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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  The pancreatic tumor microenvironment drives changes in miRNA expression that promote cytokine production and inhibit migration by the tumor associated stroma 
Oncotarget  2016;8(33):54054-54067.
The pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) microenvironment is largely comprised of fibrotic tumor associated stroma (TAS) that contributes to the lethal biology of PDAC. microRNA (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. We hypothesized that interactions between PDAC cells and TAS cells within the microenvironment modulate miRNA expression and thus, tumor biology. We observed that miR-205 and members of the miR-200 family (miR-200a, -200b, -200c, -141 and miR-429) were exclusively expressed in PDAC cells, consistent with an epithelial miRNA signature, while miR-145 and miR-199 family members (miR-199a and -199b) were solely expressed in TAS cells, consistent with a stromal miRNA signature. This finding was confirmed by qRT-PCR of RNA obtained by laser-capture microdissection of surgical specimens. Using an in vitro co-culture model, we further demonstrated regulation of miRNA expression by cell-cell contact. Forced expression in TAS cells of miR-200b/-200c and miR-205 to mimic these observed changes in miRNA concentrations induced secretion of GM-CSF and IP10, and notably inhibited migration. These data suggest interactions within the tumor microenvironment alter miRNA expression, which in turn have a functional impact on TAS.
doi:10.18632/oncotarget.10722
PMCID: PMC5589562  PMID: 28903323
miR-200; miR-205; tumor-associated stroma; pancreatic cancer; tumor microenvrionment
2.  Nicotine Reduces Survival via Augmentation of Paracrine HGF-MET Signaling in the Pancreatic Cancer Microenvironment 
Purpose
The relationship between smoking and pancreatic cancer (PC) biology, particularly in the context of the heterogeneous microenvironment, remains incompletely defined. We hypothesized that nicotine exposure would lead to the augmentation of paracrine growth factor signaling between tumor-associated stroma (TAS) and PC cells, ultimately resulting in accelerated tumor growth and metastasis.
Experimental Design
The effect of tobacco use on overall survival was analyzed using a prospectively maintained database of surgically resected patients with PC. Nicotine exposure was evaluated in vitro using primary patient-derived TAS and PC cells independently and in co-culture. Nicotine administration was then assessed in vivo using a patient-derived PC xenograft model.
Results
Continued smoking was associated with reduced overall survival after surgical resection. In culture, nicotine stimulated hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) secretion in primary patient-derived TAS and nicotine stimulation was required for persistent PC cell c-Met activation in a co-culture model. c-Met activation in this manner led to the induction of inhibitor of differentiation-1 (Id1) in PC cells, previously established as a mediator of growth, invasion and chemoresistance. HGF-induced Id1 expression was abrogated by both epigenetic and pharmacologic c-Met inhibition. In patient-derived PC xenografts, nicotine treatment augmented tumor growth and metastasis; tumor lysates from nicotine-treated mice demonstrated elevated HGF expression by qRT-PCR and phospho-Met levels by ELISA. Similarly, elevated levels of phospho-Met in surgically resected PC specimens correlated with reduced overall survival.
Conclusions
Taken together, these data demonstrate a novel, microenvironment-dependent paracrine signaling mechanism by which nicotine exposure promotes the growth and metastasis of pancreatic cancer.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1256
PMCID: PMC4818664  PMID: 26667487
3.  Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition) 
Klionsky, Daniel J | Abdelmohsen, Kotb | Abe, Akihisa | Abedin, Md Joynal | Abeliovich, Hagai | Acevedo Arozena, Abraham | Adachi, Hiroaki | Adams, Christopher M | Adams, Peter D | Adeli, Khosrow | Adhihetty, Peter J | Adler, Sharon G | Agam, Galila | Agarwal, Rajesh | Aghi, Manish K | Agnello, Maria | Agostinis, Patrizia | Aguilar, Patricia V | Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio | Airoldi, Edoardo M | Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane | Akematsu, Takahiko | Akporiaye, Emmanuel T | Al-Rubeai, Mohamed | Albaiceta, Guillermo M | Albanese, Chris | Albani, Diego | Albert, Matthew L | Aldudo, Jesus | Algül, Hana | Alirezaei, Mehrdad | Alloza, Iraide | Almasan, Alexandru | Almonte-Beceril, Maylin | Alnemri, Emad S | Alonso, Covadonga | Altan-Bonnet, Nihal | Altieri, Dario C | Alvarez, Silvia | Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia | Alves, Sandro | Amadoro, Giuseppina | Amano, Atsuo | Amantini, Consuelo | Ambrosio, Santiago | Amelio, Ivano | Amer, Amal O | Amessou, Mohamed | Amon, Angelika | An, Zhenyi | Anania, Frank A | Andersen, Stig U | Andley, Usha P | Andreadi, Catherine K | Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie | Anel, Alberto | Ann, David K | Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra | Antonioli, Manuela | Aoki, Hiroshi | Apostolova, Nadezda | Aquila, Saveria | Aquilano, Katia | Araki, Koichi | Arama, Eli | Aranda, Agustin | Araya, Jun | Arcaro, Alexandre | Arias, Esperanza | Arimoto, Hirokazu | Ariosa, Aileen R | Armstrong, Jane L | Arnould, Thierry | Arsov, Ivica | Asanuma, Katsuhiko | Askanas, Valerie | Asselin, Eric | Atarashi, Ryuichiro | Atherton, Sally S | Atkin, Julie D | Attardi, Laura D | Auberger, Patrick | Auburger, Georg | Aurelian, Laure | Autelli, Riccardo | Avagliano, Laura | Avantaggiati, Maria Laura | Avrahami, Limor | Awale, Suresh | Azad, Neelam | Bachetti, Tiziana | Backer, Jonathan M | Bae, Dong-Hun | Bae, Jae-sung | Bae, Ok-Nam | Bae, Soo Han | Baehrecke, Eric H | Baek, Seung-Hoon | Baghdiguian, Stephen | Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka | Bai, Hua | Bai, Jie | Bai, Xue-Yuan | Bailly, Yannick | Balaji, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy | Balduini, Walter | Ballabio, Andrea | Balzan, Rena | Banerjee, Rajkumar | Bánhegyi, Gábor | Bao, Haijun | Barbeau, Benoit | Barrachina, Maria D | Barreiro, Esther | Bartel, Bonnie | Bartolomé, Alberto | Bassham, Diane C | Bassi, Maria Teresa | Bast, Robert C | Basu, Alakananda | Batista, Maria Teresa | Batoko, Henri | Battino, Maurizio | Bauckman, Kyle | Baumgarner, Bradley L | Bayer, K Ulrich | Beale, Rupert | Beaulieu, Jean-François | Beck, George R. | Becker, Christoph | Beckham, J David | Bédard, Pierre-André | Bednarski, Patrick J | Begley, Thomas J | Behl, Christian | Behrends, Christian | Behrens, Georg MN | Behrns, Kevin E | Bejarano, Eloy | Belaid, Amine | Belleudi, Francesca | Bénard, Giovanni | Berchem, Guy | Bergamaschi, Daniele | Bergami, Matteo | Berkhout, Ben | Berliocchi, Laura | Bernard, Amélie | Bernard, Monique | Bernassola, Francesca | Bertolotti, Anne | Bess, Amanda S | Besteiro, Sébastien | Bettuzzi, Saverio | Bhalla, Savita | Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli | Bhutia, Sujit K | Biagosch, Caroline | Bianchi, Michele Wolfe | Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine | Billes, Viktor | Bincoletto, Claudia | Bingol, Baris | Bird, Sara W | Bitoun, Marc | Bjedov, Ivana | Blackstone, Craig | Blanc, Lionel | Blanco, Guillermo A | Blomhoff, Heidi Kiil | Boada-Romero, Emilio | Böckler, Stefan | Boes, Marianne | Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen | Boise, Lawrence H | Bolino, Alessandra | Boman, Andrea | Bonaldo, Paolo | Bordi, Matteo | Bosch, Jürgen | Botana, Luis M | Botti, Joelle | Bou, German | Bouché, Marina | Bouchecareilh, Marion | Boucher, Marie-Josée | Boulton, Michael E | Bouret, Sebastien G | Boya, Patricia | Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël | Bozhkov, Peter V | Brady, Nathan | Braga, Vania MM | Brancolini, Claudio | Braus, Gerhard H | Bravo-San Pedro, José M | Brennan, Lisa A | Bresnick, Emery H | Brest, Patrick | Bridges, Dave | Bringer, Marie-Agnès | Brini, Marisa | Brito, Glauber C | Brodin, Bertha | Brookes, Paul S | Brown, Eric J | Brown, Karen | Broxmeyer, Hal E | Bruhat, Alain | Brum, Patricia Chakur | Brumell, John H | Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola | Bryson-Richardson, Robert J | Buch, Shilpa | Buchan, Alastair M | Budak, Hikmet | Bulavin, Dmitry V | Bultman, Scott J | Bultynck, Geert | Bumbasirevic, Vladimir | Burelle, Yan | Burke, Robert E | Burmeister, Margit | Bütikofer, Peter | Caberlotto, Laura | Cadwell, Ken | Cahova, Monika | Cai, Dongsheng | Cai, Jingjing | Cai, Qian | Calatayud, Sara | Camougrand, Nadine | Campanella, Michelangelo | Campbell, Grant R | Campbell, Matthew | Campello, Silvia | Candau, Robin | Caniggia, Isabella | Cantoni, Lavinia | Cao, Lizhi | Caplan, Allan B | Caraglia, Michele | Cardinali, Claudio | Cardoso, Sandra Morais | Carew, Jennifer S | Carleton, Laura A | Carlin, Cathleen R | Carloni, Silvia | Carlsson, Sven R | Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac | Carneiro, Leticia AM | Carnevali, Oliana | Carra, Serena | Carrier, Alice | Carroll, Bernadette | Casas, Caty | Casas, Josefina | Cassinelli, 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Yongshun | Chen, Yu-Jen | Chen, Yue-Qin | Chen, Yujie | Chen, Zhen | Chen, Zhong | Cheng, Alan | Cheng, Christopher HK | Cheng, Hua | Cheong, Heesun | Cherry, Sara | Chesney, Jason | Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio | Chevet, Eric | Chi, Hsiang Cheng | Chi, Sung-Gil | Chiacchiera, Fulvio | Chiang, Hui-Ling | Chiarelli, Roberto | Chiariello, Mario | Chieppa, Marcello | Chin, Lih-Shen | Chiong, Mario | Chiu, Gigi NC | Cho, Dong-Hyung | Cho, Ssang-Goo | Cho, William C | Cho, Yong-Yeon | Cho, Young-Seok | Choi, Augustine MK | Choi, Eui-Ju | Choi, Eun-Kyoung | Choi, Jayoung | Choi, Mary E | Choi, Seung-Il | Chou, Tsui-Fen | Chouaib, Salem | Choubey, Divaker | Choubey, Vinay | Chow, Kuan-Chih | Chowdhury, Kamal | Chu, Charleen T | Chuang, Tsung-Hsien | Chun, Taehoon | Chung, Hyewon | Chung, Taijoon | Chung, Yuen-Li | Chwae, Yong-Joon | Cianfanelli, Valentina | Ciarcia, Roberto | Ciechomska, Iwona A | Ciriolo, Maria Rosa | Cirone, Mara | Claerhout, Sofie | Clague, Michael J | Clària, Joan | Clarke, Peter GH | Clarke, Robert | Clementi, Emilio | Cleyrat, Cédric | Cnop, Miriam | Coccia, Eliana M | Cocco, Tiziana | Codogno, Patrice | Coers, Jörn | Cohen, Ezra EW | Colecchia, David | Coletto, Luisa | Coll, Núria S | Colucci-Guyon, Emma | Comincini, Sergio | Condello, Maria | Cook, Katherine L | Coombs, Graham H | Cooper, Cynthia D | Cooper, J Mark | Coppens, Isabelle | Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana | Corazzari, Marco | Corbalan, Ramon | Corcelle-Termeau, Elisabeth | Cordero, Mario D | Corral-Ramos, Cristina | Corti, Olga | Cossarizza, Andrea | Costelli, Paola | Costes, Safia | Cotman, Susan L | Coto-Montes, Ana | Cottet, Sandra | Couve, Eduardo | Covey, Lori R | Cowart, L Ashley | Cox, Jeffery S | Coxon, Fraser P | Coyne, Carolyn B | Cragg, Mark S | Craven, Rolf J | Crepaldi, Tiziana | Crespo, Jose L | Criollo, Alfredo | Crippa, Valeria | Cruz, Maria Teresa | Cuervo, Ana Maria | Cuezva, Jose M | Cui, Taixing | Cutillas, Pedro R | Czaja, Mark J | Czyzyk-Krzeska, Maria F | Dagda, Ruben 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Paul | Der, Channing J | Deretic, Vojo | Derrien, Benoît | Deutsch, Eric | Devarenne, Timothy P | Devenish, Rodney J | Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina | Di Daniele, Nicola | Di Domenico, Fabio | Di Nardo, Alessia | Di Paola, Simone | Di Pietro, Antonio | Di Renzo, Livia | DiAntonio, Aaron | Díaz-Araya, Guillermo | Díaz-Laviada, Ines | Diaz-Meco, Maria T | Diaz-Nido, Javier | Dickey, Chad A | Dickson, Robert C | Diederich, Marc | Digard, Paul | Dikic, Ivan | Dinesh-Kumar, Savithrama P | Ding, Chan | Ding, Wen-Xing | Ding, Zufeng | Dini, Luciana | Distler, Jörg HW | Diwan, Abhinav | Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan | Dmytruk, Kostyantyn | Dobson, Renwick CJ | Doetsch, Volker | Dokladny, Karol | Dokudovskaya, Svetlana | Donadelli, Massimo | Dong, X Charlie | Dong, Xiaonan | Dong, Zheng | Donohue, Terrence M | Doran, Kelly S | D'Orazi, Gabriella | Dorn, Gerald W | Dosenko, Victor | Dridi, Sami | Drucker, Liat | Du, Jie | Du, Li-Lin | Du, Lihuan | du Toit, André | Dua, Priyamvada | Duan, Lei | Duann, Pu | Dubey, Vikash Kumar | Duchen, Michael R | Duchosal, Michel A | Duez, Helene | Dugail, Isabelle | Dumit, Verónica I | Duncan, Mara C | Dunlop, Elaine A | Dunn, William A | Dupont, Nicolas | Dupuis, Luc | Durán, Raúl V | Durcan, Thomas M | Duvezin-Caubet, Stéphane | Duvvuri, Umamaheswar | Eapen, Vinay | Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius | Echard, Arnaud | Eckhart, Leopold | Edelstein, Charles L | Edinger, Aimee L | Eichinger, Ludwig | Eisenberg, Tobias | Eisenberg-Lerner, Avital | Eissa, N Tony | El-Deiry, Wafik S | El-Khoury, Victoria | Elazar, Zvulun | Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit | Elliott, Chris JH | Emanuele, Enzo | Emmenegger, Urban | Engedal, Nikolai | Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart | Engelender, Simone | Enserink, Jorrit M | Erdmann, Ralf | Erenpreisa, Jekaterina | Eri, Rajaraman | Eriksen, Jason L | Erman, Andreja | Escalante, Ricardo | Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa | Espert, Lucile | Esteban-Martínez, Lorena | Evans, Thomas J | Fabri, Mario | Fabrias, Gemma | Fabrizi, Cinzia | Facchiano, Antonio | Færgeman, Nils J | Faggioni, Alberto | Fairlie, W Douglas | Fan, Chunhai | Fan, Daping | Fan, Jie | Fang, Shengyun | Fanto, Manolis | Fanzani, Alessandro | Farkas, Thomas | Faure, Mathias | Favier, Francois B | Fearnhead, Howard | Federici, Massimo | Fei, Erkang | Felizardo, Tania C | Feng, Hua | Feng, Yibin | Feng, Yuchen | Ferguson, Thomas A | Fernández, Álvaro F | Fernandez-Barrena, Maite G | Fernandez-Checa, Jose C | Fernández-López, Arsenio | Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E | Feron, Olivier | Ferraro, Elisabetta | Ferreira-Halder, Carmen Veríssima | Fesus, Laszlo | Feuer, Ralph | Fiesel, Fabienne C | Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo C | Filomeni, Giuseppe | Fimia, Gian Maria | Fingert, John H | Finkbeiner, Steven | Finkel, Toren | Fiorito, Filomena | Fisher, Paul B | Flajolet, Marc | Flamigni, Flavio | Florey, Oliver | Florio, Salvatore | Floto, R Andres | Folini, Marco | Follo, Carlo | Fon, Edward A | Fornai, Francesco | Fortunato, Franco | Fraldi, Alessandro | Franco, Rodrigo | Francois, Arnaud | François, Aurélie | Frankel, Lisa B | Fraser, Iain DC | Frey, Norbert | Freyssenet, Damien G | Frezza, Christian | Friedman, Scott L | Frigo, Daniel E | Fu, Dongxu | Fuentes, José M | Fueyo, Juan | Fujitani, Yoshio | Fujiwara, Yuuki | Fujiya, Mikihiro | Fukuda, Mitsunori | Fulda, Simone | Fusco, Carmela | Gabryel, Bozena | Gaestel, Matthias | Gailly, Philippe | Gajewska, Malgorzata | Galadari, Sehamuddin | Galili, Gad | Galindo, Inmaculada | Galindo, Maria F | Galliciotti, Giovanna | Galluzzi, Lorenzo | Galluzzi, Luca | Galy, Vincent | Gammoh, Noor | Gandy, Sam | Ganesan, Anand K | Ganesan, Swamynathan | Ganley, Ian G | Gannagé, Monique | Gao, Fen-Biao | Gao, Feng | Gao, Jian-Xin | García Nannig, Lorena | García Véscovi, Eleonora | Garcia-Macía, Marina | Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen | Garg, Abhishek D | Garg, Pramod Kumar | Gargini, Ricardo | Gassen, Nils Christian | Gatica, Damián | Gatti, Evelina | Gavard, Julie | Gavathiotis, Evripidis | Ge, Liang | Ge, Pengfei | Ge, Shengfang | Gean, Po-Wu | Gelmetti, Vania | Genazzani, Armando A | Geng, Jiefei | Genschik, Pascal | Gerner, Lisa | Gestwicki, Jason E | Gewirtz, David A | Ghavami, Saeid | Ghigo, Eric | Ghosh, Debabrata | Giammarioli, Anna Maria | Giampieri, Francesca | Giampietri, Claudia | Giatromanolaki, Alexandra | Gibbings, Derrick J | Gibellini, Lara | Gibson, Spencer B | Ginet, Vanessa | Giordano, Antonio | Giorgini, Flaviano | Giovannetti, Elisa | Girardin, Stephen E | Gispert, Suzana | Giuliano, Sandy | Gladson, Candece L | Glavic, Alvaro | Gleave, Martin | Godefroy, Nelly | Gogal, Robert M | Gokulan, Kuppan | Goldman, Gustavo H | Goletti, Delia | Goligorsky, Michael S | Gomes, Aldrin V | Gomes, Ligia C | Gomez, Hernando | Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria | Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén | Gonçalves, Dawit AP | Goncu, Ebru | Gong, Qingqiu | Gongora, Céline | Gonzalez, Carlos B | Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro | Gonzalez-Cabo, Pilar | González-Polo, Rosa Ana | Goping, Ing Swie | Gorbea, Carlos | Gorbunov, Nikolai V | Goring, Daphne R | Gorman, Adrienne M | Gorski, Sharon M | Goruppi, Sandro | Goto-Yamada, Shino | Gotor, Cecilia | Gottlieb, Roberta A | Gozes, Illana | Gozuacik, Devrim | Graba, Yacine | Graef, Martin | Granato, Giovanna E | Grant, Gary Dean | Grant, Steven | Gravina, Giovanni Luca | Green, Douglas R | Greenhough, Alexander | Greenwood, Michael T | Grimaldi, Benedetto | Gros, Frédéric | Grose, Charles | Groulx, Jean-Francois | Gruber, Florian | Grumati, Paolo | Grune, Tilman | Guan, Jun-Lin | Guan, Kun-Liang | Guerra, Barbara | Guillen, Carlos | Gulshan, Kailash | Gunst, Jan | Guo, Chuanyong | Guo, Lei | Guo, Ming | Guo, Wenjie | Guo, Xu-Guang | Gust, Andrea A | Gustafsson, Åsa B | Gutierrez, Elaine | Gutierrez, Maximiliano G | Gwak, Ho-Shin | Haas, Albert | Haber, James E | Hadano, Shinji | Hagedorn, Monica | Hahn, David R | Halayko, Andrew J | Hamacher-Brady, Anne | Hamada, Kozo | Hamai, Ahmed | Hamann, Andrea | Hamasaki, Maho | Hamer, Isabelle | Hamid, Qutayba | Hammond, Ester M | Han, Feng | Han, Weidong | Handa, James T | Hanover, John A | Hansen, Malene | Harada, Masaru | Harhaji-Trajkovic, Ljubica | Harper, J Wade | Harrath, Abdel Halim | Harris, Adrian L | Harris, James | Hasler, Udo | Hasselblatt, Peter | Hasui, Kazuhisa | Hawley, Robert G | Hawley, Teresa S | He, Congcong | He, Cynthia Y | He, Fengtian | He, Gu | He, Rong-Rong | He, Xian-Hui | He, You-Wen | He, Yu-Ying | Heath, Joan K | Hébert, Marie-Josée | Heinzen, Robert A | Helgason, Gudmundur Vignir | Hensel, Michael | Henske, Elizabeth P | Her, Chengtao | Herman, Paul K | Hernández, Agustín | Hernandez, Carlos | Hernández-Tiedra, Sonia | Hetz, Claudio | Hiesinger, P Robin | Higaki, Katsumi | Hilfiker, Sabine | Hill, Bradford G | Hill, Joseph A | Hill, William D | Hino, Keisuke | Hofius, Daniel | Hofman, Paul | Höglinger, Günter U | Höhfeld, Jörg | Holz, Marina K | Hong, Yonggeun | Hood, David A | Hoozemans, Jeroen JM | Hoppe, Thorsten | Hsu, Chin | Hsu, Chin-Yuan | Hsu, Li-Chung | Hu, Dong | Hu, Guochang | Hu, Hong-Ming | Hu, Hongbo | Hu, Ming Chang | Hu, Yu-Chen | Hu, Zhuo-Wei | Hua, Fang | Hua, Ya | Huang, Canhua | Huang, Huey-Lan | Huang, Kuo-How | Huang, Kuo-Yang | Huang, Shile | Huang, Shiqian | Huang, Wei-Pang | Huang, Yi-Ran | Huang, Yong | Huang, Yunfei | Huber, Tobias B | Huebbe, Patricia | Huh, Won-Ki | Hulmi, Juha J | Hur, Gang Min | Hurley, James H | Husak, Zvenyslava | Hussain, Sabah NA | Hussain, Salik | Hwang, Jung Jin | Hwang, Seungmin | Hwang, Thomas IS | Ichihara, Atsuhiro | Imai, Yuzuru | Imbriano, Carol | Inomata, Megumi | Into, Takeshi | Iovane, Valentina | Iovanna, Juan L | Iozzo, Renato V | Ip, Nancy Y | Irazoqui, Javier E | Iribarren, Pablo | Isaka, Yoshitaka | Isakovic, Aleksandra J | Ischiropoulos, Harry | Isenberg, Jeffrey S | Ishaq, Mohammad | Ishida, Hiroyuki | Ishii, Isao | Ishmael, Jane E | Isidoro, Ciro | Isobe, Ken-ichi | Isono, Erika | Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh | Itahana, Koji | Itakura, Eisuke | Ivanov, Andrei I | Iyer, Anand Krishnan V | Izquierdo, José M | Izumi, Yotaro | Izzo, Valentina | Jäättelä, Marja | Jaber, Nadia | Jackson, Daniel John | Jackson, William T | Jacob, Tony George | Jacques, Thomas S | Jagannath, Chinnaswamy | Jain, Ashish | Jana, Nihar Ranjan | Jang, Byoung Kuk | Jani, Alkesh | Janji, Bassam | Jannig, Paulo Roberto | Jansson, Patric J | Jean, Steve | Jendrach, Marina | Jeon, Ju-Hong | Jessen, Niels | Jeung, Eui-Bae | Jia, Kailiang | Jia, Lijun | Jiang, Hong | Jiang, Hongchi | Jiang, Liwen | Jiang, Teng | Jiang, Xiaoyan | Jiang, Xuejun | Jiang, Xuejun | Jiang, Ying | Jiang, Yongjun | Jiménez, Alberto | Jin, Cheng | Jin, Hongchuan | Jin, Lei | Jin, Meiyan | Jin, Shengkan | Jinwal, Umesh Kumar | Jo, Eun-Kyeong | Johansen, Terje | Johnson, Daniel E | Johnson, Gail VW | Johnson, James D | Jonasch, Eric | Jones, Chris | Joosten, Leo AB | Jordan, Joaquin | Joseph, Anna-Maria | Joseph, Bertrand | Joubert, Annie M | Ju, Dianwen | Ju, Jingfang | Juan, Hsueh-Fen | Juenemann, Katrin | Juhász, Gábor | Jung, Hye Seung | Jung, Jae U | Jung, Yong-Keun | Jungbluth, Heinz | Justice, Matthew J | Jutten, Barry | Kaakoush, Nadeem O | Kaarniranta, Kai | Kaasik, Allen | Kabuta, Tomohiro | Kaeffer, Bertrand | Kågedal, Katarina | Kahana, Alon | Kajimura, Shingo | Kakhlon, Or | Kalia, Manjula | Kalvakolanu, Dhan V | Kamada, Yoshiaki | Kambas, Konstantinos | Kaminskyy, Vitaliy O | Kampinga, Harm H | Kandouz, Mustapha | Kang, Chanhee | Kang, Rui | Kang, Tae-Cheon | Kanki, Tomotake | Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi | Kanno, Haruo | Kanthasamy, Anumantha G | Kantorow, Marc | Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria | Kapuy, Orsolya | Karantza, Vassiliki | Karim, Md Razaul | Karmakar, Parimal | Kaser, Arthur | Kaushik, Susmita | Kawula, Thomas | Kaynar, A Murat | Ke, Po-Yuan | Ke, Zun-Ji | Kehrl, John H | Keller, Kate E | Kemper, Jongsook Kim
Autophagy  2016;12(1):1-222.
doi:10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
PMCID: PMC4835977  PMID: 26799652
autolysosome; autophagosome; chaperone-mediated autophagy; flux; LC3; lysosome; macroautophagy; phagophore; stress; vacuole
4.  Human pancreatic cancer xenografts recapitulate key aspects of cancer cachexia 
Oncotarget  2016;8(1):1177-1189.
Cancer cachexia represents a debilitating syndrome that diminishes quality of life and augments the toxicities of conventional treatments. Cancer cachexia is particularly debilitating in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). Mechanisms responsible for cancer cachexia are under investigation and are largely derived from observations in syngeneic murine models of cancer which are limited in PC. We evaluate the effect of human PC cells on both muscle wasting and the systemic inflammatory milieu potentially contributing to PC-associated cachexia. Specifically, human PC xenografts were generated by implantation of pancreatic cancer cells, L3.6pl and PANC-1, either in the flank or orthotopically within the pancreas. Mice bearing orthotopic xenografts demonstrated significant muscle wasting and atrophy-associated gene expression changes compared to controls. Further, despite the absence of adaptive immunity, splenic tissue from orthotopically engrafted mice demonstrated elevations in several pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with cancer cachexia, including TNFα, IL1β, IL6 and KC (murine IL8 homologue), when compared to controls. Therefore, data presented here support further investigation into the complexity of cancer cachexia in PC to identify potential targets for this debilitating syndrome.
doi:10.18632/oncotarget.13593
PMCID: PMC5352045  PMID: 27901481
pancreatic cancer; cachexia; muscle wasting; inflammation; xenografts
5.  Downstream mediators of the intratumoral interferon response suppress antitumor immunity, induce gemcitabine resistance and associate with poor survival in human pancreatic cancer 
Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII  2015;64(12):1553-1563.
The cancer microenvironment allows tumor cells to evade immune surveillance through a variety of mechanisms. While interferon-γ (IFNγ) is central to effective antitumor immunity, its effects on the microenvironment are not as clear and have in some cancers been shown to induce immune checkpoint ligands. The heterogeneity of these responses to IFNγ remains poorly characterized in desmoplastic malignancies with minimal inflammatory cell infiltration, such as pancreatic cancer (PC). Thus, the IFNγ response within and on key cells of the PC micro-environment was evaluated. IFNγ induced expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II on PC cell lines, primary pancreatic cancer epithelial cells (PPCE) and patient-derived tumor-associated stroma, concomitant with an upregulation of PDL1 in the absence of CD80 and CD86 expression. As expected, IFNγ also induced high levels of CXCL10 from all cell types. In addition, significantly higher levels of CXCL10 were observed in PC specimens compared to those from chronic pancreatitis, whereby intratumoral CXCL10 concentration was an independent predictor of poor survival. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a subset of CXCR3-positive cancer cells in over 90 % of PC specimens, as well as on a subset of cultured PC cell lines and PPCE, whereby exposure to CXCL10 induced resistance to the chemotherapeutic gemcitabine. These findings suggest that IFNγ has multiple effects on many cell types within the PC microenvironment that may lead to immune evasion, chemoresistance and shortened survival.
doi:10.1007/s00262-015-1760-y
PMCID: PMC5129167  PMID: 26423423
Interferon-γ; CXCL10; Pancreatic cancer; Epithelial cell; Tumor-associated stroma; Immunooncology
6.  CARBAMAZEPINE SUPPRESSES CALPAIN-MEDIATED AUTOPHAGY IMPAIRMENT AFTER ISCHEMIA/REPERFUSION IN MOUSE LIVERS 
Toxicology and applied pharmacology  2013;273(3):10.1016/j.taap.2013.10.006.
Onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) plays a causative role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Current therapeutic strategies for reducing reperfusion injury remain disappointing. Autophagy is a lysosome-mediated, catabolic process that timely eliminates abnormal or damaged cellular constituents and organelles such as dysfunctional mitochondria. I/R induces calcium overloading and calpain activation, leading to degradation of key autophagy-related proteins (Atg). Carbamazepine (CBZ), an FDA-approved anticonvulsant drug, has recently been reported to increase autophagy. We investigated the effects of CBZ on hepatic I/R injury. Hepatocytes and livers from male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to simulated in vitro, as well as in vivo I/R, respectively. Cell death, intracellular calcium, calpain activity, changes in autophagy-related proteins (Atg), autophagic flux, MPT and mitochondrial membrane potential after I/R were analyzed in the presence and absence of 20 µM CBZ. CBZ significantly increased hepatocyte viability after reperfusion. Confocal microscopy revealed that CBZ prevented calcium overloading, the onset of the MPT and mitochondrial depolarization. Immunoblotting and fluorometric analysis showed that CBZ blocked calpain activation, depletion of Atg7 and Beclin-1 and loss of autophagic flux after reperfusion. Intravital multiphoton imaging of anesthetized mice demonstrated that CBZ substantially reversed autophagic defects and mitochondrial dysfunction after I/R in vivo. In conclusion, CBZ prevents calcium overloading and calpain activation, which, in turn, suppresses Atg7 and Beclin-1 depletion, defective autophagy, onset of the MPT and cell death after I/R.
doi:10.1016/j.taap.2013.10.006
PMCID: PMC3867813  PMID: 24126417
mitochondria; autophagy; mitochondrial permeability transition; hepatocytes; ischemia/reperfusion; calcium
7.  Role of autophagy in differential sensitivity of hepatocarcinoma cells to sorafenib 
World Journal of Hepatology  2014;6(10):752-758.
AIM: To investigate the role of sorafenib (SFN) in autophagy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated how SFN affects autophagy signaling pathway in human HCC cell lines.
METHODS: Two different human HCC cell lines, Hep3B and Huh7, were subjected to different concentrations of SFN. Cell viability and onset of apoptosis were determined with colorimetric assay and immunoblotting analysis, respectively. The changes in autophagy-related proteins, including LC3, ULK1, AMPK, and LKB, were determined with immunoblotting analysis in the presence or absence of SFN. To assess autophagic dynamics, autophagic flux was measured with chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor. The autophagic responsiveness between different HCC cell lines was compared under the autophagy enhancing conditions.
RESULTS: Hep3B cells were significantly more resistant to SFN than Huh7 cells. Immunoblotting analysis revealed a marked increase in SFN-mediated autophagy flux in Huh7 cells, which was, however, absent in Hep3B cells. While both starvation and rapamycin enhanced autophagy in Huh7 cells, only rapamycin increased autophagy in Hep3B cells. Immunoblotting analysis of autophagy initiation proteins showed that SFN substantially increased phosphorylation of AMPK and consequently autophagy in Huh7, but not in Hep3B cells.
CONCLUSION: The autophagic responsiveness to SFN is distinct between Hep3B and Huh7 cells. Resistance of Hep3B cells to SFN may be associated with altered autophagy signaling pathways.
doi:10.4254/wjh.v6.i10.752
PMCID: PMC4209420  PMID: 25349646
Autophagy; Liver cancer; Sorafenib
8.  Murine Cirrhosis Induces Hepatocyte Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition and Alterations in Survival Signaling Pathways 
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)  2008;48(3):909-919.
Hepatocytes that reside in a chronically-injured liver have altered growth responses compared to hepatocytes in normal liver. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is upregulated in the cirrhotic liver, and cirrhotic hepatocytes, unlike normal hepatocytes exposed to this cytokine, exhibit decreased apoptosis. In fetal hepatocytes, TGFβ also induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and signaling changes in cell survival pathways. Here, chronic murine liver injury was induced by twice-weekly carbon tetrachloride administration for 8 weeks. Normal liver-derived hepatocytes (NLDH) and cirrhotic liver-derived hepatocytes (CLDH) were examined for EMT and the small mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt), and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were investigated. Immunofluorescence imaging of cirrhotic livers demonstrated increased vimentin expression, which was confirmed by immunoblot analysis. In vitro, CLDH exhibited increased vimentin and type 1 collagen expression within cellular extensions consistent with EMT. Treatment with TGFβ augmented the EMT response in CLDH. In contrast, untreated NLDH did not display features of EMT but responded to TGFβ with increased vimentin expression and EMT characteristics. In response to PI3K/Akt inhibition, CLDH had decreased basal and insulin-stimulated p-Akt expression and decreased apoptosis compared to NLDH. In both NLDH and CLDH, vimentin expression was dependent on PI3K/Akt activity. CLDH demonstrated increased basal p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression that was independent of Smad and PI3K/Akt signaling. Inhibition of the MAPK pathway produced a marked increase in CLDH apoptosis. Conclusion: CLDH have increased vimentin and type 1 collagen expression and morphologic features consistent with EMT. In addition, compared to NLDH, the cellular signaling phenotype of CLDH changes from a MAPK-independent pathway to a MAPK-dependent cell survival pathway. These findings may have clinical implications for chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in the cirrhotic liver.
doi:10.1002/hep.22397
PMCID: PMC4118693  PMID: 18712785
9.  c-Met signaling in the development of tumorigenesis and chemoresistance: Potential applications in pancreatic cancer 
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the 4th leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. The majority of patients are candidates only for palliative chemotherapy, which has proven largely ineffective in halting tumor progression. One proposed mechanism of chemoresistance involves signaling via the mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor protein (MET), a previously established pathway critical to cell proliferation and migration. Here, we review the literature to characterize the role of MET in the development of tumorigenesis, metastasis and chemoresistance, highlighting the potential of MET as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. In this review, we characterize the role of c-Met in the development of tumorigenesis, metastasis and chemoresistance, highlighting the potential of c-Met as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i26.8458
PMCID: PMC4093697  PMID: 25024602
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma; c-Met; Chemoresistance; Receptor tyrosine kinase
10.  TRIF dependent innate immune activation is critical for survival to neonatal gram negative sepsis 
Current evidence suggests that neonatal immunity is functionally distinct from adults. Though toll like receptor (TLR) signaling through the adaptor protein, MyD88, has been shown to be critical for survival to sepsis in adults, little is known about the role of MyD88 or TRIF in neonatal sepsis. We demonstrate that TRIF−/− but not MyD88−/− neonates are highly susceptible to Escherichia coli peritonitis and bacteremia. This was associated with decreased innate immune recruitment and function. Importantly, we found that the reverse was true in adults, that MyD88−/−, but not TRIF−/− or wild-type adults are susceptible to E coli peritonitis and bacteremia. In addition, we demonstrate that TRIF but not MyD88 signaling is critical for the TLR4 protective adjuvant effect we have previously demonstrated. These data suggest a differential requirement for the survival of neonates versus adults to gram negative infection, and that modulation of TRIF in neonates can be used to augment survival to neonatal sepsis.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1302676
PMCID: PMC4297742  PMID: 25548220
mice; infection; neutrophil; cytokine
11.  Autophagy in Ischemic Livers: A Critical Role of Sirtuin 1/Mitofusin 2 Axis in Autophagy Induction 
Toxicological Research  2016;32(1):35-46.
No-flow ischemia occurs during cardiac arrest, hemorrhagic shock, liver resection and transplantation. Recovery of blood flow and normal physiological pH, however, irreversibly injures the liver and other tissues. Although the liver has the powerful machinery for mitochondrial quality control, a process called mitophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent cell death occur after reperfusion. Growing evidence indicates that reperfusion impairs mitophagy, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction, defective oxidative phosphorylation, accumulation of toxic metabolites, energy loss and ultimately cell death. The importance of acetylation/deacetylation cycle in the mitochondria and mitophagy has recently gained attention. Emerging data suggest that sirtuins, enzymes deacetylating a variety of target proteins in cellular metabolism, survival and longevity, may also act as an autophagy modulator. This review highlights recent advances of our understanding of a mechanistic correlation between sirtuin 1, mitophagy and ischemic liver injury.
doi:10.5487/TR.2016.32.1.035
PMCID: PMC4780240  PMID: 26977257
Autophagy; Mitochondria; Liver; Ischemia/Reperfusion; Acetylation
12.  Autophagy: Self-preservation through cannibalism of proteins and organelles 
Surgery  2015;157(1):1-5.
doi:10.1016/j.surg.2014.07.014
PMCID: PMC4275300  PMID: 25482459
13.  Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Autophagy in Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:183469.
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains a major complication of liver resection, transplantation, and hemorrhagic shock. Although the mechanisms that contribute to hepatic I/R are complex and diverse involving the interaction of cell injury in hepatocytes, immune cells, and endothelium, mitochondrial dysfunction is a cardinal event culminating in hepatic reperfusion injury. Mitochondrial autophagy, so-called mitophagy, is a key cellular process that regulates mitochondrial homeostasis and eliminates damaged mitochondria in a timely manner. Growing evidence accumulates that I/R injury is attributed to defective mitophagy. This review aims to summarize the current understanding of autophagy and its role in hepatic I/R injury and highlight the various therapeutic approaches that have been studied to ameliorate injury.
doi:10.1155/2015/183469
PMCID: PMC4684839  PMID: 26770970
14.  The inflammatory milieu within the pancreatic cancer microenvironment correlates with clinicopathologic parameters, chemoresistance and survival 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:783.
Background
The tumor microenvironment impacts pancreatic cancer (PC) development, progression and metastasis. How intratumoral inflammatory mediators modulate this biology remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that the inflammatory milieu within the PC microenvironment would correlate with clinicopathologic findings and survival.
Methods
Pancreatic specimens from normal pancreas (n = 6), chronic pancreatitis (n = 9) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 36) were homogenized immediately upon resection. Homogenates were subjected to multiplex analysis of 41 inflammatory mediators.
Results
Twenty-three mediators were significantly elevated in adenocarcinoma specimens compared to nonmalignant controls. Increased intratumoral IL-8 concentrations associated with larger tumors (P = .045) and poor differentiation (P = .038); the administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy associated with reduced IL-8 concentrations (P = .003). Neoadjuvant therapy was also associated with elevated concentrations of Flt-3 L (P = .005). Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β (P = .017) and TNFα (P = .033) were associated with a poor histopathologic response to neoadjuvant therapy. Elevated concentrations of G-CSF (P = .016) and PDGF-AA (P = .012) correlated with reduced overall survival. Conversely, elevated concentrations of FGF-2 (P = .038), TNFα (P = .031) and MIP-1α (P = .036) were associated with prolonged survival.
Conclusion
The pancreatic cancer microenvironment harbors a unique inflammatory milieu with potential diagnostic and prognostic value.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1820-x
PMCID: PMC4619553  PMID: 26498838
Inflammation; Cytokines; Chemokines; Growth factors; Pancreatic cancer; Tumor microenvironment
15.  Liver Regeneration and the Atrophy-Hypertrophy Complex 
ABSTRACT
The atrophy-hypertrophy complex (AHC) refers to the controlled restoration of liver parenchyma following hepatocyte loss. Different types of injury (e.g., toxins, ischemia/reperfusion, biliary obstruction, and resection) elicit the same hypertrophic response in the remnant liver. The AHC involves complex anatomical, histological, cellular, and molecular processes. The signals responsible for these processes are both intrinsic and extrinsic to the liver and involve both physical and molecular events. In patients in whom resection of large liver malignancies would result in an inadequate functional liver remnant, preoperative portal vein embolization may increase the remnant liver sufficiently to permit aggressive resections. Through continued basic science research, the cellular mechanisms of the AHC may be maximized to permit curative resections in patients with potentially prohibitive liver function.
doi:10.1055/s-2008-1076679
PMCID: PMC3036484  PMID: 21326550
Portal vein embolization; atrophy-hypertrophy complex; liver regeneration
16.  TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA MEDIATES HEPATOCYTE APOPTOSIS THROUGH SMAD3 GENERATION OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES 
Biochimie  2007;89(12):1464-1473.
TGFβ induces hepatocyte apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), and caspase activation. The role of the Smad pathway in these events is unknown. In this study primary hepatocytes were isolated from Smad3 wild-type (+/+) and knockout (−/−) mice, and were treated with TGFβ (5 ng/ml) and/or trolox (2 mM). ROS generation, MPT, TGFβ-dependent transcription, and apoptosis were assessed in the presence or absence of Smad3 wild-type (WT) and dominant-negative (DN) plasmids. With TGFβ treatment, Smad3 (−/−) hepatocytes did not generate ROS activity, exhibit MPT, activate caspases, or undergo apoptosis when compared to Smad 3 (+/+) hepatocytes. Similarly, transfection of Smad3 (+/+) hepatocytes with DN-Smad3 inhibited TGFβ-mediated transcription, ROS generation, MPT, and apoptosis. However, Smad3 (−/−) cells transfected with WT-Smad3 and treated with TGFβ demonstrated increased transcriptional activity, the MPT, and TGFβ-induced apoptosis. TGFβ-mediated ROS generation occurred through an NADPH–like oxidase pathway since diphenyleneiodonium chloride inhibited ROS induction. In conclusion, TGFβ-induced hepatocyte apoptosis occurs through Smad3 dependent activation of ROS with subsequent activation of the MPT and caspases.
doi:10.1016/j.biochi.2007.09.001
PMCID: PMC2151473  PMID: 17936489
transforming growth factor beta; hepatocyte; apoptosis; Smad3; reactive oxygen species
17.  BASAL REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES DETERMINE THE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO APOPTOSIS IN CIRRHOTIC HEPATOCYTES 
Free radical biology & medicine  2006;41(11):1645-1654.
Hepatocytes from cirrhotic murine livers exhibit increased basal ROS activity and resistance to TGFβ-induced apoptosis, yet when ROS levels are decreased by antioxidant pretreatment, these cells recover susceptibility to apoptotic stimuli. To further study these redox events, hepatocytes from cirrhotic murine livers were pretreated with various antioxidants prior to TGFβ treatment and the ROS activity, apoptotic response, and mitochondrial ROS generation were assessed. In addition, normal hepatocytes were treated with low-dose H2O2 and ROS and apoptotic responses determined. Treatment of cirrhotic hepatocytes with various antioxidants decreased basal ROS and rendered them susceptible to apoptosis. Examination of normal hepatocytes by confocal microscopy demonstrated co-localization of ROS activity and respiring mitochondria. Basal assessment of cirrhotic hepatocytes showed non-focal ROS activity that was abolished by antioxidants. After pretreatment with an adenovirus expressing MnSOD, basal cirrhotic hepatocyte ROS was decreased and TGFβ-induced co-localization of ROS and mitochondrial respiration was present. Treatment of normal hepatocytes with H2O2 resulted in a sustained increase in ROS and resistance to TGFβ apoptosis that was reversed when these cells were pretreated with an antioxidant. In conclusion, cirrhotic hepatocytes have a non-focal distribution of ROS. However, normal and cirrhotic hepatocytes exhibit mitochondrial localization of ROS that is necessary for apoptosis.
doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2006.07.02
PMCID: PMC1773006  PMID: 17145552
Reactive oxygen species (ROS); hepatocytes; apoptosis; transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ); mitochondria; AdCat: Adenovirus expressing catalase; AdLuc: Adenovirus expressing luciferase; AdMnSOD: Adenovirus expressing MnSOD; DMNQ: 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone; H2-DCFDA: 2’,7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; TGFβ: Transforming growth factor beta 1
18.  Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma: A case report and literature review 
Highlights
•Differentiation between GP and GIST alters treatment algorithms.•Primary management of duodenal GP consists of resection with negative margins.•Surveillance alone is safe and effective following resection with negative margins.•For regionally advanced disease, consider adjuvant radiotherapy.
Introduction
Gangliocytic paraganglioma is a rare tumor that is most commonly located in the duodenum. At presentation, it may be confused with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), but distinguishing between these tumors is critical because the natural history and treatment of these two tumors differs markedly. Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma typically exhibits benign behavior with occasional regional lymph node metastasis and no reports of tumor associated deaths. Recurrence after resection is rare.
Presentation of case
A 50 year-old male presented with melena and hemoglobin concentration of 4.6 g/dl. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrated a submucosal mass in the third portion of the duodenum with no active bleeding. CT scan identified no regional lymphadenopathy or distant metastasis. The tumor was resected through a longitudinal duodenotomy with negative margins.
Discussion
Endoscopic resection of duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma appears to be safe and effective when tumor may be removed in its entirety by this method. If the tumor is not suspended by a stalk or there is suspicion for regional lymph node disease then surgical management is preferred. Radiation oncologists at high volume centers have endorsed utilization of adjuvant radiotherapy to the postsurgical bed in cases involving lymph node metastasis. Utilization of chemotherapy for management of this disease has not been reported.
Conclusion
Localized duodenal gangliocytic paragangliomas are best managed by resection with negative margins. In cases in which the tumor is resected with negative margins, it appears to be safe to embark on a course of surveillance and forego adjuvant therapy.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.01.003
PMCID: PMC4353939  PMID: 25600615
Gangliocytic paraganglioma; Duodenum; Gastrointestinal stroma tumor
19.  Heat shock protein 90 inhibition abrogates hepatocellular cancer growth through cdc2-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis 
Purpose
17-(demethoxy), 17-allylamino geldanamycin (17-AAG) suppresses growth in some cancers by inhibiting Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). We examined the effects of 17-AAG-mediated Hsp90 inhibition on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) growth in vitro and in vivo.
Methods
Human HCC cell lines, Hep3B and HuH7, were exposed to 17-AAG and cell viabilities and apoptosis were determined. Cell cycle profiles were analyzed and the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint proteins cdc2 and cyclin B1 were examined. Studies were performed to determine whether 17-AAG-mediated cdc2 decrease was due to altered gene expression, transcription, or protein degradation. The effects of 17-AAG on Hep3B and HuH7 xenograft growth in athymic nude mice were also examined.
Results
Hep3B and HuH7 treated with 17-AAG versus untreated controls showed decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis. Cells treated with 17-AAG also showed an increased fraction in G2/M phase and an associated decrease in cdc2 through protein degradation rather than through other mechanisms. Hsp90 inhibition by 17-AAG also decreased HCC xenograft growth in association with decreased cdc2 expression.
Conclusions
17-AAG-mediated inhibition of Hsp90 abrogates human HCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo through cdc2 decrease, which in turn induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Hsp90 is a mediator of HCC growth and survival and its inhibition may serve as a potential treatment.
doi:10.1007/s00280-008-0888-2
PMCID: PMC4122215  PMID: 19082595
Hepatocellular cancer; Hsp90; 17-AAG; Xenograft; cdc2
20.  Pancreatic Stent Placement Is Associated with Resolution of Refractory Grade C Pancreatic Fistula after Left-Sided Pancreatectomy 
The American surgeon  2009;75(8):654-658.
Pancreatic fistula have been a source of significant morbidity and mortality after left-sided pancreatectomy. The majority of fistulas are classified as Grade A and resolve quickly with no intervention. Grade C pancreatic fistulas, which require percutaneous or operative drainage, are less common and may be associated with morbidity and mortality. We used postoperative endoscopic pancreatic stent placement as an adjunctive strategy in the management of refractory Grade C pancreatic fistulas. Patients undergoing endoscopic pancreatic stent placement for persistent, refractory peripancreatic fluid collections/pancreatic fistula after left-sided pancreatectomy were identified. Eight patients underwent endoscopic pancreatic stent placement for refractory Grade C pancreatic fistulas. Six patients had percutaneous catheter placement; two patients had transgastric drainage. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) showed extravasation of contrast from the distal end of the pancreatic duct in seven patients. Pancreatic stents were placed in all patients at a median time of 48 days postoperation and left for a median of 47 days. Before stent removal, ERCP demonstrated pancreatic fistula closure. Median time to complete resolution of the fistula was 41 days after stent placement. Endoscopic pancreatic stents were associated with resolution of Grade C fistulas. After distal pancreatectomy, pancreatic stent placement should be considered in the postoperative period for refractory pancreatic fistulas.
PMCID: PMC3982853  PMID: 19725286
21.  Hepatobiliary cancer and pyogenic liver abscess: when poking the skunk is not enough 
American journal of surgery  2013;205(4):479-480.
doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2012.06.008
PMCID: PMC3763705  PMID: 23375754
22.  Impaired Autophagy: A Mechanism of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Anoxic Rat Hepatocytes 
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)  2008;47(5):1725-1736.
Autophagy selectively removes abnormal or damaged organelles such as dysfunctional mitochondria. The mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is a marker of impaired mitochondrial function that is evident in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagy in I/R injury is unknown. Cultured rat hepatocytes and mouse livers were exposed to anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) and I/R, respectively. Expression of autophagyrelatedprotein7(Atg7),Beclin-1,andAtg12,autophagyregulatoryproteins,wasanalyzedbywestern blots. Some hepatocytes were incubated with calpain 2 inhibitors or infected with adenoviruses encoding green fluorescent protein (control), Atg7, and Beclin-1 to augment autophagy. To induce nutrient depletion, a condition stimulating autophagy, hepatocytes were incubated in an amino acid–free and serum-free medium for 3 hours prior to onset of anoxia. For confocal imaging, hepatocytes were coloaded with calcein and tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester to visualize onset of the MPT and mitochondrial depolarization, respectively. To further examine autophagy, hepatocytes were infected with an adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein–microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) and subjected to A/R. Calpain activity was fluorometrically determined with succinyl-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin. A/R markedly decreased Atg7 and Beclin-1 concomitantly with a progressive increase in calpain activity. I/R of livers also decreased both proteins. However, inhibition of calpain isoform 2, adenoviral overexpression, and nutrient depletion all substantially suppressed A/R-induced loss of autophagy proteins, prevented onset of the MPT, and decreased cell death after reoxygenation. Confocal imaging of GFP-LC3 confirmed A/R-induced depletion of autophagosomes, which was reversed by nutrient depletion and adenoviral overexpression.
Conclusion
Calpain 2–mediated degradation of Atg7 and Beclin-1 impairs mitochondrial autophagy, and this subsequently leads to MPT-dependent hepatocyte death after A/R.
doi:10.1002/hep.22187
PMCID: PMC3971577  PMID: 18311843
23.  Critical role of autophagy in ischemia/reperfusion injury to aged livers 
Autophagy  2012;8(1):140-141.
Asteady increase in life expectancy has resulted in an equivalent increase in elderly patients who are more susceptible to diseases than young patients. In a recent study, we found that in both in vitro and in vivo models of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), a loss of ATG4B is causatively associated with the increased sensitivity of the liver to I/R injury with age. Our work suggests that a restoration or enhancement of autophagy is a novel therapeutic modality to ameliorate liver function after I/R to aged livers.
doi:10.4161/auto.8.1.18391
PMCID: PMC3335997  PMID: 22170150
ischemia; reperfusion; liver; autophagy; aging; mitochondria
24.  Autophagy Suppresses Age-Dependent Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Livers of Mice 
Gastroenterology  2011;141(6):2188-2199.e6.
BACKGROUND & AIMS
As life expectancy increases, there are greater numbers of patients with liver diseases that require surgery or transplantation. Livers of older patients have significantly less reparative capacity following ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, which occurs during these operations. There are no strategies to reduce the age-dependent I/R injury. We investigated the role of autophagy in the age dependence of sensitivity to I/R injury.
METHODS
Hepatocytes and livers from 3- and 26-month–old mice were subjected to in vitro and in vivo I/R, respectively. We analyzed changes in autophagy-related proteins (Atg). Mitochondrial dysfunction was visualized using confocal and intravital multiphoton microscopy of isolated hepatocytes and livers from anesthetized mice, respectively.
RESULTS
Immunoblot, autophagic flux, genetic, and imaging analyses all associated the increase in sensitivity to I/R injury with age with decreased autophagy and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction, due to calpain-mediated loss of Atg4B. Overexpression of either Atg4B or Beclin-1 recovered Atg4B, increased autophagy, blocked the onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition, and suppressed cell death after I/R in old hepatocytes. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis of hepatocytes and Atg3-knockout cells demonstrated an interaction between Beclin-1 and Atg3, a protein required for autophagosome formation. Intravital multiphoton imaging revealed that overexpression of Beclin-1 or Atg4B attenuated autophagic defects and mitochondrial dysfunction in livers of older mice after I/R.
CONCLUSION
Loss of Atg4B in livers of old mice increases their sensitivity to I/R injury. Increasing autophagy might ameliorate liver damage and restore mitochondrial function after I/R.
doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2011.08.005
PMCID: PMC3221865  PMID: 21854730
MPT; mouse model; aging; liver injury
25.  Critical Role for CXC Ligand 10/CXC Receptor 3 Signaling in the Murine Neonatal Response to Sepsis ▿ 
Infection and Immunity  2011;79(7):2746-2754.
Previous studies have suggested that neonates rely heavily on innate immunity for their antimicrobial response to bacterial infections. However, the innate immune response by neonates to bacterial infection remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that in a murine model of neonatal polymicrobial sepsis, CXC ligand 10 (CXCL10) concentrations increase in the blood and peritoneum concordant with the peritoneal recruitment of granulocytes and macrophages. Additionally, CXC receptor 3 (CXCR3) expression on elicited peritoneal macrophages and granulocytes increases following sepsis. Blockade of CXCL10 worsens not only recruitment and phagocytic function of peritoneal granulocytes and macrophages but also survival. Deletion of CXCR3 also significantly increases mortality to a septic challenge. Finally, we demonstrate that the protective adjuvant effect of pretreatment with a Toll-like receptor 4 agonist to neonatal sepsis is dependent on an endogenous CXCL10 response and that pretreatment of neonates with CXCL10 can also significantly improve macrophage and granulocyte function and modestly improve outcome to polymicrobial sepsis. Together, these data suggest a critical role for CXCL10 signaling during neonatal sepsis.
doi:10.1128/IAI.01291-10
PMCID: PMC3191971  PMID: 21518789

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