PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (37)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
1.  Investigating local policy drivers for alcohol harm prevention: a comparative case study of two local authorities in England 
BMC Public Health  2017;17:825.
Background
The considerable challenges associated with implementing national level alcohol policies have encouraged a renewed focus on the prospects for local-level policies in the UK and elsewhere. We adopted a case study approach to identify the major characteristics and drivers of differences in the patterns of local alcohol policies and services in two contrasting local authority (LA) areas in England.
Methods
Data were collected via thirteen semi-structured interviews with key informants (including public health, licensing and trading standards) and documentary analysis, including harm reduction strategies and statements of licensing policy. A two-stage thematic analysis was used to categorize all relevant statements into seven over-arching themes, by which document sources were then also analysed.
Results
Three of the seven over-arching themes (drink environment, treatment services and barriers and facilitators), provided for the most explanatory detail informing the contrasting policy responses of the two LAs: LA1 pursued a risk-informed strategy via a specialist police team working proactively with problem premises and screening systematically to identify riskier drinking. LA2 adopted a more upstream regulatory approach around restrictions on availability with less emphasis on co-ordinated screening and treatment measures.
Conclusion
New powers over alcohol policy for LAs in England can produce markedly different policies for reducing alcohol-related harm. These difference are rooted in economic, opportunistic, organisational and personnel factors particular to the LAs themselves and may lead to closely tailored solutions in some policy areas and poorer co-ordination and attention in others.
doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4841-3
PMCID: PMC5648432  PMID: 29047389
Alcohol policy; Local government; Policy prioritization
2.  Proceedings of the 14th annual conference of INEBRIA 
Holloway, Aisha S. | Ferguson, Jennifer | Landale, Sarah | Cariola, Laura | Newbury-Birch, Dorothy | Flynn, Amy | Knight, John R. | Sherritt, Lon | Harris, Sion K. | O’Donnell, Amy J. | Kaner, Eileen | Hanratty, Barbara | Loree, Amy M. | Yonkers, Kimberly A. | Ondersma, Steven J. | Gilstead-Hayden, Kate | Martino, Steve | Adam, Angeline | Schwartz, Robert P. | Wu, Li-Tzy | Subramaniam, Geetha | Sharma, Gaurav | McNeely, Jennifer | Berman, Anne H. | Kolaas, Karoline | Petersén, Elisabeth | Bendtsen, Preben | Hedman, Erik | Linderoth, Catharina | Müssener, Ulrika | Sinadinovic, Kristina | Spak, Fredrik | Gremyr, Ida | Thurang, Anna | Mitchell, Ann M. | Finnell, Deborah | Savage, Christine L. | Mahmoud, Khadejah F. | Riordan, Benjamin C. | Conner, Tamlin S. | Flett, Jayde A. M. | Scarf, Damian | McRee, Bonnie | Vendetti, Janice | Gallucci, Karen Steinberg | Robaina, Kate | Clark, Brendan J. | Jones, Jacqueline | Reed, Kathryne D. | Hodapp, Rachel M. | Douglas, Ivor | Burnham, Ellen L. | Aagaard, Laura | Cook, Paul F. | Harris, Brett R. | Yu, Jiang | Wolff, Margaret | Rogers, Meighan | Barbosa, Carolina | Wedehase, Brendan J. | Dunlap, Laura J. | Mitchell, Shannon G. | Dusek, Kristi A. | Gryczynski, Jan | Kirk, Arethusa S. | Oros, Marla T. | Hosler, Colleen | O’Grady, Kevin E. | Brown, Barry S. | Angus, Colin | Sherborne, Sidney | Gillespie, Duncan | Meier, Petra | Brennan, Alan | de Vargas, Divane | Soares, Janaina | Castelblanco, Donna | Doran, Kelly M. | Wittman, Ian | Shelley, Donna | Rotrosen, John | Gelberg, Lillian | Edelman, E. Jennifer | Maisto, Stephen A. | Hansen, Nathan B. | Cutter, Christopher J. | Deng, Yanhong | Dziura, James | Fiellin, Lynn E. | O’Connor, Patrick G. | Bedimo, Roger | Gibert, Cynthia | Marconi, Vincent C. | Rimland, David | Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C. | Simberkoff, Michael S. | Justice, Amy C. | Bryant, Kendall J. | Fiellin, David A. | Giles, Emma L. | Coulton, Simon | Deluca, Paolo | Drummond, Colin | Howel, Denise | McColl, Elaine | McGovern, Ruth | Scott, Stephanie | Stamp, Elaine | Sumnall, Harry | Vale, Luke | Alabani, Viviana | Atkinson, Amanda | Boniface, Sadie | Frankham, Jo | Gilvarry, Eilish | Hendrie, Nadine | Howe, Nicola | McGeechan, Grant J. | Ramsey, Amy | Stanley, Grant | Clephane, Justine | Gardiner, David | Holmes, John | Martin, Neil | Shevills, Colin | Soutar, Melanie | Chi, Felicia W. | Weisner, Constance | Ross, Thekla B. | Mertens, Jennifer | Sterling, Stacy A. | Shorter, Gillian W. | Heather, Nick | Bray, Jeremy | Cohen, Hildie A. | McPherson, Tracy L. | Adam, Cyrille | López-Pelayo, Hugo | Gual, Antoni | Segura-Garcia, Lidia | Colom, Joan | Ornelas, India J. | Doyle, Suzanne | Donovan, Dennis | Duran, Bonnie | Torres, Vanessa | Gaume, Jacques | Grazioli, Véronique | Fortini, Cristiana | Paroz, Sophie | Bertholet, Nicolas | Daeppen, Jean-Bernard | Satterfield, Jason M. | Gregorich, Steven | Alvarado, Nicholas J. | Muñoz, Ricardo | Kulieva, Gozel | Vijayaraghavan, Maya | Adam, Angéline | Cunningham, John A. | Díaz, Estela | Palacio-Vieira, Jorge | Godinho, Alexandra | Kushir, Vladyslav | O’Brien, Kimberly H. M. | Aguinaldo, Laika D. | Sellers, Christina M. | Spirito, Anthony | Chang, Grace | Blake-Lamb, Tiffany | LaFave, Lea R. Ayers | Thies, Kathleen M. | Pepin, Amy L. | Sprangers, Kara E. | Bradley, Martha | Jorgensen, Shasta | Catano, Nico A. | Murray, Adelaide R. | Schachter, Deborah | Andersen, Ronald M. | Rey, Guillermina Natera | Vahidi, Mani | Rico, Melvin W. | Baumeister, Sebastian E. | Johansson, Magnus | Sinadinovic, Christina | Hermansson, Ulric | Andreasson, Sven | O’Grady, Megan A. | Kapoor, Sandeep | Akkari, Cherine | Bernal, Camila | Pappacena, Kristen | Morley, Jeanne | Auerbach, Mark | Neighbors, Charles J. | Kwon, Nancy | Conigliaro, Joseph | Morgenstern, Jon | Magill, Molly | Apodaca, Timothy R. | Borsari, Brian | Hoadley, Ariel | Scott Tonigan, J. | Moyers, Theresa | Fitzgerald, Niamh M. | Schölin, Lisa | Barticevic, Nicolas | Zuzulich, Soledad | Poblete, Fernando | Norambuena, Pablo | Sacco, Paul | Ting, Laura | Beaulieu, Michele | Wallace, Paul George | Andrews, Matthew | Daley, Kate | Shenker, Don | Gallagher, Louise | Watson, Rod | Weaver, Tim | Bruguera, Pol | Oliveras, Clara | Gavotti, Carolina | Barrio, Pablo | Braddick, Fleur | Miquel, Laia | Suárez, Montse | Bruguera, Carla | Brown, Richard L. | Capell, Julie Whelan | Paul Moberg, D. | Maslowsky, Julie | Saunders, Laura A. | McCormack, Ryan P. | Scheidell, Joy | Gonzalez, Mirelis | Bauroth, Sabrina | Liu, Weiwei | Lindsay, Dawn L. | Lincoln, Piper | Hagle, Holly | Wallhed Finn, Sara | Hammarberg, Anders | Andréasson, Sven | King, Sarah E. | Vargo, Rachael | Kameg, Brayden N. | Acquavita, Shauna P. | Van Loon, Ruth Anne | Smith, Rachel | Brehm, Bonnie J. | Diers, Tiffiny | Kim, Karissa | Barker, Andrea | Jones, Ashley L. | Skinner, Asheley C. | Hinman, Agatha | Svikis, Dace S. | Thacker, Casey L. | Resnicow, Ken | Beatty, Jessica R. | Janisse, James | Puder, Karoline | Bakshi, Ann-Sofie | Milward, Joanna M. | Kimergard, Andreas | Garnett, Claire V. | Crane, David | Brown, Jamie | West, Robert | Michie, Susan | Rosendahl, Ingvar | Andersson, Claes | Gajecki, Mikael | Blankers, Matthijs | Donoghue, Kim | Lynch, Ellen | Maconochie, Ian | Phillips, Ceri | Pockett, Rhys | Phillips, Tom | Patton, R. | Russell, Ian | Strang, John | Stewart, Maureen T. | Quinn, Amity E. | Brolin, Mary | Evans, Brooke | Horgan, Constance M. | Liu, Junqing | McCree, Fern | Kanovsky, Doug | Oberlander, Tyler | Zhang, Huan | Hamlin, Ben | Saunders, Robert | Barton, Mary B. | Scholle, Sarah H. | Santora, Patricia | Bhatt, Chirag | Ahmed, Kazi | Hodgkin, Dominic | Gao, Wenwu | Merrick, Elizabeth L. | Drebing, Charles E. | Larson, Mary Jo | Sharma, Monica | Petry, Nancy M. | Saitz, Richard | Weisner, Constance M. | Young-Wolff, Kelly C. | Lu, Wendy Y. | Blosnich, John R. | Lehavot, Keren | Glass, Joseph E. | Williams, Emily C. | Bensley, Kara M. | Chan, Gary | Dombrowski, Julie | Fortney, John | Rubinsky, Anna D. | Lapham, Gwen T. | Forray, Ariadna | Olmstead, Todd A. | Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn | Kershaw, Trace | Dillon, Pamela | Weaver, Michael F. | Grekin, Emily R. | Ellis, Jennifer D. | McGoron, Lucy | McGoron, Lucy
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0087-8
PMCID: PMC5606215
3.  The intervention effect of local alcohol licensing policies on hospital admission and crime: a natural experiment using a novel Bayesian synthetictime-series method 
Background
Control of alcohol licensing at local government level is a key component of alcohol policy in England. There is, however, only weak evidence of any public health improvement. We used a novel natural experiment design to estimate the impact of new local alcohol licensing policies on hospital admissions and crime.
Methods
We used Home Office licensing data (2007–2012) to identify (1) interventions: local areas where both a cumulative impact zone and increased licensing enforcement were introduced in 2011; and (2) controls: local areas with neither. Outcomes were 2009–2015 alcohol-related hospital admissions, violent and sexual crimes, and antisocial behaviour. Bayesian structural time series were used to create postintervention synthetic time series (counterfactuals) based on weighted time series in control areas. Intervention effects were calculated from differences between measured and expected trends. Validation analyses were conducted using randomly selected controls.
Results
5 intervention and 86 control areas were identified. Intervention was associated with an average reduction in alcohol-related hospital admissions of 6.3% (95% credible intervals (CI) −12.8% to 0.2%) and to lesser extent with a reduced in violent crimes, especially up to 2013 (–4.6%, 95% CI −10.7% to 1.4%). There was weak evidence of an effect on sexual crimes up 2013 (–8.4%, 95% CI −21.4% to 4.6%) and insufficient evidence of an effect on antisocial behaviour as a result of a change in reporting.
Conclusion
Moderate reductions in alcohol-related hospital admissions and violent and sexual crimes were associated with introduction of local alcohol licensing policies. This novel methodology holds promise for use in other natural experiments in public health.
doi:10.1136/jech-2017-208931
PMCID: PMC5561361  PMID: 28679538
alcohol; public health policy; time-series; methodology
4.  Mapping Patterns and Trends in the Spatial Availability of Alcohol Using Low-Level Geographic Data: A Case Study in England 2003–2013 
Much literature examines the relationship between the spatial availability of alcohol and alcohol-related harm. This study aims to address an important gap in this evidence by using detailed outlet data to examine recent temporal trends in the sociodemographic distribution of spatial availability for different types of alcohol outlet in England. Descriptive analysis of measures of alcohol outlet density and proximity using extremely high resolution market research data stratified by outlet type and quintiles of area-level deprivation from 2003, 2007, 2010 and 2013 was undertaken and hierarchical linear growth models fitted to explore the significance of socioeconomic differences. We find that overall availability of alcohol changed very little from 2003 to 2013 (density +1.6%), but this conceals conflicting trends by outlet type and area-level deprivation. Mean on-trade density has decreased substantially (−2.2 outlets within 1 km (Inter-Quartile Range (IQR) −3–0), although access to restaurants has increased (+1.0 outlets (IQR 0–1)), while off-trade access has risen substantially (+2.4 outlets (IQR 0–3)). Availability is highest in the most deprived areas (p < 0.0001) although these areas have also seen the greatest falls in on-trade outlet availability (p < 0.0001). This study underlines the importance of using detailed, low-level geographic data to understand patterns and trends in the spatial availability of alcohol. There are significant variations in these trends by outlet type and deprivation level which may have important implications for health inequalities and public health policy.
doi:10.3390/ijerph14040406
PMCID: PMC5409607  PMID: 28417941
alcohol; availability; socioeconomic status; licensing; public health policy; health inequalities
5.  An economic evaluation of contingency management for completion of hepatitis B vaccination in those on treatment for opiate dependence 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2016;111(9):1616-1627.
Abstract
Aims
To determine whether the provision of contingency management using financial incentives to improve hepatitis B vaccine completion in people who inject drugs entering community treatment represents a cost‐effective use of health‐care resources.
Design
A probabilistic cost‐effectiveness analysis was conducted, using a decision‐tree to estimate the short‐term clinical and health‐care cost impact of the vaccination strategies, followed by a Markov process to evaluate the long‐term clinical consequences and costs associated with hepatitis B infection.
Settings and participants
Data on attendance to vaccination from a UK cluster randomized trial.
Intervention
Two contingency management options were examined in the trial: fixed versus escalating schedule financial incentives.
Measurement
Life‐time health‐care costs and quality‐adjusted life years discounted at 3.5% annually; incremental cost‐effectiveness ratios.
Findings
The resulting estimate for the incremental life‐time health‐care cost of the contingency management strategy versus usual care was £21.86 [95% confidence interval (CI) = –£12.20 to 39.86] per person offered the incentive. For 1000 people offered the incentive, the incremental reduction in numbers of hepatitis B infections avoided over their lifetime was estimated at 19 (95% CI = 8–30). The probabilistic incremental cost per quality adjusted life‐year gained of the contingency management programme was estimated to be £6738 (95% CI = £6297–7172), with an 89% probability of being considered cost‐effective at a threshold of £20 000 per quality‐adjusted life years gained (97.60% at £30 000).
Conclusions
Using financial incentives to increase hepatitis B vaccination completion in people who inject drugs could be a cost‐effective use of health‐care resources in the UK as long as the incidence remains above 1.2%.
doi:10.1111/add.13385
PMCID: PMC5347913  PMID: 26990598
Contingency management; economic; incentives; injecting; methadone maintenance program; opiates; vaccination; viral hepatitis
6.  Typology and Dynamics of Heavier Drinking Styles in Great Britain: 1978–2010 
Abstract
Aims
To identify a typology of heavier drinking styles in Great Britain and to identify socio-demographic trends in the typology over the period 1978–2010.
Methods
We applied multiple correspondence analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering to beverage-specific quantity–frequency measures of alcohol consumption in the repeated cross-sectional General Lifestyle Survey of Great Britain, 1978–2010. The cluster analysis focuses on the 60,043 adult respondents over this period reporting average drinking levels above the UK Government guidelines. We projected sex, age, income, education, socio-economic status and tobacco consumption variables onto the clusters to inspect socio-demographic trends in heavier drinking.
Results
We identified four stable clusters of heavier drinking: (a) high volume beer; (b) beer and spirit combination; (c) all beverage and (d) wine and spirit only. The socio-demographic characteristics of the clusters were distinct from both each other and the general population. However, all clusters had higher median incomes and higher smoking rates than the population. Increases in the prevalence of heavier drinking were driven by a 5-fold increase in the contribution of the female-dominated, wine and spirit only cluster.
Conclusions
Recent changes in per capita alcohol consumption in Great Britain occurred within the context of a stable typology of heavier drinking styles and shifting socio-demographics. Identifying these trends is essential to better understand how drinking cultures develop over time and where potentially problematic drinking styles may emerge. Our findings suggest that careful attention to patterns and cultures of consumption is more important than relying on headline consumption data, for both understanding drinking behaviours and targeting interventions.
Short Summary
This analysis of alcohol consumption survey data identifies four styles of heavier drinking in Great Britain, which remain unchanged over the period 1978–2010. The socio-demographic characteristics of the drinking styles are distinct from both each other and the general population, with increased participation of female and older drinkers over time.
doi:10.1093/alcalc/agw105
PMCID: PMC5397881  PMID: 28119412
7.  Developing a social practice‐based typology of British drinking culture in 2009–2011: implications for alcohol policy analysis 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2016;111(9):1568-1579.
Abstract
Background and aims
The concept of national drinking culture is well established in research and policy debate, but rarely features in contemporary alcohol policy analysis. We aim to demonstrate the value of the alternative concept of social practices for quantitatively operationalizing drinking culture. We discuss how a practice perspective addresses limitations in existing analytical approaches to health‐related behaviour before demonstrating its empirical application by constructing a statistical typology of British drinking occasions.
Design
Cross‐sectional latent class analysis of drinking occasions derived from retrospective 1‐week drinking diaries obtained from quota samples of a market research panel. Occasions are periods of drinking with no more than 2 hours between drinks.
Setting
Great Britain, 2009–11.
Cases
A total of 187 878 occasions nested within 60 215 nationally representative adults (aged 18 + years).
Measurements
Beverage type and quantity per occasion; location, company and gender composition of company; motivation and reason for occasion; day, start‐time and duration of occasion; and age, sex and social grade.
Findings
Eight occasion types are derived based primarily on parsimony considerations rather than model fit statistics. These are mixed location heavy drinking (10.4% of occasions), heavy drinking at home with a partner (9.4%), going out with friends (11.1%), get‐together at someone's house (14.4%), going out for a meal (8.6%), drinking at home alone (13.6%), light drinking at home with family (12.8%) and light drinking at home with a partner (19.6%).
Conclusions
An empirical model of drinking culture, comprising a typology of drinking practices, reveals the dominance of moderate drinking practices in Great Britain. The model demonstrates the potential for a practice perspective to be used in evaluation of how and why drinking cultures change in response to public health interventions.
doi:10.1111/add.13397
PMCID: PMC5094536  PMID: 27095617
Drinking culture; drinking occasion; latent class analysis; practice; policy analysis; typology
8.  The Impact of Diabetes-Related Complications on Preference-Based Measures of Health-Related Quality of Life in Adults with Type I Diabetes 
Medical Decision Making  2016;36(8):1020-1033.
Introduction. This study estimates health-related quality of life (HRQoL) or utility decrements associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using data from a UK research program on the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) education program. Methods. A wide range of data was collected from 2341 individuals who undertook a DAFNE course in 2009–2012, at baseline and for 2 subsequent years. We use fixed- and random-effects linear models to generate utility estimates for T1DM using different instruments: EQ-5D, SF-6D, and EQ-VAS. We show models with and without controls for HbA1c and depression, which may be endogenous (if, for example, there is reverse causality in operation). Results. We find strong evidence of an unobserved individual effect, suggesting the superiority of the fixed-effects model. Depression shows the greatest decrement across all the models in the preferred fixed-effects model. The fixed-effects EQ-5D model also finds a significant decrement from retinopathy, body mass index, and HbA1c (%). Estimating a decrement using the fixed-effects model is not possible for some conditions where there are few new cases. In the random-effects model, diabetic foot disease shows substantial utility decrements, yet these are not significant in the fixed-effects models. Conclusion. Utility decrements have been calculated for a wide variety of health states in T1DM that can be used in economic analyses. However, despite the large data set, the low incidence of several complications leads to uncertainty in calculating the utility weights. Depression and diabetic foot disease result in a substantial loss in HRQoL for patients with T1DM. HbA1c (%) appears to have an independent negative impact on HRQoL, although concerns remain regarding the potential endogeneity of this variable.
doi:10.1177/0272989X16658660
PMCID: PMC5046160  PMID: 27553209
type 1 diabetes; T1DM; EQ-5D; SF-6D; EQ-VAS; health-related quality of life; depression; HbA1c; utility
9.  Deconstructing the Alcohol Harm Paradox: A Population Based Survey of Adults in England 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(9):e0160666.
Background
The Alcohol Harm Paradox refers to observations that lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups consume less alcohol but experience more alcohol-related problems. However, SES is a complex concept and its observed relationship to social problems often depends on how it is measured and the demographic groups studied. Thus this study assessed socioeconomic patterning of alcohol consumption and related harm using multiple measures of SES and examined moderation of this patterning by gender and age.
Method
Data were used from the Alcohol Toolkit Study between March and September 2015 on 31,878 adults (16+) living in England. Participants completed the AUDIT which includes alcohol consumption, harm and dependence modules. SES was measured via qualifications, employment, home and car ownership, income and social-grade, plus a composite of these measures. The composite score was coded such that higher scores reflected greater social-disadvantage.
Results
We observed the Alcohol Harm Paradox for the composite SES measure, with a linear negative relationship between SES and AUDIT-Consumption scores (β = -0.036, p<0.001) and a positive relationship between lower SES and AUDIT-Harm (β = 0.022, p<0.001) and AUDIT-Dependence (β = 0.024, p<0.001) scores. Individual measures of SES displayed different, and non-linear, relationships with AUDIT modules. For example, social-grade and income had a u-shaped relationship with AUDIT-Consumption scores while education had an inverse u-shaped relationship. Almost all measures displayed an exponential relationship with AUDIT-Dependence and AUDIT-Harm scores. We identified moderating effects from age and gender, with AUDIT-Dependence scores increasing more steeply with lower SES in men and both AUDIT-Harm and AUDIT-Dependence scores increasing more steeply with lower SES in younger age groups.
Conclusion
Different SES measures appear to influence whether the Alcohol Harm Paradox is observed as a linear trend across SES groups or a phenomenon associated particularly with the most disadvantaged. The paradox also appears more concentrated in men and younger age groups.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0160666
PMCID: PMC5040414  PMID: 27682619
10.  Temporal patterns of alcohol consumption and attempts to reduce alcohol intake in England 
BMC Public Health  2016;16:917.
Background
The Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS) is a monthly survey of approximately 1700 adults per month aged 16 years of age or more in England. We aimed to explore patterns of alcohol consumption and motivation to reduce alcohol use in England throughout the year.
Methods
Data from 38,372 participants who answered questions about alcohol consumption (March 2014 to January 2016) were analysed using weighted regression using the R survey package. Questions assessed alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C) and attempts to reduce consumption.
Results
Sixty-seven percent of participants reported using alcohol, with a small negative trend of about 2 % reduction over 12 months in the studied period (P < 0.01). These include ~25 % higher risk drinkers and ~10 % regular binge drinkers. About 20 % of higher risk drinkers indicated they were attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption. Attempts were lowest in December (−20 %; 95 % CI 0–35 %), but increases significantly in January (+41 %; 95 % CI 16–73 %) compared with other months (P < 0.001), indicating a small net gain; at least in attempts to reduce. However, there was no evidence that the increased motivation in January was accompanied by a reported decrease in consumption or binge drinking events. This could be an artefact of the use of AUDIT questions, but could also reflect a disconnect between attempting to reduce alcohol consumption and subsequent change; maybe as a result of lack of continuing support.
Conclusions
January is associated with moderate increased attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. However, we find little evidence of a change in alcohol consumption. In part, this may be due to temporal insensitivity of the AUDIT questions.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3542-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3542-7
PMCID: PMC5009608  PMID: 27585991
11.  Are recent attempts to quit smoking associated with reduced drinking in England? A cross-sectional population survey 
BMC Public Health  2016;16:535.
Background
Alcohol consumption during attempts at smoking cessation can provoke relapse and so smokers are often advised to restrict their alcohol consumption during this time. This study assessed at a population-level whether smokers having recently initiated an attempt to stop smoking are more likely than other smokers to report i) lower alcohol consumption and ii) trying to reduce their alcohol consumption.
Method
Cross-sectional household surveys of 6287 last-year smokers who also completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C). Respondents who reported attempting to quit smoking in the last week were compared with those who did not. Those with AUDIT-C≥5 were also asked if they were currently trying to reduce the amount of alcohol they consume.
Results
After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and current smoking status, smokers who reported a quit attempt within the last week had lower AUDIT-C scores compared with those who did not report an attempt in the last week (βadj = −0.56, 95 % CI = −1.08 to −0.04) and were less likely to be classified as higher risk (AUDIT-C≥5: ORadj = 0.57, 95 % CI = 0.38 to 0.85). The lower AUDIT-C scores appeared to be a result of lower scores on the frequency of ‘binge’ drinking item (βadj = −0.25, 95 % CI = −0.43 to −0.07), with those who reported a quit attempt within the last week compared with those who did not being less likely to binge drink at least weekly (ORadj = 0.54, 95 % CI = 0.29 to 0.999) and more likely to not binge drink at all (ORadj = 1.70, 95 % CI = 1.16 to 2.49). Among smokers with higher risk consumption (AUDIT-C≥5), those who reported an attempt to stop smoking within the last week compared with those who did not were more likely to report trying to reduce their alcohol consumption (ORadj = 2.98, 95 % CI = 1.48 to 6.01).
Conclusion
Smokers who report starting a quit attempt in the last week also report lower alcohol consumption, including less frequent binge drinking, and appear more likely to report currently attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption compared with smokers who do not report a quit attempt in the last week.
doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3223-6
PMCID: PMC4957412  PMID: 27443348
Alcohol drinking; Attempts; Cutting down; Smoking; Smoking cessation
12.  Cost Utility of Omalizumab Compared with Standard of Care for the Treatment of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria 
Pharmacoeconomics  2016;34:815-827.
Background
Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) negatively impacts patient quality of life and productivity and is associated with considerable indirect costs to society.
Objective
The aim of this study was to assess the cost utility of add-on omalizumab treatment compared with standard of care (SOC) in moderate or severe CSU patients with inadequate response to SOC, from the UK societal perspective.
Methods
A Markov model was developed, consisting of health states based on Urticaria Activity Score over 7 days (UAS7) and additional states for relapse, spontaneous remission and death. Model cycle length was 4 weeks, and total model time horizon was 20 years in the base case. The model considered early discontinuation of non-responders (response: UAS7 ≤6) and retreatment upon relapse (relapse: UAS7 ≥16) for responders. Clinical and cost inputs were derived from omalizumab trials and published sources, and cost utility was expressed as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Scenario analyses included no early discontinuation of non-responders and an altered definition of response (UAS7 <16).
Results
With a deterministic ICER of £3183 in the base case, omalizumab was associated with increased costs and benefits relative to SOC. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis supported this result. Productivity inputs were key model drivers, and individual scenarios without early discontinuation of non-responders and adjusted response definitions had little impact on results. ICERs were generally robust to changes in key model parameters and inputs.
Conclusions
In this, the first economic evaluation of omalizumab in CSU from a UK societal perspective, omalizumab consistently represented a treatment option with societal benefit for CSU in the UK across a range of scenarios.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s40273-016-0412-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s40273-016-0412-1
PMCID: PMC4929169  PMID: 27209583
13.  Estimating Multiparameter Partial Expected Value of Perfect Information from a Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis Sample 
Medical Decision Making  2013;34(3):311-326.
The partial expected value of perfect information (EVPI) quantifies the expected benefit of learning the values of uncertain parameters in a decision model. Partial EVPI is commonly estimated via a 2-level Monte Carlo procedure in which parameters of interest are sampled in an outer loop, and then conditional on these, the remaining parameters are sampled in an inner loop. This is computationally demanding and may be difficult if correlation between input parameters results in conditional distributions that are hard to sample from. We describe a novel nonparametric regression-based method for estimating partial EVPI that requires only the probabilistic sensitivity analysis sample (i.e., the set of samples drawn from the joint distribution of the parameters and the corresponding net benefits). The method is applicable in a model of any complexity and with any specification of input parameter distribution. We describe the implementation of the method via 2 nonparametric regression modeling approaches, the Generalized Additive Model and the Gaussian process. We demonstrate in 2 case studies the superior efficiency of the regression method over the 2-level Monte Carlo method. R code is made available to implement the method.
doi:10.1177/0272989X13505910
PMCID: PMC4819801  PMID: 24246566
value of information; expected value of perfect information; economic evaluation model; nonparametric regression; Bayesian decision theory; computational methods
14.  Measurable effects of local alcohol licensing policies on population health in England 
Background
English alcohol policy is implemented at local government level, leading to variations in how it is put into practice. We evaluated whether differences in the presence or absence of cumulative impact zones and the ‘intensity’ of licensing enforcement—both aimed at regulating the availability of alcohol and modifying the drinking environment—were associated with harm as measured by alcohol-related hospital admissions.
Methods
Premises licensing data were obtained at lower tier local authority (LTLA) level from the Home Office Alcohol and Late Night Refreshment Licensing data for 2007–2012, and LTLAs were coded as ‘passive’, low, medium or highly active based on whether they made use of cumulative impact areas and/or whether any licences for new premises were declined. These data were linked to 2009–2015 alcohol-related hospital admission and alcohol-related crime rates obtained from the Local Alcohol Profiles for England. Population size and deprivation data were obtained from the Office of National Statistics. Changes in directly age-standardised rates of people admitted to hospital with alcohol-related conditions were analysed using hierarchical growth modelling.
Results
Stronger reductions in alcohol-related admission rates were observed in areas with more intense alcohol licensing policies, indicating an ‘exposure–response’ association, in the 2007–2015 period. Local areas with the most intensive licensing policies had an additional 5% reduction (p=0.006) in 2015 compared with what would have been expected had these local areas had no active licensing policy in place.
Conclusions
Local licensing policies appear to be associated with a reduction in alcohol-related hospital admissions in areas with more intense licensing policies.
doi:10.1136/jech-2015-206040
PMCID: PMC4789824  PMID: 26555369
ALCOHOL; PUBLIC HEALTH; PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY
15.  Estimated Effects of Different Alcohol Taxation and Price Policies on Health Inequalities: A Mathematical Modelling Study 
PLoS Medicine  2016;13(2):e1001963.
Introduction
While evidence that alcohol pricing policies reduce alcohol-related health harm is robust, and alcohol taxation increases are a WHO “best buy” intervention, there is a lack of research comparing the scale and distribution across society of health impacts arising from alternative tax and price policy options. The aim of this study is to test whether four common alcohol taxation and pricing strategies differ in their impact on health inequalities.
Methods and Findings
An econometric epidemiological model was built with England 2014/2015 as the setting. Four pricing strategies implemented on top of the current tax were equalised to give the same 4.3% population-wide reduction in total alcohol-related mortality: current tax increase, a 13.4% all-product duty increase under the current UK system; a value-based tax, a 4.0% ad valorem tax based on product price; a strength-based tax, a volumetric tax of £0.22 per UK alcohol unit (= 8 g of ethanol); and minimum unit pricing, a minimum price threshold of £0.50 per unit, below which alcohol cannot be sold. Model inputs were calculated by combining data from representative household surveys on alcohol purchasing and consumption, administrative and healthcare data on 43 alcohol-attributable diseases, and published price elasticities and relative risk functions. Outcomes were annual per capita consumption, consumer spending, and alcohol-related deaths. Uncertainty was assessed via partial probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) and scenario analysis.
The pricing strategies differ as to how effects are distributed across the population, and, from a public health perspective, heavy drinkers in routine/manual occupations are a key group as they are at greatest risk of health harm from their drinking. Strength-based taxation and minimum unit pricing would have greater effects on mortality among drinkers in routine/manual occupations (particularly for heavy drinkers, where the estimated policy effects on mortality rates are as follows: current tax increase, −3.2%; value-based tax, −2.9%; strength-based tax, −6.1%; minimum unit pricing, −7.8%) and lesser impacts among drinkers in professional/managerial occupations (for heavy drinkers: current tax increase, −1.3%; value-based tax, −1.4%; strength-based tax, +0.2%; minimum unit pricing, +0.8%). Results from the PSA give slightly greater mean effects for both the routine/manual (current tax increase, −3.6% [95% uncertainty interval (UI) −6.1%, −0.6%]; value-based tax, −3.3% [UI −5.1%, −1.7%]; strength-based tax, −7.5% [UI −13.7%, −3.9%]; minimum unit pricing, −10.3% [UI −10.3%, −7.0%]) and professional/managerial occupation groups (current tax increase, −1.8% [UI −4.7%, +1.6%]; value-based tax, −1.9% [UI −3.6%, +0.4%]; strength-based tax, −0.8% [UI −6.9%, +4.0%]; minimum unit pricing, −0.7% [UI −5.6%, +3.6%]). Impacts of price changes on moderate drinkers were small regardless of income or socioeconomic group. Analysis of uncertainty shows that the relative effectiveness of the four policies is fairly stable, although uncertainty in the absolute scale of effects exists. Volumetric taxation and minimum unit pricing consistently outperform increasing the current tax or adding an ad valorem tax in terms of reducing mortality among the heaviest drinkers and reducing alcohol-related health inequalities (e.g., in the routine/manual occupation group, volumetric taxation reduces deaths more than increasing the current tax in 26 out of 30 probabilistic runs, minimum unit pricing reduces deaths more than volumetric tax in 21 out of 30 runs, and minimum unit pricing reduces deaths more than increasing the current tax in 30 out of 30 runs). Study limitations include reducing model complexity by not considering a largely ineffective ban on below-tax alcohol sales, special duty rates covering only small shares of the market, and the impact of tax fraud or retailer non-compliance with minimum unit prices.
Conclusions
Our model estimates that, compared to tax increases under the current system or introducing taxation based on product value, alcohol-content-based taxation or minimum unit pricing would lead to larger reductions in health inequalities across income groups. We also estimate that alcohol-content-based taxation and minimum unit pricing would have the largest impact on harmful drinking, with minimal effects on those drinking in moderation.
In this mathematical modelling study, Petra Meier and colleagues estimate the impact of different alcohol taxation and pricing structures on consumption, spending, and health inequalities.
Editors' Summary
Background
People have drunk alcoholic beverages throughout history. However, harmful alcohol consumption is currently responsible for around 2.7 million deaths every year and is a leading risk factor worldwide for heart disease, liver disease, and many other health problems. It also affects the well-being and health of people around those who drink, both within the household and through alcohol-related crime and road traffic crashes. As with most products, the price of alcohol influences how much people buy and consume. Alcohol affordability is an important driver of alcohol consumption, and in many countries, including the UK and US, alcohol prices have not kept pace with inflation and rising incomes. Alcohol taxes have the dual function of raising revenues and regulating alcohol prices. Different countries employ different alcohol-specific taxation structures including taxation by beverage volume, by value, or by alcohol content. Some countries also have additional price control measures that prevent the sale of very cheap alcohol.
Why Was This Study Done?
Although research shows that increases in the price of alcohol brought about by taxation or other pricing policies reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm, little is known about how alternative tax and price policy options affect the scale and distribution of alcohol-related health impacts across society. This is important because people with lower social status and/or income are disproportionately affected by alcohol-related disease. An effective public health policy to reduce alcohol harm might, therefore, help to reduce social disparities in health (health inequality), a major goal of population health policies in affluent countries.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
Here, the researchers use the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model (SAPM) to investigate the effects of four common alcohol taxation and price policies on health inequalities in England during 2014/2015. SAPM is a deterministic mathematical simulation model that estimates how price changes affect individual-level alcohol consumption and how consumption changes affect the illnesses (morbidity), deaths (mortality), and economic costs associated with 43 alcohol-attributable conditions. The researchers used SAPM to simulate the effect of increasing the existing UK duty on all alcohol products by 13.4% (current tax increase), introducing a 4% tax based on product price (value-based, or ad valorem, taxation), introducing a tax of £0.22 per alcohol unit (strength-based, or volumetric, taxation), or setting a minimum price threshold of £0.50 per alcohol unit (minimum unit pricing). The magnitudes of the different policy-induced price increases modeled were chosen to result in the same overall population-wide 4.3% decrease in alcohol-related mortality. Notably, the impacts of policy changes on moderate drinkers were small, regardless of income/socioeconomic group. However, among heavy drinkers, the effects of the four policies were differentially distributed across the population. Among heavy drinkers in the lowest socioeconomic group (the population group at greatest risk of harm from alcohol use), the estimated effects on mortality rates were −3.2% for the current tax increase (that is, it reduced alcohol-related deaths by 3.2%), −2.9% for value-based taxation, −6.1% for strength-based taxation, and −7.8% for minimum unit pricing. Among heavy drinkers in the highest socioeconomic group, the corresponding effects on mortality rates were −1.3%, −1.4%, +0.2%, and +0.8%.
What Do These Findings Mean?
As with any policy modelling, the accuracy of these findings depends on the evidence base, the quality of the data incorporated into the model, and the assumptions used. Limitations to the analysis here include that, due to an absence of evidence, the researchers have not examined the impact of any tax avoidance, which could potentially vary between the policies. The study findings suggest that in England (and probably in other countries) the introduction of strength-based taxation or minimum unit pricing would lead to larger reductions in health inequalities among heavy drinkers than an increase in the current tax rate or the introduction of value-based taxation. That is, the two policy options that target cheap, high-strength alcohol are likely to outperform value-based taxation and increasing the current UK tax in terms of reducing health inequalities. Thus, although these policies might be considered “regressive” (i.e., affecting the poor more than the rich) in terms of consumption and spending, they are at the same time “progressive” in that they reduce health inequalities. Finally, these findings suggest that minimum unit pricing and strength-based taxation, unlike the other two options tested, would target harmful drinking without unnecessarily penalizing people with low incomes who drink moderate amounts of alcohol.
Additional Information
This list of resources contains links that can be accessed when viewing the PDF on a device or via the online version of the article at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001963.
The World Health Organization provides detailed information about alcohol, including a fact sheet on the harmful use of alcohol; its Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health 2014 provides country information on the impact of alcohol use on health and policy responses; its Global Strategy to Reduce Harmful Use of Alcohol includes information on pricing policies; the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health provides further information about alcohol control policies
The US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism has information about alcohol and its effects on health; it provides interactive worksheets to help people evaluate their drinking and decide whether and how to make a change
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information on alcohol and public health and a fact sheet on preventing excessive alcohol use
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides detailed information about drinking and alcohol, including information on the risks of drinking too much, tools for calculating alcohol consumption, and personal stories
EuroCare is an alliance of non-governmental public health and social organizations working on the prevention and reduction of alcohol-related harm in Europe; it provides information about alcohol taxation in the European Union
The UK Institute of Alcohol Studies advocates for the use of scientific evidence in policymaking to reduce alcohol-related harm and produces easily accessible briefings on alcohol policy issues
MedlinePlus provides links to many other resources on alcohol
Information about the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model is available
The UK Chief Medical Officers’ proposed new alcohol guidelines are available
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001963
PMCID: PMC4764336  PMID: 26905063
16.  Comparison of brief interventions in primary care on smoking and excessive alcohol consumption: a population survey in England 
Background
Brief interventions have a modest but meaningful effect on promoting smoking cessation and reducing excessive alcohol consumption. Guidelines recommend offering such advice opportunistically and regularly but incentives vary between the two behaviours.
Aim
To use representative data from the perspective of patients to compare the prevalence and characteristics of people who smoke or drink excessively and who receive a brief intervention.
Design and setting
Data was from a representative sample of 15 252 adults from household surveys in England.
Method
Recall of brief interventions on smoking and alcohol use, sociodemographic information, and smoking and alcohol consumption patterns were assessed among smokers and those who drink excessively (AUDIT score of ≥8), who visited their GP surgery in the previous year.
Results
Of 1775 smokers, 50.4% recalled receiving brief advice on smoking in the previous year. Smokers receiving advice compared with those who did not were more likely to be older (odds ratio [OR] 17-year increments 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.06 to 1.34), female (OR 1.35, 95% CI =1.10 to 1.65), have a disability (OR 1.44, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.88), have made more quit attempts in the previous year (compared with no attempts: one attempt, OR 1.65, 95% CI = 1.32 to 2.08; ≥2 attempts, OR 2.02, 95% CI =1.49 to 2.74), and have greater nicotine dependence (OR 1.17, 95% CI =1.05 to 1.31) but were less likely to have no post-16 qualifications (OR 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66 to 1.00). Of 1110 people drinking excessively, 6.5% recalled receiving advice in their GP surgery on their alcohol consumption in the previous year. Those receiving advice compared with those who did not had higher AUDIT scores (OR 1.17, 95% CI =1.12 to 1.23) and were less likely to be female (OR 0.44, 95% CI = 0.23 to 0.87).
Conclusion
Whereas approximately half of smokers in England visiting their GP in the past year report having received advice on cessation, <10% of those who drink excessively report having received advice on their alcohol consumption.
doi:10.3399/bjgp16X683149
PMCID: PMC4684029  PMID: 26719481
alcohol drinking; brief advice; brief intervention; counselling; smoking
17.  A theory-based online health behaviour intervention for new university students (U@Uni:LifeGuide): results from a repeat randomized controlled trial 
Trials  2015;16:555.
Background
This paper reports the results of a repeat trial assessing the effectiveness of an online theory-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours in new university students. The original trial found that the intervention reduced the number of smokers at 6-month follow-up compared with the control condition, but had non-significant effects on the other targeted health behaviours. However, the original trial suffered from low levels of engagement, which the repeat trial sought to rectify.
Methods
Three weeks before staring university, all incoming undergraduate students at a large university in the UK were sent an email inviting them to participate in the study. After completing a baseline questionnaire, participants were randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions. The intervention consisted of a self-affirmation manipulation, health messages based on the theory of planned behaviour and implementation intention tasks. Participants were followed-up 1 and 6 months after starting university. The primary outcome measures were portions of fruit and vegetables consumed, physical activity levels, units of alcohol consumed and smoking status at 6-month follow-up.
Results
The study recruited 2,621 students (intervention n = 1346, control n = 1275), of whom 1495 completed at least one follow-up (intervention n = 696, control n = 799). Intention-to-treat analyses indicated that the intervention had a non-significant effect on the primary outcomes, although the effect of the intervention on fruit and vegetable intake was significant in the per-protocol analyses. Secondary analyses revealed that the intervention had significant effects on having smoked at university (self-report) and on a biochemical marker of alcohol use.
Conclusions
Despite successfully increasing levels of engagement, the intervention did not have a significant effect on the primary outcome measures. The relatively weak effects of the intervention, found in both the original and repeat trials, may be due to the focus on multiple versus single health behaviours. Future interventions targeting the health behaviour of new university students should therefore focus on single health behaviours.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN07407344.
doi:10.1186/s13063-015-1092-4
PMCID: PMC4672536  PMID: 26643917
Binge drinking; Diet; Exercise; Implementation intentions; Internet; Self-affirmation; Smoking; Students; Theory of planned behaviour; Young people
18.  Estimating the Expected Value of Sample Information Using the Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis Sample 
Medical Decision Making  2015;35(5):570-583.
Health economic decision-analytic models are used to estimate the expected net benefits of competing decision options. The true values of the input parameters of such models are rarely known with certainty, and it is often useful to quantify the value to the decision maker of reducing uncertainty through collecting new data. In the context of a particular decision problem, the value of a proposed research design can be quantified by its expected value of sample information (EVSI). EVSI is commonly estimated via a 2-level Monte Carlo procedure in which plausible data sets are generated in an outer loop, and then, conditional on these, the parameters of the decision model are updated via Bayes rule and sampled in an inner loop. At each iteration of the inner loop, the decision model is evaluated. This is computationally demanding and may be difficult if the posterior distribution of the model parameters conditional on sampled data is hard to sample from. We describe a fast nonparametric regression-based method for estimating per-patient EVSI that requires only the probabilistic sensitivity analysis sample (i.e., the set of samples drawn from the joint distribution of the parameters and the corresponding net benefits). The method avoids the need to sample from the posterior distributions of the parameters and avoids the need to rerun the model. The only requirement is that sample data sets can be generated. The method is applicable with a model of any complexity and with any specification of model parameter distribution. We demonstrate in a case study the superior efficiency of the regression method over the 2-level Monte Carlo method.
doi:10.1177/0272989X15575286
PMCID: PMC4471064  PMID: 25810269
expected value of sample information; economic evaluation model; Monte Carlo methods; Bayesian decision theory; computational methods; nonparametric regression; generalized additive model.
19.  Protocol for a national monthly survey of alcohol use in England with 6-month follow-up: ‘The Alcohol Toolkit Study’ 
BMC Public Health  2015;15:230.
Background
Timely tracking of national patterns of alcohol consumption is needed to inform and evaluate strategies and policies aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm. Between 2014 until at least 2017, the Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS) will provide such tracking data and link these with policy changes and campaigns. By virtue of its connection with the ‘Smoking Toolkit Study’ (STS), links will also be examined between alcohol and smoking-related behaviour.
Methods/Design
The ATS consists of cross-sectional household, computer-assisted interviews of representative samples of adults in England aged 16+. Each month a new sample of approximately 1800 adults complete the survey (~n = 21,600 per year). All respondents who consent to be followed-up are asked to complete a telephone survey 6 months later. The ATS has been funded to collect at least 36 waves of baseline and 6-month follow-up data across a period of 3 years. Questions cover alcohol consumption and related harm (AUDIT), socio-demographic characteristics, attempts to reduce or cease consumption and factors associated with this, and exposure to health professional advice on alcohol. The ATS complements the STS, which has been tracking key performance indicators relating to smoking since 2006. As both the ATS and STS involve the same respondents, it is possible to assess interactions between changes in alcohol and tobacco use. Data analysis will involve: 1) Descriptive and exploratory analyses undertaken according to a pre-defined set of principles while allowing scope for pursuing lines of enquiry that arise from prior analyses; 2) Hypothesis testing according to pre-specified, published analysis plans. Descriptive data on important trends will be published monthly on a dedicated website: www.alcoholinengland.info.
Discussion
The Alcohol Toolkit Study will improve understanding of population level factors influencing alcohol consumption and be an important resource for policy evaluation and planning.
doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1542-7
PMCID: PMC4363185  PMID: 25884652
Alcohol toolkit study; Epidemiology; Smoking toolkit study; Alcohol consumption; AUDIT
20.  A pilot feasibility trial of alcohol screening and brief intervention in the police custody setting (ACCEPT): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial 
Background
There is evidence of an association between alcohol use and offending behaviour and around a quarter of police time is spent on alcohol-related incidents. Police custody, therefore, provides an important opportunity to intervene. This pilot trial aims to investigate whether a definitive evaluation of screening and brief interventions aimed at reducing risky drinking in arrestees is acceptable and feasible in the custody suite setting.
Methods
Screening will be carried out by trained detention officers or drug and alcohol workers in four police forces across two geographical areas (North East and South West England). Detention officers (or drug and alcohol workers) will be cluster randomised to one of three conditions: screening only (control group), screening followed immediately by 10 min of manualised brief structured advice delivered by the individual responsible for screening (intervention 1) or screening followed by 10 min of manualised brief structured advice delivered by the individual responsible for screening plus the offer of a subsequent 20-min session of behaviour change counselling delivered by a trained alcohol health worker (intervention 2). Participants will be arrestees aged 18+ who screen positive on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Participants will be followed up at 6 and 12 months post-intervention. An embedded qualitative process evaluation will explore acceptability of alcohol screening and brief intervention to staff and arrestees as well as facilitators and barriers to the delivery of such approaches in this setting.
Results
Recruitment is currently underway and due to end May 2015.
Conclusion
Results from this pilot trial will determine if a definitive evaluation is possible in the future and will provide stakeholder input to its design.
Trial registration
Reference number: ISRCTN89291046.
doi:10.1186/s40814-015-0001-7
PMCID: PMC5066519  PMID: 27965786
Alcohol; Screening and brief intervention; Feasibility pilot trial; Behaviour change; Police custody
21.  Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study 
The BMJ  2014;349:g5452.
Objective To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing.
Design Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5.
Setting England 2014-15.
Population Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers.
Interventions Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45p, and 50p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol.
Main outcome measures Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers’ expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years.
Results The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers’ mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health—saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23 700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers.
Conclusions The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at expected levels between 40p and 50p per unit, is estimated to have an approximately 40-50 times greater effect.
doi:10.1136/bmj.g5452
PMCID: PMC4180296  PMID: 25270743
22.  The cost-effectiveness of a theory-based online health behaviour intervention for new university students: an economic evaluation 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:1011.
Background
Too many young people engage in unhealthy behaviours such as eating unhealthily, being physically inactive, binge drinking and smoking. This study aimed to estimate the short-term and long-term cost-effectiveness of a theory-based online health behaviour intervention (“U@Uni”) in comparison with control in young people starting university.
Methods
A costing analysis was conducted to estimate the full cost of U@Uni and the cost of U@Uni roll-out. The short-term cost-effectiveness of U@Uni was estimated using statistical analysis of 6-month cost and health-related quality of life data from the U@Uni randomised controlled trial. An economic modelling analysis combined evidence from the trial with published evidence of the effect of health behaviours on mortality risk and general population data on health behaviours, to estimate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of U@Uni in terms of incremental cost per QALY. Costs and effects were discounted at 1.5% per annum. A full probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to account for uncertainty in model inputs and provide an estimate of the value of information for groups of important parameters.
Results
To implement U@Uni for the randomised controlled trial was estimated to cost £292 per participant, whereas roll-out to another university was estimated to cost £19.71, both giving a QALY gain of 0.0128 per participant. The short-term (6-month) analysis suggested that U@Uni would not be cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000 per QALY (incremental cost per QALY gained = £243,926). When a lifetime horizon was adopted the results suggest that the full implementation of U@Uni is unlikely to be cost-effective, whereas the roll-out of U@Uni to another university is extremely likely to be cost-effective. The value of information analysis suggests that the most important drivers of decision uncertainty are uncertainties in the effect of U@Uni on health behaviours.
Conclusions
The study provides the first estimate of the costs and cost-effectiveness of an online health behaviour intervention targeted at new university students. The results suggest that the roll-out, but not the full implementation, of U@Uni would be a cost-effective decision for the UK Department of Health, given a lifetime perspective and a willingness-to pay threshold of £20,000 per QALY.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN67684181.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1011) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1011
PMCID: PMC4195974  PMID: 25262372
Alcohol; Fruit and vegetables; Exercise; Smoking; Health behaviour; Cost-effectiveness; Economic evaluation; Economic model; Young people; Students; University; Costs
23.  A theory-based online health behaviour intervention for new university students (U@Uni): results from a randomised controlled trial 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:563.
Background
Too few young people engage in behaviours that reduce the risk of morbidity and premature mortality, such as eating healthily, being physically active, drinking sensibly and not smoking. This study sought to assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a theory-based online health behaviour intervention (based on self-affirmation theory, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and implementation intentions) targeting these behaviours in new university students, in comparison to a measurement-only control.
Methods
Two-weeks before starting university all incoming undergraduates at the University of Sheffield were invited to take part in a study of new students’ health behaviour. A randomised controlled design, with a baseline questionnaire, and two follow-ups (1 and 6 months after starting university), was used to evaluate the intervention. Primary outcomes were measures of the four health behaviours targeted by the intervention at 6-month follow-up, i.e., portions of fruit and vegetables, metabolic equivalent of tasks (physical activity), units of alcohol, and smoking status.
Results
The study recruited 1,445 students (intervention n = 736, control n = 709, 58% female, Mean age = 18.9 years), of whom 1,107 completed at least one follow-up (23% attrition). The intervention had a statistically significant effect on one primary outcome, smoking status at 6-month follow-up, with fewer smokers in the intervention arm (8.7%) than in the control arm (13.0%; Odds ratio = 1.92, p = .010). There were no significant intervention effects on the other primary outcomes (physical activity, alcohol or fruit and vegetable consumption) at 6-month follow-up.
Conclusions
The results of the RCT indicate that the online health behaviour intervention reduced smoking rates, but it had little effect on fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity or alcohol consumption, during the first six months at university. However, engagement with the intervention was low. Further research is needed before strong conclusions can be made regarding the likely effectiveness of the intervention to promote health lifestyle habits in new university students.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN67684181.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-563
PMCID: PMC4067627  PMID: 24903620
Young adults; Internet; Self-affirmation; Theory of planned behaviour; Implementation intentions; Alcohol; Fruit and vegetables; Exercise; Smoking
24.  Effects of minimum unit pricing for alcohol on different income and socioeconomic groups: a modelling study 
Lancet  2014;383(9929):1655-1664.
Summary
Background
Several countries are considering a minimum price policy for alcohol, but concerns exist about the potential effects on drinkers with low incomes. We aimed to assess the effect of a £0·45 minimum unit price (1 unit is 8 g/10 mL ethanol) in England across the income and socioeconomic distributions.
Methods
We used the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model (SAPM) version 2.6, a causal, deterministic, epidemiological model, to assess effects of a minimum unit price policy. SAPM accounts for alcohol purchasing and consumption preferences for population subgroups including income and socioeconomic groups. Purchasing preferences are regarded as the types and volumes of alcohol beverages, prices paid, and the balance between on-trade (eg, bars) and off-trade (eg, shops). We estimated price elasticities from 9 years of survey data and did sensitivity analyses with alternative elasticities. We assessed effects of the policy on moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers, split into three socioeconomic groups (living in routine or manual households, intermediate households, and managerial or professional households). We examined policy effects on alcohol consumption, spending, rates of alcohol-related health harm, and opportunity costs associated with that harm. Rates of harm and costs were estimated for a 10 year period after policy implementation. We adjusted baseline rates of mortality and morbidity to account for differential risk between socioeconomic groups.
Findings
Overall, a minimum unit price of £0·45 led to an immediate reduction in consumption of 1·6% (−11·7 units per drinker per year) in our model. Moderate drinkers were least affected in terms of consumption (−3·8 units per drinker per year for the lowest income quintile vs 0·8 units increase for the highest income quintile) and spending (increase in spending of £0·04 vs £1·86 per year). The greatest behavioural changes occurred in harmful drinkers (change in consumption of −3·7% or −138·2 units per drinker per year, with a decrease in spending of £4·01), especially in the lowest income quintile (−7·6% or −299·8 units per drinker per year, with a decrease in spending of £34·63) compared with the highest income quintile (−1·0% or −34·3 units, with an increase in spending of £16·35). Estimated health benefits from the policy were also unequally distributed. Individuals in the lowest socioeconomic group (living in routine or manual worker households and comprising 41·7% of the sample population) would accrue 81·8% of reductions in premature deaths and 87·1% of gains in terms of quality-adjusted life-years.
Interpretation
Irrespective of income, moderate drinkers were little affected by a minimum unit price of £0·45 in our model, with the greatest effects noted for harmful drinkers. Because harmful drinkers on low incomes purchase more alcohol at less than the minimum unit price threshold compared with other groups, they would be affected most by this policy. Large reductions in consumption in this group would however coincide with substantial health gains in terms of morbidity and mortality related to reduced alcohol consumption.
Funding
UK Medical Research Council and Economic and Social Research Council (grant G1000043).
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62417-4
PMCID: PMC4018486  PMID: 24522180
25.  Estimation of own and cross price elasticities of alcohol demand in the UK—A pseudo-panel approach using the Living Costs and Food Survey 2001–2009☆ 
Journal of Health Economics  2014;34(100):96-103.
Highlights
•A pseudo-panel approach is used to estimate own- and cross-price elasticities of off- and on-trade alcoholic beverages.•Estimated own-price elasticities are all negative, with off-trade cider and beer being most elastic and off-trade spirits and on-trade ready-to-drinks least elastic.•Estimated cross-price elasticities are smaller in magnitude with a mix of positive and negative signs.•The results could be used for appraising the estimated impact of price-based interventions such as minimum unit pricing and taxation in the UK.
The estimation of price elasticities of alcohol demand is valuable for the appraisal of price-based policy interventions such as minimum unit pricing and taxation. This study applies a pseudo-panel approach to the cross-sectional Living Cost and Food Survey 2001/2–2009 to estimate the own- and cross-price elasticities of off- and on-trade beer, cider, wine, spirits and ready-to-drinks in the UK. A pseudo-panel with 72 subgroups defined by birth year, gender and socioeconomic status is constructed. Estimated own-price elasticities from the base case fixed effect models are all negative and mostly statically significant (p < 0.05). Off-trade cider and beer are most elastic (−1.27 and −0.98) and off-trade spirits and on-trade ready-to-drinks are least elastic (−0.08 and −0.19). Estimated cross-price elasticities are smaller in magnitude with a mix of positive and negative signs. The results appear plausible and robust and could be used for appraising the estimated impact of price-based interventions in the UK.
doi:10.1016/j.jhealeco.2013.12.006
PMCID: PMC3991422  PMID: 24508846
Alcohol demand; Elasticities; Cross price elasticities; Pseudo-panel

Results 1-25 (37)