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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  The Effect of Local Injection of Epinephrine and Bupivacaine on Post-Tonsillectomy Pain and Bleeding 
Introduction:
Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgeries in the world and the most common problem is post-tonsillectomy pain and bleeding. The relief of postoperative pain helps increase early food intake and prevent secondary dehydration. One method for relieving pain is peritonsillar injection of epinephrine along with an anesthetic, which has been shown to produce variable results in previous studies. Study Deign: Prospective case-control study. Setting: A tertiary referral centers with accredited otorhinolaryngology-head & neck surgery and anesthesiology department.
Materials and Methods:
Patients under 15 years old, who were tonsillectomy candidates, were assigned into one of three groups: placebo injection, drug injection before tonsillectomy, and drug injection after tonsillectomy. The amount of bleeding, intensity of pain, and time of first post-operative food intake were evaluated during the first 18 hours post operation.
Results:
The intensity of pain in the first 30 minutes after the operation was lower in the patients who received injections, but the difference was not significant during the first 18 hours. The intensity of pain on swallowing during the first 6 hours was also lower in the intervention groups as compared with the placebo group. The amount of bleeding during the first 30 minutes post operation was lower in the two groups who received injections, but after 30 minutes there was no difference.
Conclusion:
Injection of epinephrine and bupivacaine pre- or post- tonsillectomy is effective in reducing pain and bleeding. The treatment also decreases swallowing pain in the hours immediately after surgery.
PMCID: PMC3846251  PMID: 24303442
Bleeding; Bupivacaine; Epinephrine; Post-tonsillectomy pain; Post-tonsillectomy; Tonsillectomy
2.  Periorbital Ecchymosis and Subconjunctival Hemorrhage following Ear Surgery 
ISRN Otolaryngology  2013;2013:791068.
Objective. To evaluate the occurrence of two periorbital complications of surgery for Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) and discuss the potential pathophysiologic mechanisms. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective review of the CSOM surgeries performed between Oct, 2005, and Jan, 2011, in our hospital. The early postoperative conditions of the patients were scrutinized to identify periorbital ecchymosis and subconjunctival hemorrhage. Results. Eight cases out of 756 patients were noted to have periorbital ecchymosis, and two of the patients also had simultaneous subconjunctival hemorrhage. All cases in which the complications occurred had undergone tympanoplasty, and in three patients mastoidectomy had also been performed. The age of the affected patients ranged from 24 to 70 years old. In all of them the condition ensued the day after the surgery and became better within 5 to 10 days. Complete recovery took approximately 1 month. Conclusion. Periorbital ecchymosis and subconjunctival hemorrhage are rare but safe complications of ear surgeries. The conditions are self-limiting and no management is necessary.
doi:10.1155/2013/791068
PMCID: PMC3806237  PMID: 24198972
3.  INF-α and Ototoxicity 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:295327.
Introduction. INF-α is a common drug for the treatment of hepatitis B and C. Although a variety of related complications are discussed, possible ototoxic effects of this mediation are not well described. Methods and Materials. In a before-after control study, 24 patients who received INF-α for the treatment of hepatitis B and C and 30 normal controls were included. Subjective and objective ototoxicity evaluations via questionnaire, high frequency audiometry, and measuring transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were performed one week before and one month after the prescription of the drug. Results. Subjective hearing complaint, tinnitus, and vertigo were seen in just 3 cases, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.083). In the frequency range of 4000 to 8000 Hz before (9.38 ± 1.0 and 10.7 ± 1.2, resp.) and after (17.9 ± 2.6 and 17.6 ± 2.6, resp.) one month of treatment, a significant difference (P = 0.083) was detected. Progressive decreases in amplitude of the OAE during TEOAE measurement in 1, 2, and 4 frequencies among 41.66%, 18.75 %, and 43.75% were observed, respectively. The hearing loss was seen more among older and male cases significantly. Conclusion. The results showed ototoxicity of INF-α that may encourage planning hearing monitoring in patients receiving this drug.
doi:10.1155/2013/295327
PMCID: PMC3741946  PMID: 23984336
4.  Nasal Septum Perforation due to Methamphetamine abuse 
Introduction:
Spontaneous Perforation of the nasal septum is an uncommon condition. Nasal inhalation of substances such as cocaine has long been linked to this Perforation.
Case Report:
This report describes the case of a 46-year-old woman who was addicted to methamphetamine and who presented with perforation of the nasal septum.This is the first reported case of nasal septal necrosis linked to nasal inhalation of methamphetamine.
Conclusions:
Patient history and assurance regardingillegal drug consumption and abuse is a key point for fast and accurate diagnosis. The pathophysiology of drug-induced sinunasal disease and a review of the literature are also presented.
PMCID: PMC3846244  PMID: 24303420
Drug abuse; Methamphetamine; Septal perforation

Results 1-4 (4)