Is there a legacy of the U.S. Public Health Syphilis Study at Tuskegee in HIV/AIDS-related beliefs among heterosexual African-Americans and Latinos? 
Ethics & behavior  2012;22(6):461-471.
Knowledge of the US Public Health Syphilis Study at Tuskegee is sometime cited as a principal reason for the relatively low participation rates seen among racial/ethnic minorities, particularly African Americans, in biomedical research. However, only a few studies have actually explored this possibility. We use data from a random digit dial telephone survey of 510 African-Americans and 253 Latinos, age 18 to 45 years, to investigate associations between knowledge of the USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee and endorsement of HIV/AIDS conspiracy theories. All respondents were drawn from an area of low-income, predominantly race-segregated inner city households in Los Angeles. Results indicate that African Americans were significantly more likely than Latinos to endorse HIV/AIDS conspiracy theories. Further, African Americans were more aware of the USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee (SST). Nevertheless, 72% of African Americans and 94% of Latinos reported that they have never heard of the Syphilis Study at Tuskegee. Further, while awareness of the Syphilis Study at Tuskegee was a significant predictor of endorsing HIV/AIDS conspiracy theories, results suggest that other factors may be more important in accounting for low biomedical and behavioral study participation rates.
doi:10.1080/10508422.2012.730805
PMCID: PMC3539790  PMID: 23308036
11.  The Legacy of the U. S. Public Health Services Study of Untreated Syphilis in African American Men at Tuskegee on the Affordable Care Act and Health Care Reform Fifteen Years After President Clinton’s Apology 
Ethics & behavior  2012;22(6):411-418.
This special issue addresses the legacy of the United States Public Health Service Syphilis Study on health reform, particularly the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The 12 manuscripts cover the history and current practices of ethical abuses affecting American Indians, Latinos, Asian Americans and African Americans in the United States and in one case, internationally. Commentaries and essays include the voice of a daughter of one of the study participants in which we learn of the stigma and maltreatment some of the families experienced and how the study has impacted generations within the families. Consideration is given in one essay to utilizing narrative storytelling with the families to help promote healing.
This article provides the reader a roadmap to the themes that emerged from the collection of articles. These themes include population versus individual consent issues, need for better government oversight in research and health care, the need for overhauling our bioethics training to develop a population level, culturally driven approach to research bioethics. The articles challenge and inform us that some of our assumptions about how the consent process best works to protect racial/ethnic minorities may be merely assumptions and not proven facts. Articles challenge the belief that low participation rates seen in biomedical studies have resulted from the legacy of the USPHS Syphilis Study rather than a confluence of factors rooted in racism, bias and negative treatment. Articles in this special issue challenge the “cultural paranoia” of mistrust and provide insights into how the distrust may serve to lengthen rather than shorten the lives of racial/ethnic minorities who have been used as guinea pigs on more than one occasion. We hope that the guidance offered on the importance of developing a new framework to bioethics can be integrated into the foundation of health care reform.
doi:10.1080/10508422.2012.730808
PMCID: PMC3636721  PMID: 23630410
Tuskegee; research bioethics; survivors
12.  Using the Science of Psychology to Target Perpetrators of Racism and Race-Based Discrimination For Intervention Efforts: Preventing Another Trayvon Martin Tragedy 
Psychological science offers a variety of methods to both understand and intervene when acts of potential racial or ethnic racism, bias or prejudice occur. The Trayvon Martin killing is a reminder of how vulnerable African American men and boys, especially young African American men, are to becoming victims of social inequities in our society. We examine several historical events of racial bias (the Los Angeles civil disturbance after the Rodney King verdict, the federal government’s launch of a “War on Drugs” and the killing of Trayvon Martin) to illustrate the ways in which behaviors of racism and race-based discrimination can be viewed from a psychological science lens in the hopes of eliminating and preventing these behaviors. If society is to help end the genocide of African American men and boys then we must broaden our focus from simply understanding instances of victimization to a larger concern with determining how policies, laws, and societal norms serve as the foundation for maintaining implicit biases that are at the root of race-based discrimination, prejudice, bias and inequity. In our call to action, we highlight the contributions that psychologists, particularly racial and ethnic minority professionals, can make to reduce the negative impact of racial and ethnic bias through their volunteer/pro bono clinical efforts.
PMCID: PMC3718570  PMID: 23885310
prejudice; discrimination; bias; African Americans; men; Rodney King; War on Drugs
13.  Perceived Race-Based Discrimination, Employment Status, and Job Stress in a National Sample of Black Women: Implications for Health Outcomes 
Previous research has not systematically examined the relationship of perceived race-based discriminations to labor force participation or job related stresses–problems experienced by Black women. The present study investigated the relative contributions of perceived race-based discriminations and sociodemographic characteristics to employment status and job stress in a national probability sample (the National Survey of Black Americans; J. S. Jackson, 1991) of Black women in the United States. Logit and polychotomous logistic regression analyses revealed that Black women’s current employment status was best explained by sociodemographic measures. In contrast, the combination of perceived discrimination and sociodemographics differentially affects patterns of employment status and perceived job stress in the work environment of Black women. Implications of these findings for the health of African American women are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3681822  PMID: 9547054
14.  Engaging Student Health Organizations in Reducing Health Disparities in Underserved Communities through Volunteerism: Developing a Student Health Corps 
One underutilized method for reducing health disparities and training culturally competent health care workers is the engagement of undergraduate student health organizations in conducting health screenings, promotion, and health education outreach activities in in underserved racial/ethnic communities. We conducted a needs assessment of 14 predominantly racial/ethnic minority undergraduate student-run health organizations. The 14 organizations annually served approximately 12,425 people (67% Hispanic, 25% African American, 6.33% Asian Pacific Islander), predominantly at health fairs within Los Angeles County (averaging 138 attendees). Student organizations provided screenings on general health conditions and diseases, with less emphasis on behavioral risk factors (e.g., drinking, smoking). Organizations indicated a need for increased and affordable trainings in preventive health screenings and help in understanding target populations’ needs. Universities are in an excellent position to train, supervise, and organize volunteer health corps in order to engage students in reducing health disparities and to train culturally competent health care providers.
doi:10.1353/hpu.0.0190
PMCID: PMC3669463  PMID: 19648716
health disparities; civic engagement; health fairs; medical education; screenings; racial/ethnic minorities; prevention; volunteerism; health corps
15.  Influence of American acculturation on cigarette smoking behaviors among Asian American subpopulations in California 
Using combined data from the population-based 2001 and 2003 California Health Interview Surveys, we examined ethnic and gender-specific smoking behaviors and the effect of three acculturation indicators on cigarette smoking behavior and quitting status among 8,192 Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese American men and women. After adjustment for potential confounders, current smoking prevalence was higher and the quit rate was lower for Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American men compared with Chinese American men. Women’s current smoking prevalence was lower than men’s in all six Asian American subgroups. South Asian and Korean American women reported lower quit rates than women from other ethnic subgroups. Asian American men who reported using only English at home had lower current smoking prevalence and higher quit rates, except for Filipino and South Asian American men. Asian American women who reported using only English at home had higher current smoking prevalence except for Japanese women. Being a second or later generation immigrant was associated with lower smoking prevalence among all Asian American subgroups of men. Less educated men and women had higher smoking prevalence and lower quit rates. In conclusion, both current smoking prevalence and quit rates vary distinctively across gender and ethnic subgroups among Asian Americans in California. Acculturation appears to increase the risk of cigarette smoking for Asian American women. Future tobacco-control programs should target at high-risk Asian American subgroups, defined by ethnicity, acculturation status, and gender.
doi:10.1080/14622200801979126
PMCID: PMC3652889  PMID: 18418780
16.  Usual Primary Care Provider Characteristics of a Patient-Centered Medical Home and Mental Health Service Use 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2015;30(12):1828-1836.
BACKGROUND
The benefits of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) over and above that of a usual source of medical care have yet to be determined, particularly for adults with mental health disorders.
OBJECTIVE
To examine qualities of a usual provider that align with PCMH goals of access, comprehensiveness, and patient-centered care, and to determine whether PCMH qualities in a usual provider are associated with the use of mental health services (MHS).
DESIGN
Using national data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we conducted a lagged cross-sectional study of MHS use subsequent to participant reports of psychological distress and usual provider and practice characteristics.
PARTICIPANTS
A total of 2,358 adults, aged 18–64 years, met the criteria for serious psychological distress and reported on their usual provider and practice characteristics.
MAIN MEASURES
We defined “usual provider” as a primary care provider/practice, and “PCMH provider” as a usual provider that delivered accessible, comprehensive, patient-centered care as determined by patient self-reporting. The dependent variable, MHS, included self-reported mental health visits to a primary care provider or mental health specialist, counseling, and psychiatric medication treatment over a period of 1 year.
RESULTS
Participants with a usual provider were significantly more likely than those with no usual provider to have experienced a primary care mental health visit (marginal effect [ME] = 8.5, 95 % CI = 3.2–13.8) and to have received psychiatric medication (ME = 15.5, 95 % CI = 9.4–21.5). Participants with a PCMH were additionally more likely than those with no usual provider to visit a mental health specialist (ME = 7.6, 95 % CI = 0.7–14.4) and receive mental health counseling (ME = 8.5, 95 % CI = 1.5–15.6). Among those who reported having had any type of mental health visit, participants with a PCMH were more likely to have received mental health counseling than those with only a usual provider (ME = 10.0, 95 % CI = 1.0–19.0).
CONCLUSIONS
Access to a usual provider is associated with increased receipt of needed MHS. Patients who have a usual provider with PCMH qualities are more likely to receive mental health counseling.
doi:10.1007/s11606-015-3417-0
PMCID: PMC4636587  PMID: 26037232
patient-centered medical home; primary care; mental health services; Affordable Care Act; race
17.  Black Women, Work, Stress, and Perceived Discrimination: The Focused Support Group Model as an Intervention for Stress Reduction 
This exploratory study examined the use of two components (small and large groups) of a community-based intervention, the Focused Support Group (FSG) model, to alleviate employment-related stressors in Black women. Participants were assigned to small groups based on occupational status. Groups met for five weekly 3-hr sessions in didactic or small- and large-group formats. Two evaluations following the didactic session and the small and large group sessions elicited information on satisfaction with each of the formats, self-reported change in stress, awareness of interpersonal and sociopolitical issues affecting Black women in the labor force, assessing support networks, and usefulness of specific discussion topics to stress reduction. Results indicated the usefulness of the small- and large-group formats in reduction of self-reported stress and increases in personal and professional sources of support. Discussions on race and sex discrimination in the workplace were effective in overall stress reduction. The study highlights labor force participation as a potential source of stress for Black women, and supports the development of culture- and gender-appropriate community interventions as viable and cost-effective methods for stress reduction.
PMCID: PMC3650252  PMID: 9225548
Black women; work; stress; discrimination
18.  Applying Social Psychological Models to Predicting HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors Among African Americans 
The Journal of black psychology  1993;19(2):142-154.
Existing models of attitude-behavior relationships, including the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and the Self-Efficacy Theory, are increasingly being used by psychologists to predict human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors. The authors briefly highlight some of the difficulties that might arise in applying these models to predicting the risk behaviors of African Americans. These social psychological models tend to emphasize the importance of individualistic, direct control of behavioral choices and deemphasize factors, such as racism and poverty, particularly relevant to that segment of the African American population most at risk for HIV infection. Applications of these models without taking into account the unique issues associated with behavioral choices within the African American community may fail to capture the relevant determinants of risk behaviors.
doi:10.1177/00957984930192005
PMCID: PMC3606488  PMID: 23529205
19.  The Mental Health of Sexual Minority Adults In and Out of the Closet: A Population-Based Study 
Objectives
Previous studies find that sexual orientation concealment affords escape from stigma and discrimination but also creates a psychological toll. While disclosure alleviates the mental burden of concealment, it invites the stress of navigating a new public identity. Population-based samples that include both “in” and “out” sexual minorities provide an ideal opportunity to resolve limitations and inconsistencies of previous non-probability investigations into the mental health correlates of concealment and disclosure.
Method
Sexual minority participants in the California Quality of Life Survey (n=2,083) indicated whether and when they had first disclosed their sexual orientation to others. Prevalence of one-year major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder was derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form.
Results
Closeted men (n=84) were less likely to be depressed than out men (n=1,047; OR=0.41 95% CI: 0.17-0.996). Men who were recently out (n=201) experienced higher odds of major depressive disorder (OR=6.21 95% CI: 1.53-24.47) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR=5.51 95% CI: 1.51-20.13) as compared to closeted men. Men who were distantly out (n = 846) also experienced higher odds of major depressive disorder than men who were closeted (OR=2.91; 95% CI: 1.10-7.69). Recently out women (n=243) experienced lower odds of depression than closeted women (n=63) (OR=0.21; 95% CI: 0.05-0.96).
Conclusion
Whether being in or out of the closet is associated with depression and anxiety largely depends on gender. Clinical and policy implications are discussed in terms of the unique stressors facing men and women both in and out of the closet.
doi:10.1037/ccp0000047
PMCID: PMC4573266  PMID: 26280492
stigma; concealment; disclosure; gay, lesbian, and bisexual; mental health
20.  HIV Prevention Research: Are We Meeting the Needs of African American Men Who Have Sex With Men?1 
The Journal of black psychology  2004;30(1):78-105.
Two decades of HIV prevention efforts with men who have sex with men (MSM) have not eliminated the risk of new HIV infections in this vulnerable population. Indeed, current incidence rates in African American MSM are similar to those usually only seen in developing countries. A review of the existing literature suggests that the prevention research agenda for Black MSM could benefit from reframing conceptualization of risk as a function of individual properties to a broad consideration of social and interpersonal determinants. Studies that investigate dyadic and social-level influences on African American MSM’s relationships are needed. This includes research explicating the diversity existing within the categorizations of Black MSM with respect to perceived identity (gay, bisexual, “men on the down low,” “homo thugz”), constructions of masculinity, sexual scripts, sources of social support, and perceived norms and expectations. Recommendations are proposed for a research agenda focusing on linkages between interpersonal and social-structural determinants of HIV risk.
doi:10.1177/0095798403260265
PMCID: PMC2798154  PMID: 20041036
down low; MSM; African American; Black; homo thugz; HIV prevention; social determinants; inequality; mental health
21.  Sources of Interactional Problems in a Survey of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination 
Cross-cultural variability in respondent processing of survey questions may bias results from multiethnic samples. We analyzed behavior codes, which identify difficulties in the interactions of respondents and interviewers, from a discrimination module contained within a field test of the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. In all, 553 (English) telephone interviews yielded 13,999 interactions involving 22 items. Multilevel logistic regression modeling revealed that respondent age and several item characteristics (response format, customized questions, length, and first item with new response format), but not race/ethnicity, were associated with interactional problems. These findings suggest that item function within a multi-cultural, albeit English language, survey may be largely influenced by question features, as opposed to respondent characteristics such as race/ethnicity.
doi:10.1093/ijpor/edu024
PMCID: PMC4495735  PMID: 26166949
22.  Charting a Future for Epidemiologic Training 
Annals of epidemiology  2015;25(6):458-465.
Purpose
To identify macro level trends that are changing the needs of epidemiologic research and practice and to develop and disseminate a set of competencies and recommendations for epidemiologic training that will be responsive to these changing needs.
Methods
There were three stages to the project: 1) assembly of a working group of senior epidemiologists from multiple sectors, 2) Identifying relevant literature, and 3) conducting key informant interviews with 15 experienced epidemiologists.
Results
Twelve macro trends were identified along with associated actions for the field and educational competencies. The macro trends include: 1) “Big Data”/ informatics, 2) the changing health communication environment, 3) the Affordable Care Act/health care system reform, 4) shifting demographics, 5) globalization, 6) emerging high throughput technologies (“omics”), 7) a greater focus on accountability, 8) privacy changes, 9) a greater focus on “upstream” causes of disease, 10) the emergence of translational sciences, 11) the growing centrality of team and trans-disciplinary science, and 12) the evolving funding environment.
Conclusion
Addressing these issues through curricular change is needed to allow the field of epidemiology to more fully reach and sustain its full potential to benefit population health and remain a scientific discipline that makes critical contributions to ensuring clinical, social, and population health.
doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.03.002
PMCID: PMC4646613  PMID: 25976024
epidemiology; genomics; globalization; medicine; public health; translational research
23.  The Role of Epidemiology in Disaster Response Policy Development 
Annals of epidemiology  2014;25(5):377-386.
Purpose
Disasters expose the general population and responders to a range of potential contaminants and stressors which may harm physical and mental health. This article addresses the role of epidemiology in informing policies after a disaster to mitigate ongoing exposures, provide care and compensation, and improve preparedness for future disasters.
Methods
The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster response is used as a case study. We examine how epidemiologic evidence was used to shape post-disaster policy and identify important gaps in early research.
Results
In the wake of WTC attacks, epidemiologic research played a key role in identifying and characterizing affected populations, assessing environmental exposures, quantifying physical and mental health impacts, and producing evidence to ascribe causation. However, most studies suffered from methodological challenges, including delays, selection biases, poor exposure measurement, and nonstandardized outcomes. Gaps included measuring unmet health needs and financing coverage, as well as coordination across longitudinal cohorts of studies for rare conditions with long latency, such as cancer.
Conclusions
Epidemiologists can increase their impact on evidence-based policymaking by ensuring core mechanisms are in place prior to a disaster to mount monitoring of responders and other affected populations, improve early exposure assessment efforts, identify critical gaps in scientific knowledge, and coordinate communication of scientific findings to policymakers and the public.
doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.05.016
PMCID: PMC4667544  PMID: 25150446
25.  COCHRAN AND MAYS RESPOND 
doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302429
PMCID: PMC4265924  PMID: 25393195

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