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1.  Allergic rhinitis and dental caries in preschool children 
Dental Research Journal  2017;14(6):376-381.
Allergic rhinitis (AR) may be overdocumented in cases of dental caries because of controversies in the literature This study was conducted to investigate the potential relationship between AR and dental caries in children.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 296 children were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants were evaluated using the decay-missing-filled (DMF) index, and their AR status was evaluated by physical examination and through a standard questionnaire. Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics were compared among groups using Student's t-test or the Mann–Whitney U-test, the Chi-square test, and/or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. A level of P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant.
Evidence of AR was found in 77 (35.1%) participants. There was no significant difference in the rate of tooth decay or DMF between participants with or without AR (P = 0.07), but a significant difference was observed in the number of missing and filled teeth between those with and without AR (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in educational level, family income, milk intake, use of pacifier, use of a toothbrush, saliva secretion, or body mass index (P > 0.05 in all cases) between AR-positive and AR-negative patients. Fluoride therapy and oral breathing were identified as confounding factors and controlled using log-linear analysis. The mean rate of DMF in patients who also had AR was 20% greater than in the AR-negative group (odds ratio [OR] = 1.21, confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–1.35) and 15% greater in among children who breathed orally than those who did not (OR = 1.15 CI: 1.02–1.31).
AR and oral breathing may have an effect on oral health and dental condition, leading to an increased rate of tooth loss, oral fillings, and development of dental caries.
PMCID: PMC5713060
Rhinitis Allergic; dental caries; dental filling; mouth breathing
2.  Congenital Vomer Agenesis: Report of Two Cases  
Congenital vomer agenesis is an extremely rare condition in which the vomer bone does not fully develop, which can lead to septal perforation.
Case Report:
We report two cases with a defect in the vomer bone in the posteroinferior portion of the septum, found accidentally while performing a pre-operative CT scan for nasal obstruction evaluation. They were diagnosed with congenital vomer agenesis.
There are afew reports of vomer agenesis in literatures. By increasing usage of sinonasal endoscopic examination,we expect to address more cases in the future.
PMCID: PMC5448033
Congenital; Endoscopic examination; Nasal septum; Vomer agenesis
3.  Subcutaneous Emphysema, Pneumomediastinum and Pneumothorax in a Patient with Dermatomyositis 
Spontaneous pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and subcutaneous emphysema are rare, but serious complications of inflammatory myopathies and occur more commonly in DM than PM. complications of dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM), both of which can be fatal.
Case Report:
A 20-year-old woman was admitted with neck pain, dyspnea, cough, and fever. She had been diagnosed with dermatomyositis 21 months prior. A thorax computed tomography (CT) scan revealed ground glass opacities in her lungs, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and subcutaneous emphysema. Despite intensive immunosuppressive therapy, clinical deterioration and radiological progression were observed, ultimately the patient died.
During the care for a patient with dermatomyositis, the otorhinolaryngologist should be cautious of rapidly progressive and fatal neck subcutaneous emphysema. For a patient with dermatomyositis and with normal bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy, the main treatment is control of dermatomyositis with medical therapy. Therefore, a tracheostomy and/or mechanical ventilation may not be necessary.
PMCID: PMC5380398
Dermatomyositis; Pneumomediastinum; Pneumothorax; Polymyositis; Subcutaneous emphysema
4.  Opium Addiction and Risk of Laryngeal and Esophageal Carcinoma 
Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have a well-known effect on the development of upper aerodigestive tract carcinomas, but such a role for opium is questionable. This study was designed to assess the correlation between opium inhalation and cancer of the larynx and upper esophagus.
Materials and Methods:
Fifty eight patients with laryngeal cancer, ninety eight patients with upper esophageal cancer and twenty seven healthy individuals with no evidence of head and neck or esophageal malignancies were selected from Otolaryngology and Radiation Oncology Department of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Duration and amount of cigarette smoking and opium consumption were recorded through comprehensive interviews.
The crude odds ratio for laryngeal cancer was 5.58 (95% CI 2.05-15.15, P=0.000) in cigarette smokers relative to non-smokers and 9.09 (95% CI 3.21-25.64, P=0.000) in opium users relative to non-users. The crude odds ratio for esophageal cancer was 0.44 (95% CI 0.18-1.09, P=0.07) in cigarette smokers relative to non-smokers and 1.44 (95% CI 0.57-3.62, P=0.43) in opium users relative to non-users. After adjusting for smoking, the odds ratio for laryngeal cancer in opium users relative to non-users was 6.06 (95% CI 1.10-33.23, P=0.05). Laryngeal cancer was detected at a significantly lower age in opium users (54.54±10.93 vs 62.92±10.10 years, P=0.02) than in smokers. This effect was not observed in esophageal cancer. Although the duration (year 17.50±14.84 vs 21.91±14.03; P=0.34) and amount (pack/day 0.625 vs 0.978; P=0.06) of smoking were higher among those who were opium dependent, these differences were not statistically significant (P=0.34 and P=0.06, respectively).
Opium addiction by snuffing is an independent risk factor for the development laryngeal cancer but not esophageal cancer. Cigarette smoking increases this risk. Opium dependency increases the likelihood of developing laryngeal cancer at a younger age.
PMCID: PMC5307300
Esophageal carcinoma; Laryngeal carcinoma; Opium; Risk factors

Results 1-4 (4)