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Results 1-3 (3)

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1.  Distance between Anterior Commissure and the First Tracheal Ring: An Important New Clinical Laryngotracheal Measurement  
The distance between the anterior commissure of the larynx and the first tracheal ring (AC.T. distance) is of great importance in laryngotracheal surgeries. The amount of narrowing of the subglottic airway is used as a quantitative mean to determine whether the lesion is subglottic or has extended to the trachea and therefore helps in the prediction of the final prognosis.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, the larynx was exposed by direct laryngoscopy under general anesthesia. The case was considered to be difficult because the exposure did not optimally reveal the anterior commissure, therefore a cricoid tape or anterior commissure laryngoscope was used. A zero degree Hopkins lens was used to view the anterior commissure and the first tracheal ring. Special markers were used to mark the two points with the distance between those being considered as the AC.T. distance. The relationship between AC.T. distance and the patient's age, sex, BMI, and laryngeal exposure condition during laryngoscopy was also studied.
Eighty-two patients participated in this study. The mean AC.T. distance was measured and was found to be 32.67±3.34 mm in males and 29.80± 3.00 mm in females. This difference was statistically significant between the two groups (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant relationship between BMI, age, laryngeal exposure condition, and the AC.T. distance.
The AC.T. distance was measured to be around 3 cm; with males measuring greater than females. However, future studies may lead to a more accurate practical scale for laryngotracheal surgeries due to possible technical or human errors, in addition to racial differences.
PMCID: PMC4461842  PMID: 26082900
Airway stenosis; Anterior commissure; BMI; Subglottic; Trachea; Vocal cord
2.  Unilateral Recurrent Laryngeal and Hypoglossal Nerve Paralysis Following Rhinoplasty: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  
Injury to cranial nerves IX, X, and XII is a known complication of laryngoscopy and intubation. Here we present a patient with concurrent hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis after rhinoplasty.
Case Report:
The patient was a 27-year-old woman who was candidate for rhinoplastic surgery. The next morning after the operation, the patient complained of dysphonia and a sore throat .7 days after the operation she was still complaining of dysphonia. She underwent a direct laryngoscopy, and right TVC paralysis was observed. Right hypoglossal nerve paralysis was also detected during physical cranial nerve function tests. Hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerve function was completely recovered after 5 and 7 months, respectively, and no complication was remained.
Accurate and atraumatic intubation and extubation, true positioning of the head and neck, delicate and gentle packing of the oropharynx, and maintenance of mean blood pressure at a safe level are appropriate methods to prevent this complication during anesthesia and surgical procedures.
PMCID: PMC3915070  PMID: 24505575
Hypoglossal Nerve; Paralysis; Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve; Rhinoplasty
3.  INF-α and Ototoxicity 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:295327.
Introduction. INF-α is a common drug for the treatment of hepatitis B and C. Although a variety of related complications are discussed, possible ototoxic effects of this mediation are not well described. Methods and Materials. In a before-after control study, 24 patients who received INF-α for the treatment of hepatitis B and C and 30 normal controls were included. Subjective and objective ototoxicity evaluations via questionnaire, high frequency audiometry, and measuring transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were performed one week before and one month after the prescription of the drug. Results. Subjective hearing complaint, tinnitus, and vertigo were seen in just 3 cases, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.083). In the frequency range of 4000 to 8000 Hz before (9.38 ± 1.0 and 10.7 ± 1.2, resp.) and after (17.9 ± 2.6 and 17.6 ± 2.6, resp.) one month of treatment, a significant difference (P = 0.083) was detected. Progressive decreases in amplitude of the OAE during TEOAE measurement in 1, 2, and 4 frequencies among 41.66%, 18.75 %, and 43.75% were observed, respectively. The hearing loss was seen more among older and male cases significantly. Conclusion. The results showed ototoxicity of INF-α that may encourage planning hearing monitoring in patients receiving this drug.
PMCID: PMC3741946  PMID: 23984336

Results 1-3 (3)