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PubMed Central Canada to be taken offline in February 2018

On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  Label-free optical vibrational spectroscopy to detect the metabolic state of M. tuberculosis cells at the site of disease 
Scientific Reports  2017;7:9844.
Tuberculosis relapse is a barrier to shorter treatment. It is thought that lipid rich cells, phenotypically resistant to antibiotics, may play a major role. Most studies investigating relapse use sputum samples although tissue bacteria may play an important role. We developed a non-destructive, label-free technique combining wavelength modulated Raman (WMR) spectroscopy and fluorescence detection (Nile Red staining) to interrogate Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell state. This approach could differentiate single “dormant” (lipid rich, LR) and “non-dormant” (lipid poor, LP) cells with high sensitivity and specificity. We applied this to experimentally infected guinea pig lung sections and were able to distinguish both cell types showing that the LR phenotype dominates in infected tissue. Both in-vitro and ex-vivo spectra correlated well, showing for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis, likely to be phenotypically resistant to antibiotics, are present in large numbers in tissue. This is an important step in understanding the pathology of relapse supporting the idea that they may be caused by M. tuberculosis cells with lipid inclusions.
doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10234-z
PMCID: PMC5575044  PMID: 28852109
2.  Inclusion Body Fusion of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Regulated by Acetylated α-Tubulin Enhances Viral Replication 
Journal of Virology  2017;91(3):e01802-16.
ABSTRACT
Viral inclusion bodies (IBs), or replication factories, are unique structures generated by viral proteins together with some cellular proteins as a platform for efficient viral replication, but little is known about the mechanism underlying IB formation and fusion. Our previous study demonstrated that the interaction between the nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P) of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3), an enveloped virus with great medical impact, can form IBs. In this study, we found that small IBs can fuse with each other to form large IBs that enhance viral replication. Furthermore, we found that acetylated α-tubulin interacts with the N-P complex and colocalizes with IBs of HPIV3 but does not interact with the N-P complex of human respiratory syncytial virus or vesicular stomatitis virus and does not colocalize with IBs of human respiratory syncytial virus. Most importantly, enhancement of α-tubulin acetylation using the pharmacological inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of the deacetylase enzymes histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), or expression of α-tubulin acetyltransferase 1 (α-TAT1) resulted in the fusion of small IBs into large IBs and effective viral replication. In contrast, suppression of acetylation of α-tubulin by overexpressing HDAC6 and SIRT2 profoundly inhibited the fusion of small IBs and viral replication. Our findings offer previously unidentified mechanistic insights into the regulation of viral IB fusion by acetylated α-tubulin, which is critical for viral replication.
IMPORTANCE Inclusion bodies (IBs) are unique structures generated by viral proteins and some cellular proteins as a platform for efficient viral replication. Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is a nonsegmented single-stranded RNA virus that mainly causes lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children. However, no vaccines or antiviral drugs for HPIV3 are available. Therefore, understanding virus-host interactions and developing new antiviral strategies are increasingly important. Acetylation on lysine (K) 40 of α-tubulin is an evolutionarily conserved modification and plays an important role in many cellular processes, but its role in viral IB dynamics has not been fully explored. To our knowledge, our findings are the first to show that acetylated α-tubulin enhances viral replication by regulating HPIV3 IB fusion.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01802-16
PMCID: PMC5244348  PMID: 27881643
inclusion bodies; human parainfluenza virus type 3; acetylated α-tubulin
3.  Multimodal discrimination of immune cells using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and digital holographic microscopy 
Scientific Reports  2017;7:43631.
The ability to identify and characterise individual cells of the immune system under label-free conditions would be a significant advantage in biomedical and clinical studies where untouched and unmodified cells are required. We present a multi-modal system capable of simultaneously acquiring both single point Raman spectra and digital holographic images of single cells. We use this combined approach to identify and discriminate between immune cell populations CD4+ T cells, B cells and monocytes. We investigate several approaches to interpret the phase images including signal intensity histograms and texture analysis. Both modalities are independently able to discriminate between cell subsets and dual-modality may therefore be used a means for validation. We demonstrate here sensitivities achieved in the range of 86.8% to 100%, and specificities in the range of 85.4% to 100%. Additionally each modality provides information not available from the other providing both a molecular and a morphological signature of each cell.
doi:10.1038/srep43631
PMCID: PMC5335250  PMID: 28256551
4.  Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition) 
Klionsky, Daniel J | Abdelmohsen, Kotb | Abe, Akihisa | Abedin, Md Joynal | Abeliovich, Hagai | Acevedo Arozena, Abraham | Adachi, Hiroaki | Adams, Christopher M | Adams, Peter D | Adeli, Khosrow | Adhihetty, Peter J | Adler, Sharon G | Agam, Galila | Agarwal, Rajesh | Aghi, Manish K | Agnello, Maria | Agostinis, Patrizia | Aguilar, Patricia V | Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio | Airoldi, Edoardo M | Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane | Akematsu, Takahiko | Akporiaye, Emmanuel T | Al-Rubeai, Mohamed | Albaiceta, Guillermo M | Albanese, Chris | Albani, Diego | Albert, Matthew L | Aldudo, Jesus | Algül, Hana | Alirezaei, Mehrdad | Alloza, Iraide | Almasan, Alexandru | Almonte-Beceril, Maylin | Alnemri, Emad S | Alonso, Covadonga | Altan-Bonnet, Nihal | Altieri, Dario C | Alvarez, Silvia | Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia | Alves, Sandro | Amadoro, Giuseppina | Amano, Atsuo | Amantini, Consuelo | Ambrosio, Santiago | Amelio, Ivano | Amer, Amal O | Amessou, Mohamed | Amon, Angelika | An, Zhenyi | Anania, Frank A | Andersen, Stig U | Andley, Usha P | Andreadi, Catherine K | Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie | Anel, Alberto | Ann, David K | Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra | Antonioli, Manuela | Aoki, Hiroshi | Apostolova, Nadezda | Aquila, Saveria | Aquilano, Katia | Araki, Koichi | Arama, Eli | Aranda, Agustin | Araya, Jun | Arcaro, Alexandre | Arias, Esperanza | Arimoto, Hirokazu | Ariosa, Aileen R | Armstrong, Jane L | Arnould, Thierry | Arsov, Ivica | Asanuma, Katsuhiko | Askanas, Valerie | Asselin, Eric | Atarashi, Ryuichiro | Atherton, Sally S | Atkin, Julie D | Attardi, Laura D | Auberger, Patrick | Auburger, Georg | Aurelian, Laure | Autelli, Riccardo | Avagliano, Laura | Avantaggiati, Maria Laura | Avrahami, Limor | Awale, Suresh | Azad, Neelam | Bachetti, Tiziana | Backer, Jonathan M | Bae, Dong-Hun | Bae, Jae-sung | Bae, Ok-Nam | Bae, Soo Han | Baehrecke, Eric H | Baek, Seung-Hoon | Baghdiguian, Stephen | Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka | Bai, Hua | Bai, Jie | Bai, Xue-Yuan | Bailly, Yannick | Balaji, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy | Balduini, Walter | Ballabio, Andrea | Balzan, Rena | Banerjee, Rajkumar | Bánhegyi, Gábor | Bao, Haijun | Barbeau, Benoit | Barrachina, Maria D | Barreiro, Esther | Bartel, Bonnie | Bartolomé, Alberto | Bassham, Diane C | Bassi, Maria Teresa | Bast, Robert C | Basu, Alakananda | Batista, Maria Teresa | Batoko, Henri | Battino, Maurizio | Bauckman, Kyle | Baumgarner, Bradley L | Bayer, K Ulrich | Beale, Rupert | Beaulieu, Jean-François | Beck, George R. | Becker, Christoph | Beckham, J David | Bédard, Pierre-André | Bednarski, Patrick J | Begley, Thomas J | Behl, Christian | Behrends, Christian | Behrens, Georg MN | Behrns, Kevin E | Bejarano, Eloy | Belaid, Amine | Belleudi, Francesca | Bénard, Giovanni | Berchem, Guy | Bergamaschi, Daniele | Bergami, Matteo | Berkhout, Ben | Berliocchi, Laura | Bernard, Amélie | Bernard, Monique | Bernassola, Francesca | Bertolotti, Anne | Bess, Amanda S | Besteiro, Sébastien | Bettuzzi, Saverio | Bhalla, Savita | Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli | Bhutia, Sujit K | Biagosch, Caroline | Bianchi, Michele Wolfe | Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine | Billes, Viktor | Bincoletto, Claudia | Bingol, Baris | Bird, Sara W | Bitoun, Marc | Bjedov, Ivana | Blackstone, Craig | Blanc, Lionel | Blanco, Guillermo A | Blomhoff, Heidi Kiil | Boada-Romero, Emilio | Böckler, Stefan | Boes, Marianne | Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen | Boise, Lawrence H | Bolino, Alessandra | Boman, Andrea | Bonaldo, Paolo | Bordi, Matteo | Bosch, Jürgen | Botana, Luis M | Botti, Joelle | Bou, German | Bouché, Marina | Bouchecareilh, Marion | Boucher, Marie-Josée | Boulton, Michael E | Bouret, Sebastien G | Boya, Patricia | Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël | Bozhkov, Peter V | Brady, Nathan | Braga, Vania MM | Brancolini, Claudio | Braus, Gerhard H | Bravo-San Pedro, José M | Brennan, Lisa A | Bresnick, Emery H | Brest, Patrick | Bridges, Dave | Bringer, Marie-Agnès | Brini, Marisa | Brito, Glauber C | Brodin, Bertha | Brookes, Paul S | Brown, Eric J | Brown, Karen | Broxmeyer, Hal E | Bruhat, Alain | Brum, Patricia Chakur | Brumell, John H | Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola | Bryson-Richardson, Robert J | Buch, Shilpa | Buchan, Alastair M | Budak, Hikmet | Bulavin, Dmitry V | Bultman, Scott J | Bultynck, Geert | Bumbasirevic, Vladimir | Burelle, Yan | Burke, Robert E | Burmeister, Margit | Bütikofer, Peter | Caberlotto, Laura | Cadwell, Ken | Cahova, Monika | Cai, Dongsheng | Cai, Jingjing | Cai, Qian | Calatayud, Sara | Camougrand, Nadine | Campanella, Michelangelo | Campbell, Grant R | Campbell, Matthew | Campello, Silvia | Candau, Robin | Caniggia, Isabella | Cantoni, Lavinia | Cao, Lizhi | Caplan, Allan B | Caraglia, Michele | Cardinali, Claudio | Cardoso, Sandra Morais | Carew, Jennifer S | Carleton, Laura A | Carlin, Cathleen R | Carloni, Silvia | Carlsson, Sven R | Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac | Carneiro, Leticia AM | Carnevali, Oliana | Carra, Serena | Carrier, Alice | Carroll, Bernadette | Casas, Caty | Casas, Josefina | Cassinelli, Giuliana | Castets, Perrine | Castro-Obregon, Susana | Cavallini, Gabriella | Ceccherini, Isabella | Cecconi, Francesco | Cederbaum, Arthur I | Ceña, Valentín | Cenci, Simone | Cerella, Claudia | Cervia, Davide | Cetrullo, Silvia | Chaachouay, Hassan | Chae, Han-Jung | Chagin, Andrei S | Chai, Chee-Yin | Chakrabarti, Gopal | Chamilos, Georgios | Chan, Edmond YW | Chan, Matthew TV | Chandra, Dhyan | Chandra, Pallavi | Chang, Chih-Peng | Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung | Chang, Ta Yuan | Chatham, John C | Chatterjee, Saurabh | Chauhan, Santosh | Che, Yongsheng | Cheetham, Michael E | Cheluvappa, Rajkumar | Chen, Chun-Jung | Chen, Gang | Chen, Guang-Chao | Chen, Guoqiang | Chen, Hongzhuan | Chen, Jeff W | Chen, Jian-Kang | Chen, Min | Chen, Mingzhou | Chen, Peiwen | Chen, Qi | Chen, Quan | Chen, Shang-Der | Chen, Si | Chen, Steve S-L | Chen, Wei | Chen, Wei-Jung | Chen, Wen Qiang | Chen, Wenli | Chen, Xiangmei | Chen, Yau-Hung | Chen, Ye-Guang | Chen, Yin | Chen, Yingyu | Chen, Yongshun | Chen, Yu-Jen | Chen, Yue-Qin | Chen, Yujie | Chen, Zhen | Chen, Zhong | Cheng, Alan | Cheng, Christopher HK | Cheng, Hua | Cheong, Heesun | Cherry, Sara | Chesney, Jason | Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio | Chevet, Eric | Chi, Hsiang Cheng | Chi, Sung-Gil | Chiacchiera, Fulvio | Chiang, Hui-Ling | Chiarelli, Roberto | Chiariello, Mario | Chieppa, Marcello | Chin, Lih-Shen | Chiong, Mario | Chiu, Gigi NC | Cho, Dong-Hyung | Cho, Ssang-Goo | Cho, William C | Cho, Yong-Yeon | Cho, Young-Seok | Choi, Augustine MK | Choi, Eui-Ju | Choi, Eun-Kyoung | Choi, Jayoung | Choi, Mary E | Choi, Seung-Il | Chou, Tsui-Fen | Chouaib, Salem | Choubey, Divaker | Choubey, Vinay | Chow, Kuan-Chih | Chowdhury, Kamal | Chu, Charleen T | Chuang, Tsung-Hsien | Chun, Taehoon | Chung, Hyewon | Chung, Taijoon | Chung, Yuen-Li | Chwae, Yong-Joon | Cianfanelli, Valentina | Ciarcia, Roberto | Ciechomska, Iwona A | Ciriolo, Maria Rosa | Cirone, Mara | Claerhout, Sofie | Clague, Michael J | Clària, Joan | Clarke, Peter GH | Clarke, Robert | Clementi, Emilio | Cleyrat, Cédric | Cnop, Miriam | Coccia, Eliana M | Cocco, Tiziana | Codogno, Patrice | Coers, Jörn | Cohen, Ezra EW | Colecchia, David | Coletto, Luisa | Coll, Núria S | Colucci-Guyon, Emma | Comincini, Sergio | Condello, Maria | Cook, Katherine L | Coombs, Graham H | Cooper, Cynthia D | Cooper, J Mark | Coppens, Isabelle | Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana | Corazzari, Marco | Corbalan, Ramon | Corcelle-Termeau, Elisabeth | Cordero, Mario D | Corral-Ramos, Cristina | Corti, Olga | Cossarizza, Andrea | Costelli, Paola | Costes, Safia | Cotman, Susan L | Coto-Montes, Ana | Cottet, Sandra | Couve, Eduardo | Covey, Lori R | Cowart, L Ashley | Cox, Jeffery S | Coxon, Fraser P | Coyne, Carolyn B | Cragg, Mark S | Craven, Rolf J | Crepaldi, Tiziana | Crespo, Jose L | Criollo, Alfredo | Crippa, Valeria | Cruz, Maria Teresa | Cuervo, Ana Maria | Cuezva, Jose M | Cui, Taixing | Cutillas, Pedro R | Czaja, Mark J | Czyzyk-Krzeska, Maria F | Dagda, Ruben K | Dahmen, Uta | Dai, Chunsun | Dai, Wenjie | Dai, Yun | Dalby, Kevin N | Dalla Valle, Luisa | Dalmasso, Guillaume | D'Amelio, Marcello | Damme, Markus | Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette | Dargemont, Catherine | Darley-Usmar, Victor M | Dasarathy, Srinivasan | Dasgupta, Biplab | Dash, Srikanta | Dass, Crispin R | Davey, Hazel Marie | Davids, Lester M | Dávila, David | Davis, Roger J | Dawson, Ted M | Dawson, Valina L | Daza, Paula | de Belleroche, Jackie | de Figueiredo, Paul | de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz | de la Fuente, José | De Martino, Luisa | De Matteis, Antonella | De Meyer, Guido RY | De Milito, Angelo | De Santi, Mauro | de Souza, Wanderley | De Tata, Vincenzo | De Zio, Daniela | Debnath, Jayanta | Dechant, Reinhard | Decuypere, Jean-Paul | Deegan, Shane | Dehay, Benjamin | Del Bello, Barbara | Del Re, Dominic P | Delage-Mourroux, Régis | Delbridge, Lea MD | Deldicque, Louise | Delorme-Axford, Elizabeth | Deng, Yizhen | Dengjel, Joern | Denizot, Melanie | Dent, Paul | Der, Channing J | Deretic, Vojo | Derrien, Benoît | Deutsch, Eric | Devarenne, Timothy P | Devenish, Rodney J | Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina | Di Daniele, Nicola | Di Domenico, Fabio | Di Nardo, Alessia | Di Paola, Simone | Di Pietro, Antonio | Di Renzo, Livia | DiAntonio, Aaron | Díaz-Araya, Guillermo | Díaz-Laviada, Ines | Diaz-Meco, Maria T | Diaz-Nido, Javier | Dickey, Chad A | Dickson, Robert C | Diederich, Marc | Digard, Paul | Dikic, Ivan | Dinesh-Kumar, Savithrama P | Ding, Chan | Ding, Wen-Xing | Ding, Zufeng | Dini, Luciana | Distler, Jörg HW | Diwan, Abhinav | Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan | Dmytruk, Kostyantyn | Dobson, Renwick CJ | Doetsch, Volker | Dokladny, Karol | Dokudovskaya, Svetlana | Donadelli, Massimo | Dong, X Charlie | Dong, Xiaonan | Dong, Zheng | Donohue, Terrence M | Doran, Kelly S | D'Orazi, Gabriella | Dorn, Gerald W | Dosenko, Victor | Dridi, Sami | Drucker, Liat | Du, Jie | Du, Li-Lin | Du, Lihuan | du Toit, André | Dua, Priyamvada | Duan, Lei | Duann, Pu | Dubey, Vikash Kumar | Duchen, Michael R | Duchosal, Michel A | Duez, Helene | Dugail, Isabelle | Dumit, Verónica I | Duncan, Mara C | Dunlop, Elaine A | Dunn, William A | Dupont, Nicolas | Dupuis, Luc | Durán, Raúl V | Durcan, Thomas M | Duvezin-Caubet, Stéphane | Duvvuri, Umamaheswar | Eapen, Vinay | Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius | Echard, Arnaud | Eckhart, Leopold | Edelstein, Charles L | Edinger, Aimee L | Eichinger, Ludwig | Eisenberg, Tobias | Eisenberg-Lerner, Avital | Eissa, N Tony | El-Deiry, Wafik S | El-Khoury, Victoria | Elazar, Zvulun | Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit | Elliott, Chris JH | Emanuele, Enzo | Emmenegger, Urban | Engedal, Nikolai | Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart | Engelender, Simone | Enserink, Jorrit M | Erdmann, Ralf | Erenpreisa, Jekaterina | Eri, Rajaraman | Eriksen, Jason L | Erman, Andreja | Escalante, Ricardo | Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa | Espert, Lucile | Esteban-Martínez, Lorena | Evans, Thomas J | Fabri, Mario | Fabrias, Gemma | Fabrizi, Cinzia | Facchiano, Antonio | Færgeman, Nils J | Faggioni, Alberto | Fairlie, W Douglas | Fan, Chunhai | Fan, Daping | Fan, Jie | Fang, Shengyun | Fanto, Manolis | Fanzani, Alessandro | Farkas, Thomas | Faure, Mathias | Favier, Francois B | Fearnhead, Howard | Federici, Massimo | Fei, Erkang | Felizardo, Tania C | Feng, Hua | Feng, Yibin | Feng, Yuchen | Ferguson, Thomas A | Fernández, Álvaro F | Fernandez-Barrena, Maite G | Fernandez-Checa, Jose C | Fernández-López, Arsenio | Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E | Feron, Olivier | Ferraro, Elisabetta | Ferreira-Halder, Carmen Veríssima | Fesus, Laszlo | Feuer, Ralph | Fiesel, Fabienne C | Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo C | Filomeni, Giuseppe | Fimia, Gian Maria | Fingert, John H | Finkbeiner, Steven | Finkel, Toren | Fiorito, Filomena | Fisher, Paul B | Flajolet, Marc | Flamigni, Flavio | Florey, Oliver | Florio, Salvatore | Floto, R Andres | Folini, Marco | Follo, Carlo | Fon, Edward A | Fornai, Francesco | Fortunato, Franco | Fraldi, Alessandro | Franco, Rodrigo | Francois, Arnaud | François, Aurélie | Frankel, Lisa B | Fraser, Iain DC | Frey, Norbert | Freyssenet, Damien G | Frezza, Christian | Friedman, Scott L | Frigo, Daniel E | Fu, Dongxu | Fuentes, José M | Fueyo, Juan | Fujitani, Yoshio | Fujiwara, Yuuki | Fujiya, Mikihiro | Fukuda, Mitsunori | Fulda, Simone | Fusco, Carmela | Gabryel, Bozena | Gaestel, Matthias | Gailly, Philippe | Gajewska, Malgorzata | Galadari, Sehamuddin | Galili, Gad | Galindo, Inmaculada | Galindo, Maria F | Galliciotti, Giovanna | Galluzzi, Lorenzo | Galluzzi, Luca | Galy, Vincent | Gammoh, Noor | Gandy, Sam | Ganesan, Anand K | Ganesan, Swamynathan | Ganley, Ian G | Gannagé, Monique | Gao, Fen-Biao | Gao, Feng | Gao, Jian-Xin | García Nannig, Lorena | García Véscovi, Eleonora | Garcia-Macía, Marina | Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen | Garg, Abhishek D | Garg, Pramod Kumar | Gargini, Ricardo | Gassen, Nils Christian | Gatica, Damián | Gatti, Evelina | Gavard, Julie | Gavathiotis, Evripidis | Ge, Liang | Ge, Pengfei | Ge, Shengfang | Gean, Po-Wu | Gelmetti, Vania | Genazzani, Armando A | Geng, Jiefei | Genschik, Pascal | Gerner, Lisa | Gestwicki, Jason E | Gewirtz, David A | Ghavami, Saeid | Ghigo, Eric | Ghosh, Debabrata | Giammarioli, Anna Maria | Giampieri, Francesca | Giampietri, Claudia | Giatromanolaki, Alexandra | Gibbings, Derrick J | Gibellini, Lara | Gibson, Spencer B | Ginet, Vanessa | Giordano, Antonio | Giorgini, Flaviano | Giovannetti, Elisa | Girardin, Stephen E | Gispert, Suzana | Giuliano, Sandy | Gladson, Candece L | Glavic, Alvaro | Gleave, Martin | Godefroy, Nelly | Gogal, Robert M | Gokulan, Kuppan | Goldman, Gustavo H | Goletti, Delia | Goligorsky, Michael S | Gomes, Aldrin V | Gomes, Ligia C | Gomez, Hernando | Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria | Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén | Gonçalves, Dawit AP | Goncu, Ebru | Gong, Qingqiu | Gongora, Céline | Gonzalez, Carlos B | Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro | Gonzalez-Cabo, Pilar | González-Polo, Rosa Ana | Goping, Ing Swie | Gorbea, Carlos | Gorbunov, Nikolai V | Goring, Daphne R | Gorman, Adrienne M | Gorski, Sharon M | Goruppi, Sandro | Goto-Yamada, Shino | Gotor, Cecilia | Gottlieb, Roberta A | Gozes, Illana | Gozuacik, Devrim | Graba, Yacine | Graef, Martin | Granato, Giovanna E | Grant, Gary Dean | Grant, Steven | Gravina, Giovanni Luca | Green, Douglas R | Greenhough, Alexander | Greenwood, Michael T | Grimaldi, Benedetto | Gros, Frédéric | Grose, Charles | Groulx, Jean-Francois | Gruber, Florian | Grumati, Paolo | Grune, Tilman | Guan, Jun-Lin | Guan, Kun-Liang | Guerra, Barbara | Guillen, Carlos | Gulshan, Kailash | Gunst, Jan | Guo, Chuanyong | Guo, Lei | Guo, Ming | Guo, Wenjie | Guo, Xu-Guang | Gust, Andrea A | Gustafsson, Åsa B | Gutierrez, Elaine | Gutierrez, Maximiliano G | Gwak, Ho-Shin | Haas, Albert | Haber, James E | Hadano, Shinji | Hagedorn, Monica | Hahn, David R | Halayko, Andrew J | Hamacher-Brady, Anne | Hamada, Kozo | Hamai, Ahmed | Hamann, Andrea | Hamasaki, Maho | Hamer, Isabelle | Hamid, Qutayba | Hammond, Ester M | Han, Feng | Han, Weidong | Handa, James T | Hanover, John A | Hansen, Malene | Harada, Masaru | Harhaji-Trajkovic, Ljubica | Harper, J Wade | Harrath, Abdel Halim | Harris, Adrian L | Harris, James | Hasler, Udo | Hasselblatt, Peter | Hasui, Kazuhisa | Hawley, Robert G | Hawley, Teresa S | He, Congcong | He, Cynthia Y | He, Fengtian | He, Gu | He, Rong-Rong | He, Xian-Hui | He, You-Wen | He, Yu-Ying | Heath, Joan K | Hébert, Marie-Josée | Heinzen, Robert A | Helgason, Gudmundur Vignir | Hensel, Michael | Henske, Elizabeth P | Her, Chengtao | Herman, Paul K | Hernández, Agustín | Hernandez, Carlos | Hernández-Tiedra, Sonia | Hetz, Claudio | Hiesinger, P Robin | Higaki, Katsumi | Hilfiker, Sabine | Hill, Bradford G | Hill, Joseph A | Hill, William D | Hino, Keisuke | Hofius, Daniel | Hofman, Paul | Höglinger, Günter U | Höhfeld, Jörg | Holz, Marina K | Hong, Yonggeun | Hood, David A | Hoozemans, Jeroen JM | Hoppe, Thorsten | Hsu, Chin | Hsu, Chin-Yuan | Hsu, Li-Chung | Hu, Dong | Hu, Guochang | Hu, Hong-Ming | Hu, Hongbo | Hu, Ming Chang | Hu, Yu-Chen | Hu, Zhuo-Wei | Hua, Fang | Hua, Ya | Huang, Canhua | Huang, Huey-Lan | Huang, Kuo-How | Huang, Kuo-Yang | Huang, Shile | Huang, Shiqian | Huang, Wei-Pang | Huang, Yi-Ran | Huang, Yong | Huang, Yunfei | Huber, Tobias B | Huebbe, Patricia | Huh, Won-Ki | Hulmi, Juha J | Hur, Gang Min | Hurley, James H | Husak, Zvenyslava | Hussain, Sabah NA | Hussain, Salik | Hwang, Jung Jin | Hwang, Seungmin | Hwang, Thomas IS | Ichihara, Atsuhiro | Imai, Yuzuru | Imbriano, Carol | Inomata, Megumi | Into, Takeshi | Iovane, Valentina | Iovanna, Juan L | Iozzo, Renato V | Ip, Nancy Y | Irazoqui, Javier E | Iribarren, Pablo | Isaka, Yoshitaka | Isakovic, Aleksandra J | Ischiropoulos, Harry | Isenberg, Jeffrey S | Ishaq, Mohammad | Ishida, Hiroyuki | Ishii, Isao | Ishmael, Jane E | Isidoro, Ciro | Isobe, Ken-ichi | Isono, Erika | Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh | Itahana, Koji | Itakura, Eisuke | Ivanov, Andrei I | Iyer, Anand Krishnan V | Izquierdo, José M | Izumi, Yotaro | Izzo, Valentina | Jäättelä, Marja | Jaber, Nadia | Jackson, Daniel John | Jackson, William T | Jacob, Tony George | Jacques, Thomas S | Jagannath, Chinnaswamy | Jain, Ashish | Jana, Nihar Ranjan | Jang, Byoung Kuk | Jani, Alkesh | Janji, Bassam | Jannig, Paulo Roberto | Jansson, Patric J | Jean, Steve | Jendrach, Marina | Jeon, Ju-Hong | Jessen, Niels | Jeung, Eui-Bae | Jia, Kailiang | Jia, Lijun | Jiang, Hong | Jiang, Hongchi | Jiang, Liwen | Jiang, Teng | Jiang, Xiaoyan | Jiang, Xuejun | Jiang, Xuejun | Jiang, Ying | Jiang, Yongjun | Jiménez, Alberto | Jin, Cheng | Jin, Hongchuan | Jin, Lei | Jin, Meiyan | Jin, Shengkan | Jinwal, Umesh Kumar | Jo, Eun-Kyeong | Johansen, Terje | Johnson, Daniel E | Johnson, Gail VW | Johnson, James D | Jonasch, Eric | Jones, Chris | Joosten, Leo AB | Jordan, Joaquin | Joseph, Anna-Maria | Joseph, Bertrand | Joubert, Annie M | Ju, Dianwen | Ju, Jingfang | Juan, Hsueh-Fen | Juenemann, Katrin | Juhász, Gábor | Jung, Hye Seung | Jung, Jae U | Jung, Yong-Keun | Jungbluth, Heinz | Justice, Matthew J | Jutten, Barry | Kaakoush, Nadeem O | Kaarniranta, Kai | Kaasik, Allen | Kabuta, Tomohiro | Kaeffer, Bertrand | Kågedal, Katarina | Kahana, Alon | Kajimura, Shingo | Kakhlon, Or | Kalia, Manjula | Kalvakolanu, Dhan V | Kamada, Yoshiaki | Kambas, Konstantinos | Kaminskyy, Vitaliy O | Kampinga, Harm H | Kandouz, Mustapha | Kang, Chanhee | Kang, Rui | Kang, Tae-Cheon | Kanki, Tomotake | Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi | Kanno, Haruo | Kanthasamy, Anumantha G | Kantorow, Marc | Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria | Kapuy, Orsolya | Karantza, Vassiliki | Karim, Md Razaul | Karmakar, Parimal | Kaser, Arthur | Kaushik, Susmita | Kawula, Thomas | Kaynar, A Murat | Ke, Po-Yuan | Ke, Zun-Ji | Kehrl, John H | Keller, Kate E | Kemper, Jongsook Kim
Autophagy  2016;12(1):1-222.
doi:10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
PMCID: PMC4835977  PMID: 26799652
autolysosome; autophagosome; chaperone-mediated autophagy; flux; LC3; lysosome; macroautophagy; phagophore; stress; vacuole
5.  Host–Pathogen Interactions in Measles Virus Replication and Anti-Viral Immunity 
Viruses  2016;8(11):308.
The measles virus (MeV) is a contagious pathogenic RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Morbillivirus, that can cause serious symptoms and even fetal complications. Here, we summarize current molecular advances in MeV research, and emphasize the connection between host cells and MeV replication. Although measles has reemerged recently, the potential for its eradication is promising with significant progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of its replication and host-pathogen interactions.
doi:10.3390/v8110308
PMCID: PMC5127022  PMID: 27854326
measles virus; paramyxoviruses; viral replication; host factors
6.  Interaction of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Nucleoprotein with Matrix Protein Mediates Internal Viral Protein Assembly 
Journal of Virology  2016;90(5):2306-2315.
ABSTRACT
Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family. Its three internal viral proteins, the nucleoprotein (N), the phosphoprotein (P), and the polymerase (L), form the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, which encapsidates the viral genome and associates with the matrix protein (M) for virion assembly. We previously showed that the M protein expressed alone is sufficient to assemble and release virus-like particles (VLPs) and a mutant with the L305A point mutation in the M protein (ML305A) has a VLP formation ability similar to that of wild-type M protein. In addition, recombinant HPIV3 (rHPIV3) containing the ML305A mutation (rHPIV3-ML305A) could be successfully recovered. In the present study, we found that the titer of rHPIV3-ML305A was at least 10-fold lower than the titer of rHPIV3. Using VLP incorporation and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we found that VLPs expressing the M protein (M-VLPs) can efficiently incorporate N and P via an N-M or P-M interaction and ML305A-VLPs had an ability to incorporate P via a P-M interaction similar to that of M-VLPs but were unable to incorporate N and no longer interacted with N. Furthermore, we found that the incorporation of P into ML305A-VLPs but not M-VLPs was inhibited in the presence of N. In addition, we provide evidence that the C-terminal region of P is involved in its interaction with both N and M and N binding to the C-terminal region of P inhibits the incorporation of P into ML305A-VLPs. Our findings provide new molecular details to support the idea that the N-M interaction and not the P-M interaction is critical for packaging N and P into infectious viral particles.
IMPORTANCE Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is a nonsegmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and can cause lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children as well as elderly or immunocompromised individuals. However, no effective vaccine has been developed or licensed. We used virus-like particle (VLP) incorporation and coimmunoprecipitation assays to determine how the M protein assembles internal viral proteins. We demonstrate that both nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P) can incorporate into M-VLPs and N inhibits the M-P interaction via the binding of N to the C terminus of P. We also provide additional evidence that the N-M interaction but not the P-M interaction is critical for the regulation of HPIV3 assembly. Our studies provide a more complete characterization of HPIV3 virion assembly and substantiation that N interaction with M regulates internal viral organization.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02324-15
PMCID: PMC4810691  PMID: 26656716
7.  Is there an optimal basis to maximise optical information transfer? 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:22821.
We establish the concept of the density of the optical degrees of freedom that may be applied to any photonics based system. As a key example of this versatile approach we explore information transfer using optical communication. We demonstrate both experimentally, theoretically and numerically that the use of a basis set with fields containing optical vortices does not increase the telecommunication capacity of an optical system.
doi:10.1038/srep22821
PMCID: PMC4791631  PMID: 26976626
8.  The Use of Wavelength Modulated Raman Spectroscopy in Label-Free Identification of T Lymphocyte Subsets, Natural Killer Cells and Dendritic Cells 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0125158.
Determining the identity of cells of the immune system usually involves destructive fixation and chemical staining, or labeling with fluorescently labeled antibodies recognising specific cell surface markers. Completely label-free identification would be a significant advantage in conditions where untouched cells are a priority. We demonstrate here the use of Wavelength Modulated Raman Spectroscopy, to achieve label-free identification of purified, unfixed and untouched populations of major immune cell subsets isolated from healthy human donors. Using this technique we have been able to distinguish between CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes and CD56+ Natural Killer cells at specificities of up to 96%. Additionally, we have been able to distinguish between CD303+ plasmacytoid and CD1c+ myeloid dendritic cell subsets, the key initiator and regulatory cells of many immune responses. This demonstrates the ability to identify unperturbed cells of the immune system, and opens novel opportunities to analyse immunological systems and to develop fully label-free diagnostic technologies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125158
PMCID: PMC4439084  PMID: 25992777
9.  A Leucine Residue in the C Terminus of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Matrix Protein Is Essential for Efficient Virus-Like Particle and Virion Release 
Journal of Virology  2014;88(22):13173-13188.
ABSTRACT
Paramyxovirus particles, like other enveloped virus particles, are formed by budding from membranes of infected cells, and matrix (M) proteins are critical for this process. To identify the M protein important for this process, we have characterized the budding of the human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) M protein. Our results showed that expression of the HPIV3 M protein alone is sufficient to initiate the release of virus-like particles (VLPs). Electron microscopy analysis confirmed that VLPs are morphologically similar to HPIV3 virions. We identified a leucine (L302) residue within the C terminus of the HPIV3 M protein that is critical for M protein-mediated VLP production by regulating the ubiquitination of the M protein. When L302 was mutated into A302, ubiquitination of M protein was defective, the release of VLPs was abolished, and the membrane binding and budding abilities of M protein were greatly weakened, but the ML302A mutant retained oligomerization activity and had a dominant negative effect on M protein-mediated VLP production. Furthermore, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor also inhibited M protein-mediated VLP production and viral budding. Finally, recombinant HPIV3 containing the ML302A mutant could not be rescued. These results suggest that L302 acts as a critical regulating signal for the ubiquitination of the HPIV3 M protein and virion release.
IMPORTANCE Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is an enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative-strand RNA genome. It can cause severe respiratory tract diseases, such as bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and croup in infants and young children. However, no valid antiviral therapy or vaccine is currently available. Thus, further elucidation of its assembly and budding will be helpful in the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we show that a leucine residue (L302) located at the C terminus of the HPIV3 M protein is essential for efficient production of virus-like particles (VLPs). Furthermore, we found L302 regulated M protein-mediated VLP production via regulation of M protein ubiquitination. Recombinant HPIV3 containing the ML302A mutant is growth defective. These findings provide new insight into the critical role of M protein-mediated VLP production and virion release of a residue that does not belong to L domain and may advance our understanding of HPIV3 viral assembly and budding.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01485-14
PMCID: PMC4249104  PMID: 25187547
10.  An Amino Acid of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Nucleoprotein Is Critical for Template Function and Cytoplasmic Inclusion Body Formation 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(22):12457-12470.
The nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P) interaction of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses is essential for viral replication; this includes N0-P (N0, free of RNA) interaction and the interaction of N-RNA with P. The precise site(s) within N that mediates the N-P interaction and the detailed regulating mechanism, however, are less clear. Using a human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) minigenome assay, we found that an N mutant (NL478A) did not support reporter gene expression. Using in vivo and in vitro coimmunoprecipitation, we found that NL478A maintains the ability to form NL478A0-P, to self-assemble, and to form NL478A-RNA but that NL478A-RNA does not interact with P. Using an immunofluorescence assay, we found that N-P interaction provides the minimal requirement for the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which contain viral RNA, N, P, and polymerase in HPIV3-infected cells. NL478A was unable to form inclusion bodies when coexpressed with P, but the presence of N rescued the ability of NL478A to form inclusion bodies and the transcriptional function of NL478A, thereby suggesting that hetero-oligomers formed by N and NL478A are functional and competent to form inclusion bodies. Furthermore, we found that NL478A is also defective in virus growth. To our knowledge, we are the first to use a paramyxovirus to identify a precise amino acid within N that is critical for N-RNA and P interaction but not for N0-P interaction for the formation of inclusion bodies, which appear to be bona fide sites of RNA synthesis.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01565-13
PMCID: PMC3807885  PMID: 24027324
11.  N-Terminal Phosphorylation of Phosphoprotein of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Is Required for Preventing Nucleoprotein from Binding to Cellular RNAs and for Functional Template Formation 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(6):3177-3186.
The phosphoprotein (P) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) plays essential roles in viral RNA synthesis. It associates with nascent nucleoprotein (N) to form N0-P (free of RNAs), thereby preventing the N from binding to cellular RNAs and maintaining the N in a viral genomic RNA encapsidation-competent form for transcription and replication. The contributions of phosphorylation of P to transcription and replication have been studied intensively, but a concrete mechanism of action still remains unclear. In this study, using a VSV minigenome system, we demonstrated that a mutant of P lacking N-terminal phosphorylation (P3A), in which the N-terminal phosphate acceptor sites are replaced with alanines (S60/A, T62/A, and S64/A), does not support transcription and replication. However, results from protein interaction assays showed that P3A self-associates and interacts with N and the large protein (L) as efficiently as P does. Furthermore, purified recombinant P3A from Sf21 cells supported transcription in an in vitro transcription reconstitution assay. We also proved that P3A is not distributed intranuclearly in vivo. CsCl gradient centrifugation showed that P3A is incapable of preventing N from binding to cellular RNAs and therefore prevents functional template formation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that N-terminal phosphorylation is indispensable for P to prevent N from binding to nonviral RNAs and to maintain the N-specific encapsidation of viral genomic RNA for functional template formation.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02761-12
PMCID: PMC3592151  PMID: 23283948
12.  Activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK Pathway Facilitates Hepatitis C Virus Replication via Attenuation of the Interferon-JAK-STAT Pathway 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(3):1544-1554.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide, often leading to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Constitutive activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK pathway is responsible for approximately 30% of cancers. Here we attempted to address the correlation between activation of this pathway and HCV replication. We showed that knockdown of Raf1 inhibits HCV replication, while activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK pathway by V12, a constitutively active form of Ras, stimulates HCV replication. We further demonstrated that this effect is regulated through attenuation of the interferon (IFN)-JAK-STAT pathway. Activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK pathway downregulates the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), attenuates the phosphorylation of STAT1/2, and inhibits the expression of interferon (alpha, beta, and omega) receptors 1 and 2 (IFNAR1/2). Furthermore, we observed that HCV infection activates the Ras/Raf/MEK pathway. Thus, we propose that during HCV infection, the Ras/Raf/MEK pathway is activated, which in turn attenuates the IFN-JAK-STAT pathway, resulting in stimulation of HCV replication.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00688-11
PMCID: PMC3264379  PMID: 22114332
13.  Interaction of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus P and N Proteins: Identification of Two Overlapping Domains at the N Terminus of P That Are Involved in N0-P Complex Formation and Encapsidation of Viral Genome RNA▿  
Journal of Virology  2007;81(24):13478-13485.
The nucleocapsid (N) protein of nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses, when expressed in eukaryotic cells, aggregates and forms nucleocapsid-like complexes with cellular RNAs. The phosphoprotein (P) has been shown to prevent such aggregation by forming a soluble complex with the N protein free from cellular RNAs (designated N0). The N0-P complex presumably mediates specific encapsidation of the viral genome RNA. The precise mechanism by which the P protein carries out this function remains unclear. Here, by using a series of deleted and truncated mutant forms of the P protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Indiana serotype, we present evidence that the N-terminal 11 to 30 amino acids (aa) of the P protein are essential in keeping the N protein soluble. Furthermore, glutathione S-transferase fused to the N-terminal 40 aa by itself is able to form the N0-P complex. Interestingly, the N-terminal 40-aa stretch failed to interact with the viral genome N-RNA template whereas the C-terminal 72 aa of the P protein interacted specifically with the latter. With an in vivo VSV minigenome transcription system, we further show that a deletion mutant form of P (PΔ1-10) lacking the N-terminal 10 aa which is capable of forming the N0-P complex was unable to support VSV minigenome transcription, although it efficiently supported transcription in vitro in a transcription-reconstitution reaction when used as purified protein. However, the same mutant protein complemented minigenome transcription when expressed together with a transcription-defective P deletion mutant protein containing N-terminal aa 1 to 210 (PΔII+III). Since the minigenome RNA needs to be encapsidated before transcription ensues, it seems that the entire N-terminal 210 aa are required for efficient genome RNA encapsidation. Taking these results together, we conclude that the N-terminal 11 to 30 aa are required for N0-P complex formation but the N-terminal 210 aa are required for genome RNA encapsidation.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01244-07
PMCID: PMC2168881  PMID: 17913815
14.  Mapping and Functional Role of the Self-Association Domain of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Phosphoprotein 
Journal of Virology  2006;80(19):9511-9518.
The phosphoprotein (P protein) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an essential subunit of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex and plays a central role in viral transcription and replication. Using both the yeast two-hybrid system and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we confirmed the self-association of the P protein of Indiana serotype (Pind) and heterotypic interaction between Pind and the P protein of New Jersey serotype (Pnj). Furthermore, by using various truncation and deletion mutants of Pind, the self-association domain of the Pind protein was mapped to amino acids 161 to 210 within the hinge region. The self-association domain of Pind protein is not required for its binding to nucleocapsid and large proteins. We further demonstrated that the self-association domain of Pind protein is essential for VSV transcription in a minireplicon system and that a synthetic peptide spanning amino acids 191 to 210 in the self-association domain of Pind protein strongly inhibited the transcription of the VSV genome in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that the self-association domain of Pind protein plays a critical role in VSV transcription.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01035-06
PMCID: PMC1617241  PMID: 16973555
15.  Inhibition of Ubiquitination and Stabilization of Human Ubiquitin E3 Ligase PIRH2 by Measles Virus Phosphoprotein 
Journal of Virology  2005;79(18):11824-11836.
Using a C-terminal domain (PCT) of the measles virus (MV) phosphoprotein (P protein) as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, a cDNA identical to the recently described human p53-induced-RING-H2 (hPIRH2) cDNA was isolated. A glutathione S-transferase-hPIRH2 fusion protein expressed in bacteria was able to pull down P protein when mixed with an extract from P-expressing HeLa cells in vitro, and myc-tagged hPIRH2 could be reciprocally coimmunoprecipitated with MV P protein from human cells. Additionally, immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that hPIRH2-myc, MV P, and nucleocapsid (N) proteins form a ternary complex. The hPIRH2 binding site was mapped to the C-terminal X domain region of the P protein by using a yeast two-hybrid assay. The PCT binding site was mapped on hPIRH2 by using a novel yeast two-hybrid tagged PCR approach and by coimmunoprecipitation of hPIRH2 cysteine mutants and mouse/human PIRH2 chimeras. The hPIRH2 C terminus could mediate the interaction with MV P which was favored by the RING-H2 motif. When coexpressed with an enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged hPIRH2 protein, MV P alone or in a complex with MV N was able to redistribute hPIRH2 to outside the nucleus, within intracellular aggregates. Finally, MV P efficiently stabilized hPIRH2-myc expression and prevented its ubiquitination in vivo but had no effect on the stability or ubiquitination of an alternative ubiquitin E3 ligase, Mdm2. Thus, MV P protein is the first protein from a pathogen that is able to specifically interact with and stabilize the ubiquitin E3 ligase hPIRH2 by preventing its ubiquitination.
doi:10.1128/JVI.79.18.11824-11836.2005
PMCID: PMC1212616  PMID: 16140759

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