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Important Notice

PubMed Central Canada to be taken offline in February 2018

On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition) 
Klionsky, Daniel J | Abdelmohsen, Kotb | Abe, Akihisa | Abedin, Md Joynal | Abeliovich, Hagai | Acevedo Arozena, Abraham | Adachi, Hiroaki | Adams, Christopher M | Adams, Peter D | Adeli, Khosrow | Adhihetty, Peter J | Adler, Sharon G | Agam, Galila | Agarwal, Rajesh | Aghi, Manish K | Agnello, Maria | Agostinis, Patrizia | Aguilar, Patricia V | Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio | Airoldi, Edoardo M | Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane | Akematsu, Takahiko | Akporiaye, Emmanuel T | Al-Rubeai, Mohamed | Albaiceta, Guillermo M | Albanese, Chris | Albani, Diego | Albert, Matthew L | Aldudo, Jesus | Algül, Hana | Alirezaei, Mehrdad | Alloza, Iraide | Almasan, Alexandru | Almonte-Beceril, Maylin | Alnemri, Emad S | Alonso, Covadonga | Altan-Bonnet, Nihal | Altieri, Dario C | Alvarez, Silvia | Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia | Alves, Sandro | Amadoro, Giuseppina | Amano, Atsuo | Amantini, Consuelo | Ambrosio, Santiago | Amelio, Ivano | Amer, Amal O | Amessou, Mohamed | Amon, Angelika | An, Zhenyi | Anania, Frank A | Andersen, Stig U | Andley, Usha P | Andreadi, Catherine K | Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie | Anel, Alberto | Ann, David K | Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra | Antonioli, Manuela | Aoki, Hiroshi | Apostolova, Nadezda | Aquila, Saveria | Aquilano, Katia | Araki, Koichi | Arama, Eli | Aranda, Agustin | Araya, Jun | Arcaro, Alexandre | Arias, Esperanza | Arimoto, Hirokazu | Ariosa, Aileen R | Armstrong, Jane L | Arnould, Thierry | Arsov, Ivica | Asanuma, Katsuhiko | Askanas, Valerie | Asselin, Eric | Atarashi, Ryuichiro | Atherton, Sally S | Atkin, Julie D | Attardi, Laura D | Auberger, Patrick | Auburger, Georg | Aurelian, Laure | Autelli, Riccardo | Avagliano, Laura | Avantaggiati, Maria Laura | Avrahami, Limor | Awale, Suresh | Azad, Neelam | Bachetti, Tiziana | Backer, Jonathan M | Bae, Dong-Hun | Bae, Jae-sung | Bae, Ok-Nam | Bae, Soo Han | Baehrecke, Eric H | Baek, Seung-Hoon | Baghdiguian, Stephen | Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka | Bai, Hua | Bai, Jie | Bai, Xue-Yuan | Bailly, Yannick | Balaji, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy | Balduini, Walter | Ballabio, Andrea | Balzan, Rena | Banerjee, Rajkumar | Bánhegyi, Gábor | Bao, Haijun | Barbeau, Benoit | Barrachina, Maria D | Barreiro, Esther | Bartel, Bonnie | Bartolomé, Alberto | Bassham, Diane C | Bassi, Maria Teresa | Bast, Robert C | Basu, Alakananda | Batista, Maria Teresa | Batoko, Henri | Battino, Maurizio | Bauckman, Kyle | Baumgarner, Bradley L | Bayer, K Ulrich | Beale, Rupert | Beaulieu, Jean-François | Beck, George R. | Becker, Christoph | Beckham, J David | Bédard, Pierre-André | Bednarski, Patrick J | Begley, Thomas J | Behl, Christian | Behrends, Christian | Behrens, Georg MN | Behrns, Kevin E | Bejarano, Eloy | Belaid, Amine | Belleudi, Francesca | Bénard, Giovanni | Berchem, Guy | Bergamaschi, Daniele | Bergami, Matteo | Berkhout, Ben | Berliocchi, Laura | Bernard, Amélie | Bernard, Monique | Bernassola, Francesca | Bertolotti, Anne | Bess, Amanda S | Besteiro, Sébastien | Bettuzzi, Saverio | Bhalla, Savita | Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli | Bhutia, Sujit K | Biagosch, Caroline | Bianchi, Michele Wolfe | Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine | Billes, Viktor | Bincoletto, Claudia | Bingol, Baris | Bird, Sara W | Bitoun, Marc | Bjedov, Ivana | Blackstone, Craig | Blanc, Lionel | Blanco, Guillermo A | Blomhoff, Heidi Kiil | Boada-Romero, Emilio | Böckler, Stefan | Boes, Marianne | Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen | Boise, Lawrence H | Bolino, Alessandra | Boman, Andrea | Bonaldo, Paolo | Bordi, Matteo | Bosch, Jürgen | Botana, Luis M | Botti, Joelle | Bou, German | Bouché, Marina | Bouchecareilh, Marion | Boucher, Marie-Josée | Boulton, Michael E | Bouret, Sebastien G | Boya, Patricia | Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël | Bozhkov, Peter V | Brady, Nathan | Braga, Vania MM | Brancolini, Claudio | Braus, Gerhard H | Bravo-San Pedro, José M | Brennan, Lisa A | Bresnick, Emery H | Brest, Patrick | Bridges, Dave | Bringer, Marie-Agnès | Brini, Marisa | Brito, Glauber C | Brodin, Bertha | Brookes, Paul S | Brown, Eric J | Brown, Karen | Broxmeyer, Hal E | Bruhat, Alain | Brum, Patricia Chakur | Brumell, John H | Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola | Bryson-Richardson, Robert J | Buch, Shilpa | Buchan, Alastair M | Budak, Hikmet | Bulavin, Dmitry V | Bultman, Scott J | Bultynck, Geert | Bumbasirevic, Vladimir | Burelle, Yan | Burke, Robert E | Burmeister, Margit | Bütikofer, Peter | Caberlotto, Laura | Cadwell, Ken | Cahova, Monika | Cai, Dongsheng | Cai, Jingjing | Cai, Qian | Calatayud, Sara | Camougrand, Nadine | Campanella, Michelangelo | Campbell, Grant R | Campbell, Matthew | Campello, Silvia | Candau, Robin | Caniggia, Isabella | Cantoni, Lavinia | Cao, Lizhi | Caplan, Allan B | Caraglia, Michele | Cardinali, Claudio | Cardoso, Sandra Morais | Carew, Jennifer S | Carleton, Laura A | Carlin, Cathleen R | Carloni, Silvia | Carlsson, Sven R | Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac | Carneiro, Leticia AM | Carnevali, Oliana | Carra, Serena | Carrier, Alice | Carroll, Bernadette | Casas, Caty | Casas, Josefina | Cassinelli, Giuliana | Castets, Perrine | Castro-Obregon, Susana | Cavallini, Gabriella | Ceccherini, Isabella | Cecconi, Francesco | Cederbaum, Arthur I | Ceña, Valentín | Cenci, Simone | Cerella, Claudia | Cervia, Davide | Cetrullo, Silvia | Chaachouay, Hassan | Chae, Han-Jung | Chagin, Andrei S | Chai, Chee-Yin | Chakrabarti, Gopal | Chamilos, Georgios | Chan, Edmond YW | Chan, Matthew TV | Chandra, Dhyan | Chandra, Pallavi | Chang, Chih-Peng | Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung | Chang, Ta Yuan | Chatham, John C | Chatterjee, Saurabh | Chauhan, Santosh | Che, Yongsheng | Cheetham, Michael E | Cheluvappa, Rajkumar | Chen, Chun-Jung | Chen, Gang | Chen, Guang-Chao | Chen, Guoqiang | Chen, Hongzhuan | Chen, Jeff W | Chen, Jian-Kang | Chen, Min | Chen, Mingzhou | Chen, Peiwen | Chen, Qi | Chen, Quan | Chen, Shang-Der | Chen, Si | Chen, Steve S-L | Chen, Wei | Chen, Wei-Jung | Chen, Wen Qiang | Chen, Wenli | Chen, Xiangmei | Chen, Yau-Hung | Chen, Ye-Guang | Chen, Yin | Chen, Yingyu | Chen, Yongshun | Chen, Yu-Jen | Chen, Yue-Qin | Chen, Yujie | Chen, Zhen | Chen, Zhong | Cheng, Alan | Cheng, Christopher HK | Cheng, Hua | Cheong, Heesun | Cherry, Sara | Chesney, Jason | Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio | Chevet, Eric | Chi, Hsiang Cheng | Chi, Sung-Gil | Chiacchiera, Fulvio | Chiang, Hui-Ling | Chiarelli, Roberto | Chiariello, Mario | Chieppa, Marcello | Chin, Lih-Shen | Chiong, Mario | Chiu, Gigi NC | Cho, Dong-Hyung | Cho, Ssang-Goo | Cho, William C | Cho, Yong-Yeon | Cho, Young-Seok | Choi, Augustine MK | Choi, Eui-Ju | Choi, Eun-Kyoung | Choi, Jayoung | Choi, Mary E | Choi, Seung-Il | Chou, Tsui-Fen | Chouaib, Salem | Choubey, Divaker | Choubey, Vinay | Chow, Kuan-Chih | Chowdhury, Kamal | Chu, Charleen T | Chuang, Tsung-Hsien | Chun, Taehoon | Chung, Hyewon | Chung, Taijoon | Chung, Yuen-Li | Chwae, Yong-Joon | Cianfanelli, Valentina | Ciarcia, Roberto | Ciechomska, Iwona A | Ciriolo, Maria Rosa | Cirone, Mara | Claerhout, Sofie | Clague, Michael J | Clària, Joan | Clarke, Peter GH | Clarke, Robert | Clementi, Emilio | Cleyrat, Cédric | Cnop, Miriam | Coccia, Eliana M | Cocco, Tiziana | Codogno, Patrice | Coers, Jörn | Cohen, Ezra EW | Colecchia, David | Coletto, Luisa | Coll, Núria S | Colucci-Guyon, Emma | Comincini, Sergio | Condello, Maria | Cook, Katherine L | Coombs, Graham H | Cooper, Cynthia D | Cooper, J Mark | Coppens, Isabelle | Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana | Corazzari, Marco | Corbalan, Ramon | Corcelle-Termeau, Elisabeth | Cordero, Mario D | Corral-Ramos, Cristina | Corti, Olga | Cossarizza, Andrea | Costelli, Paola | Costes, Safia | Cotman, Susan L | Coto-Montes, Ana | Cottet, Sandra | Couve, Eduardo | Covey, Lori R | Cowart, L Ashley | Cox, Jeffery S | Coxon, Fraser P | Coyne, Carolyn B | Cragg, Mark S | Craven, Rolf J | Crepaldi, Tiziana | Crespo, Jose L | Criollo, Alfredo | Crippa, Valeria | Cruz, Maria Teresa | Cuervo, Ana Maria | Cuezva, Jose M | Cui, Taixing | Cutillas, Pedro R | Czaja, Mark J | Czyzyk-Krzeska, Maria F | Dagda, Ruben K | Dahmen, Uta | Dai, Chunsun | Dai, Wenjie | Dai, Yun | Dalby, Kevin N | Dalla Valle, Luisa | Dalmasso, Guillaume | D'Amelio, Marcello | Damme, Markus | Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette | Dargemont, Catherine | Darley-Usmar, Victor M | Dasarathy, Srinivasan | Dasgupta, Biplab | Dash, Srikanta | Dass, Crispin R | Davey, Hazel Marie | Davids, Lester M | Dávila, David | Davis, Roger J | Dawson, Ted M | Dawson, Valina L | Daza, Paula | de Belleroche, Jackie | de Figueiredo, Paul | de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz | de la Fuente, José | De Martino, Luisa | De Matteis, Antonella | De Meyer, Guido RY | De Milito, Angelo | De Santi, Mauro | de Souza, Wanderley | De Tata, Vincenzo | De Zio, Daniela | Debnath, Jayanta | Dechant, Reinhard | Decuypere, Jean-Paul | Deegan, Shane | Dehay, Benjamin | Del Bello, Barbara | Del Re, Dominic P | Delage-Mourroux, Régis | Delbridge, Lea MD | Deldicque, Louise | Delorme-Axford, Elizabeth | Deng, Yizhen | Dengjel, Joern | Denizot, Melanie | Dent, Paul | Der, Channing J | Deretic, Vojo | Derrien, Benoît | Deutsch, Eric | Devarenne, Timothy P | Devenish, Rodney J | Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina | Di Daniele, Nicola | Di Domenico, Fabio | Di Nardo, Alessia | Di Paola, Simone | Di Pietro, Antonio | Di Renzo, Livia | DiAntonio, Aaron | Díaz-Araya, Guillermo | Díaz-Laviada, Ines | Diaz-Meco, Maria T | Diaz-Nido, Javier | Dickey, Chad A | Dickson, Robert C | Diederich, Marc | Digard, Paul | Dikic, Ivan | Dinesh-Kumar, Savithrama P | Ding, Chan | Ding, Wen-Xing | Ding, Zufeng | Dini, Luciana | Distler, Jörg HW | Diwan, Abhinav | Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan | Dmytruk, Kostyantyn | Dobson, Renwick CJ | Doetsch, Volker | Dokladny, Karol | Dokudovskaya, Svetlana | Donadelli, Massimo | Dong, X Charlie | Dong, Xiaonan | Dong, Zheng | Donohue, Terrence M | Doran, Kelly S | D'Orazi, Gabriella | Dorn, Gerald W | Dosenko, Victor | Dridi, Sami | Drucker, Liat | Du, Jie | Du, Li-Lin | Du, Lihuan | du Toit, André | Dua, Priyamvada | Duan, Lei | Duann, Pu | Dubey, Vikash Kumar | Duchen, Michael R | Duchosal, Michel A | Duez, Helene | Dugail, Isabelle | Dumit, Verónica I | Duncan, Mara C | Dunlop, Elaine A | Dunn, William A | Dupont, Nicolas | Dupuis, Luc | Durán, Raúl V | Durcan, Thomas M | Duvezin-Caubet, Stéphane | Duvvuri, Umamaheswar | Eapen, Vinay | Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius | Echard, Arnaud | Eckhart, Leopold | Edelstein, Charles L | Edinger, Aimee L | Eichinger, Ludwig | Eisenberg, Tobias | Eisenberg-Lerner, Avital | Eissa, N Tony | El-Deiry, Wafik S | El-Khoury, Victoria | Elazar, Zvulun | Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit | Elliott, Chris JH | Emanuele, Enzo | Emmenegger, Urban | Engedal, Nikolai | Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart | Engelender, Simone | Enserink, Jorrit M | Erdmann, Ralf | Erenpreisa, Jekaterina | Eri, Rajaraman | Eriksen, Jason L | Erman, Andreja | Escalante, Ricardo | Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa | Espert, Lucile | Esteban-Martínez, Lorena | Evans, Thomas J | Fabri, Mario | Fabrias, Gemma | Fabrizi, Cinzia | Facchiano, Antonio | Færgeman, Nils J | Faggioni, Alberto | Fairlie, W Douglas | Fan, Chunhai | Fan, Daping | Fan, Jie | Fang, Shengyun | Fanto, Manolis | Fanzani, Alessandro | Farkas, Thomas | Faure, Mathias | Favier, Francois B | Fearnhead, Howard | Federici, Massimo | Fei, Erkang | Felizardo, Tania C | Feng, Hua | Feng, Yibin | Feng, Yuchen | Ferguson, Thomas A | Fernández, Álvaro F | Fernandez-Barrena, Maite G | Fernandez-Checa, Jose C | Fernández-López, Arsenio | Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E | Feron, Olivier | Ferraro, Elisabetta | Ferreira-Halder, Carmen Veríssima | Fesus, Laszlo | Feuer, Ralph | Fiesel, Fabienne C | Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo C | Filomeni, Giuseppe | Fimia, Gian Maria | Fingert, John H | Finkbeiner, Steven | Finkel, Toren | Fiorito, Filomena | Fisher, Paul B | Flajolet, Marc | Flamigni, Flavio | Florey, Oliver | Florio, Salvatore | Floto, R Andres | Folini, Marco | Follo, Carlo | Fon, Edward A | Fornai, Francesco | Fortunato, Franco | Fraldi, Alessandro | Franco, Rodrigo | Francois, Arnaud | François, Aurélie | Frankel, Lisa B | Fraser, Iain DC | Frey, Norbert | Freyssenet, Damien G | Frezza, Christian | Friedman, Scott L | Frigo, Daniel E | Fu, Dongxu | Fuentes, José M | Fueyo, Juan | Fujitani, Yoshio | Fujiwara, Yuuki | Fujiya, Mikihiro | Fukuda, Mitsunori | Fulda, Simone | Fusco, Carmela | Gabryel, Bozena | Gaestel, Matthias | Gailly, Philippe | Gajewska, Malgorzata | Galadari, Sehamuddin | Galili, Gad | Galindo, Inmaculada | Galindo, Maria F | Galliciotti, Giovanna | Galluzzi, Lorenzo | Galluzzi, Luca | Galy, Vincent | Gammoh, Noor | Gandy, Sam | Ganesan, Anand K | Ganesan, Swamynathan | Ganley, Ian G | Gannagé, Monique | Gao, Fen-Biao | Gao, Feng | Gao, Jian-Xin | García Nannig, Lorena | García Véscovi, Eleonora | Garcia-Macía, Marina | Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen | Garg, Abhishek D | Garg, Pramod Kumar | Gargini, Ricardo | Gassen, Nils Christian | Gatica, Damián | Gatti, Evelina | Gavard, Julie | Gavathiotis, Evripidis | Ge, Liang | Ge, Pengfei | Ge, Shengfang | Gean, Po-Wu | Gelmetti, Vania | Genazzani, Armando A | Geng, Jiefei | Genschik, Pascal | Gerner, Lisa | Gestwicki, Jason E | Gewirtz, David A | Ghavami, Saeid | Ghigo, Eric | Ghosh, Debabrata | Giammarioli, Anna Maria | Giampieri, Francesca | Giampietri, Claudia | Giatromanolaki, Alexandra | Gibbings, Derrick J | Gibellini, Lara | Gibson, Spencer B | Ginet, Vanessa | Giordano, Antonio | Giorgini, Flaviano | Giovannetti, Elisa | Girardin, Stephen E | Gispert, Suzana | Giuliano, Sandy | Gladson, Candece L | Glavic, Alvaro | Gleave, Martin | Godefroy, Nelly | Gogal, Robert M | Gokulan, Kuppan | Goldman, Gustavo H | Goletti, Delia | Goligorsky, Michael S | Gomes, Aldrin V | Gomes, Ligia C | Gomez, Hernando | Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria | Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén | Gonçalves, Dawit AP | Goncu, Ebru | Gong, Qingqiu | Gongora, Céline | Gonzalez, Carlos B | Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro | Gonzalez-Cabo, Pilar | González-Polo, Rosa Ana | Goping, Ing Swie | Gorbea, Carlos | Gorbunov, Nikolai V | Goring, Daphne R | Gorman, Adrienne M | Gorski, Sharon M | Goruppi, Sandro | Goto-Yamada, Shino | Gotor, Cecilia | Gottlieb, Roberta A | Gozes, Illana | Gozuacik, Devrim | Graba, Yacine | Graef, Martin | Granato, Giovanna E | Grant, Gary Dean | Grant, Steven | Gravina, Giovanni Luca | Green, Douglas R | Greenhough, Alexander | Greenwood, Michael T | Grimaldi, Benedetto | Gros, Frédéric | Grose, Charles | Groulx, Jean-Francois | Gruber, Florian | Grumati, Paolo | Grune, Tilman | Guan, Jun-Lin | Guan, Kun-Liang | Guerra, Barbara | Guillen, Carlos | Gulshan, Kailash | Gunst, Jan | Guo, Chuanyong | Guo, Lei | Guo, Ming | Guo, Wenjie | Guo, Xu-Guang | Gust, Andrea A | Gustafsson, Åsa B | Gutierrez, Elaine | Gutierrez, Maximiliano G | Gwak, Ho-Shin | Haas, Albert | Haber, James E | Hadano, Shinji | Hagedorn, Monica | Hahn, David R | Halayko, Andrew J | Hamacher-Brady, Anne | Hamada, Kozo | Hamai, Ahmed | Hamann, Andrea | Hamasaki, Maho | Hamer, Isabelle | Hamid, Qutayba | Hammond, Ester M | Han, Feng | Han, Weidong | Handa, James T | Hanover, John A | Hansen, Malene | Harada, Masaru | Harhaji-Trajkovic, Ljubica | Harper, J Wade | Harrath, Abdel Halim | Harris, Adrian L | Harris, James | Hasler, Udo | Hasselblatt, Peter | Hasui, Kazuhisa | Hawley, Robert G | Hawley, Teresa S | He, Congcong | He, Cynthia Y | He, Fengtian | He, Gu | He, Rong-Rong | He, Xian-Hui | He, You-Wen | He, Yu-Ying | Heath, Joan K | Hébert, Marie-Josée | Heinzen, Robert A | Helgason, Gudmundur Vignir | Hensel, Michael | Henske, Elizabeth P | Her, Chengtao | Herman, Paul K | Hernández, Agustín | Hernandez, Carlos | Hernández-Tiedra, Sonia | Hetz, Claudio | Hiesinger, P Robin | Higaki, Katsumi | Hilfiker, Sabine | Hill, Bradford G | Hill, Joseph A | Hill, William D | Hino, Keisuke | Hofius, Daniel | Hofman, Paul | Höglinger, Günter U | Höhfeld, Jörg | Holz, Marina K | Hong, Yonggeun | Hood, David A | Hoozemans, Jeroen JM | Hoppe, Thorsten | Hsu, Chin | Hsu, Chin-Yuan | Hsu, Li-Chung | Hu, Dong | Hu, Guochang | Hu, Hong-Ming | Hu, Hongbo | Hu, Ming Chang | Hu, Yu-Chen | Hu, Zhuo-Wei | Hua, Fang | Hua, Ya | Huang, Canhua | Huang, Huey-Lan | Huang, Kuo-How | Huang, Kuo-Yang | Huang, Shile | Huang, Shiqian | Huang, Wei-Pang | Huang, Yi-Ran | Huang, Yong | Huang, Yunfei | Huber, Tobias B | Huebbe, Patricia | Huh, Won-Ki | Hulmi, Juha J | Hur, Gang Min | Hurley, James H | Husak, Zvenyslava | Hussain, Sabah NA | Hussain, Salik | Hwang, Jung Jin | Hwang, Seungmin | Hwang, Thomas IS | Ichihara, Atsuhiro | Imai, Yuzuru | Imbriano, Carol | Inomata, Megumi | Into, Takeshi | Iovane, Valentina | Iovanna, Juan L | Iozzo, Renato V | Ip, Nancy Y | Irazoqui, Javier E | Iribarren, Pablo | Isaka, Yoshitaka | Isakovic, Aleksandra J | Ischiropoulos, Harry | Isenberg, Jeffrey S | Ishaq, Mohammad | Ishida, Hiroyuki | Ishii, Isao | Ishmael, Jane E | Isidoro, Ciro | Isobe, Ken-ichi | Isono, Erika | Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh | Itahana, Koji | Itakura, Eisuke | Ivanov, Andrei I | Iyer, Anand Krishnan V | Izquierdo, José M | Izumi, Yotaro | Izzo, Valentina | Jäättelä, Marja | Jaber, Nadia | Jackson, Daniel John | Jackson, William T | Jacob, Tony George | Jacques, Thomas S | Jagannath, Chinnaswamy | Jain, Ashish | Jana, Nihar Ranjan | Jang, Byoung Kuk | Jani, Alkesh | Janji, Bassam | Jannig, Paulo Roberto | Jansson, Patric J | Jean, Steve | Jendrach, Marina | Jeon, Ju-Hong | Jessen, Niels | Jeung, Eui-Bae | Jia, Kailiang | Jia, Lijun | Jiang, Hong | Jiang, Hongchi | Jiang, Liwen | Jiang, Teng | Jiang, Xiaoyan | Jiang, Xuejun | Jiang, Xuejun | Jiang, Ying | Jiang, Yongjun | Jiménez, Alberto | Jin, Cheng | Jin, Hongchuan | Jin, Lei | Jin, Meiyan | Jin, Shengkan | Jinwal, Umesh Kumar | Jo, Eun-Kyeong | Johansen, Terje | Johnson, Daniel E | Johnson, Gail VW | Johnson, James D | Jonasch, Eric | Jones, Chris | Joosten, Leo AB | Jordan, Joaquin | Joseph, Anna-Maria | Joseph, Bertrand | Joubert, Annie M | Ju, Dianwen | Ju, Jingfang | Juan, Hsueh-Fen | Juenemann, Katrin | Juhász, Gábor | Jung, Hye Seung | Jung, Jae U | Jung, Yong-Keun | Jungbluth, Heinz | Justice, Matthew J | Jutten, Barry | Kaakoush, Nadeem O | Kaarniranta, Kai | Kaasik, Allen | Kabuta, Tomohiro | Kaeffer, Bertrand | Kågedal, Katarina | Kahana, Alon | Kajimura, Shingo | Kakhlon, Or | Kalia, Manjula | Kalvakolanu, Dhan V | Kamada, Yoshiaki | Kambas, Konstantinos | Kaminskyy, Vitaliy O | Kampinga, Harm H | Kandouz, Mustapha | Kang, Chanhee | Kang, Rui | Kang, Tae-Cheon | Kanki, Tomotake | Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi | Kanno, Haruo | Kanthasamy, Anumantha G | Kantorow, Marc | Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria | Kapuy, Orsolya | Karantza, Vassiliki | Karim, Md Razaul | Karmakar, Parimal | Kaser, Arthur | Kaushik, Susmita | Kawula, Thomas | Kaynar, A Murat | Ke, Po-Yuan | Ke, Zun-Ji | Kehrl, John H | Keller, Kate E | Kemper, Jongsook Kim
Autophagy  2016;12(1):1-222.
doi:10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
PMCID: PMC4835977  PMID: 26799652
autolysosome; autophagosome; chaperone-mediated autophagy; flux; LC3; lysosome; macroautophagy; phagophore; stress; vacuole
2.  Effective Design of Multifunctional Peptides by Combining Compatible Functions 
PLoS Computational Biology  2016;12(4):e1004786.
Multifunctionality is a common trait of many natural proteins and peptides, yet the rules to generate such multifunctionality remain unclear. We propose that the rules defining some protein/peptide functions are compatible. To explore this hypothesis, we trained a computational method to predict cell-penetrating peptides at the sequence level and learned that antimicrobial peptides and DNA-binding proteins are compatible with the rules of our predictor. Based on this finding, we expected that designing peptides for CPP activity may render AMP and DNA-binding activities. To test this prediction, we designed peptides that embedded two independent functional domains (nuclear localization and yeast pheromone activity), linked by optimizing their composition to fit the rules characterizing cell-penetrating peptides. These peptides presented effective cell penetration, DNA-binding, pheromone and antimicrobial activities, thus confirming the effectiveness of our computational approach to design multifunctional peptides with potential therapeutic uses. Our computational implementation is available at http://bis.ifc.unam.mx/en/software/dcf.
Author Summary
Most proteins and peptides in nature display multiple activities either by fusing different domains (with different activities) or by evolving multiple activities in a single domain. Understanding which activities may be combined to render multifunctional proteins remains an open question relevant to understanding the organization of living organisms and to improve the design of pharmacological peptides. To address this problem, we introduce the concept of compatible activities, that is, activities that may combine without losing any of these in a single polypeptide chain. To identify compatible activities in peptide sequences, we used a machine-learning approach and discovered that a penetrating activity should be compatible with DNA-binding and antimicrobial activities. To test if these activities may combine without any functional loss, we designed peptide sequences that harbor two independent activities (nuclear localization and pheromone) and experimentally showed that all our designed peptides display penetrability, pheromone, antimicrobial and DNA-binding activities, supporting the idea that multifunctionality may be achieved combining compatible activities.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004786
PMCID: PMC4838304  PMID: 27096600
4.  Moonlighting Peptides with Emerging Function 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e40125.
Hunter-killer peptides combine two activities in a single polypeptide that work in an independent fashion like many other multi-functional, multi-domain proteins. We hypothesize that emergent functions may result from the combination of two or more activities in a single protein domain and that could be a mechanism selected in nature to form moonlighting proteins. We designed moonlighting peptides using the two mechanisms proposed to be involved in the evolution of such molecules (i.e., to mutate non-functional residues and the use of natively unfolded peptides). We observed that our moonlighting peptides exhibited two activities that together rendered a new function that induces cell death in yeast. Thus, we propose that moonlighting in proteins promotes emergent properties providing a further level of complexity in living organisms so far unappreciated.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040125
PMCID: PMC3396687  PMID: 22808104
5.  Interfering with multimerization of netrin-1 receptors triggers tumor cell death 
Cell Death and Differentiation  2009;16(10):1344-1351.
Netrin-1 was recently proposed to control tumorigenesis by inhibiting apoptosis induced by the dependence receptors DCC (Deleted in colorectal cancer) and UNC5H. While a loss of these dependence receptors’ expression has been described as a selective advantage for tumor growth and progression in numerous cancers, recent observations have shown that some tumors may utilize an alternative strategy to block dependence receptor-induced programmed cell death: the autocrine expression of netrin-1. This alternative strategy has been observed in a large fraction of aggressive breast cancers, neuroblastoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and lung cancer. This observation is of potential interest regarding future targeted therapy, since in such cases interfering with the ability of netrin-1 to inhibit DCC or UNC5H-induced cell death is associated with apoptosis of netrin-1-expressing tumor cells in vitro, and with inhibition of tumor growth or metastasis in different mouse tumor models. The understanding of the mechanism by which netrin-1 inhibits cell death is therefore of interest. Here, we show that netrin-1 triggers the multimerization of both DCC and UNC5H2 receptors, and that multimerization of the intracellular domain of DCC and UNC5H2 is the critical step to inhibit the pro-apoptotic effects of both of these receptors. Taking advantage of this property, we utilized a recombinant specific domain of DCC that (i) interacts with netrin-1 and (ii) inhibits netrin-1- induced multimerization, to trigger apoptosis in netrin-dependent tumor cells.
doi:10.1038/cdd.2009.75
PMCID: PMC2841642  PMID: 19543238
Animals; Apoptosis; Cell Line; Chickens; Disease Models, Animal; Humans; Neoplasms; metabolism; Nerve Growth Factors; pharmacology; Protein Multimerization; drug effects; Receptors, Cell Surface; metabolism; Recombinant Proteins; pharmacology; Tumor Suppressor Proteins; metabolism; pharmacology

Results 1-5 (5)