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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  Differentiation between CSF Otorrhea and Rhinorrhea in an Obscure Case of Recurrent Meningitis 
Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid in the skull base may be accompanied with recurrent meningitis. The site of leakage may either be anterior (in the nose and paranasal sinuses) or posterior (in the temporal bone). Various imaging techniques can be used to precisely locate the point of leakage but despite all the advances in imaging techniques there are still some rare cases in which the surgeon can’t be sure on the management approach before the beginning of surgery.
Case Report:
In this article we present one of these cases; we used intrathecal fluorescein to locate the source of the leak and made the final decision on the operating table.
Intrathecal fluorescein is helpful in locating the leakage in the ear or the nose in ambiguous cases.
PMCID: PMC3989878  PMID: 24745002
CSF; Fluorescein; Recurrent meningitis; Rhinorrhea.
2.  Is Sudden Hearing Loss Associated with Atherosclerosis? 
Sudden sensorineural hearing-loss (SSNHL) patients constitute approximately 2–3% of referrals to ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics. Several predisposing factors have been proposed for this condition; one of which is vascular disorders and perfusion compromise. In this research the atherosclerotic changes and their known risk factors are studied in SSNHL patients.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty SSNHL patients and 30 controls were evaluated with regard to cardiovascular risks including history, heart examination, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, electrocardiogram, blood sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP); also, carotid artery color Doppler study was undertaken to measure intima media thickness(IMT).
IMT and HSCRP showed an increased risk in the case group compared with the controls (P= 0.005 & P=0.001). However, waist circumference, history of smoking, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and electrocardiogram revealed no significant difference between the two groups. Interestingly, blood pressure and body mass index were higher in the controls in this study.
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss may be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC4930841  PMID: 27429947
Atherosclerosis; risk factors; Carotid Intima-Media Thickness; Doppler C-reactive protein; Ultrasonography; Sudden sensorineural hearing loss
3.  An Unusual Cause of Dysphonia with Hemoptysis: A Laryngeal Live Leech  
Foreign bodies in the upper airway are one of the most challenging otolaryngology emergencies and have various presentations depending on their physical properties and location. Leeches are blood-sucking hermaphroditic worms that vary in color, length, and shape. They usually reside in fresh-water streams and lakes. When rural untreated water is drunk, leeches may localize in the nose, pharynx, and esophagus, or rarely in the larynx.
Case Report:
This case is a man who was referred to our otolaryngology clinic with a complaint of hemoptysis and mild respiratory distress. The patient’s symptoms were all relieved post operatively and he was discharged on the second day following the procedure.
Leeches should be suspected as an airway foreign body in patients with a recent history of drinking stream water.
PMCID: PMC4087858  PMID: 25009809
Dysphonia; Hemoptysis; Leech
4.  Periorbital Ecchymosis and Subconjunctival Hemorrhage following Ear Surgery 
ISRN Otolaryngology  2013;2013:791068.
Objective. To evaluate the occurrence of two periorbital complications of surgery for Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) and discuss the potential pathophysiologic mechanisms. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective review of the CSOM surgeries performed between Oct, 2005, and Jan, 2011, in our hospital. The early postoperative conditions of the patients were scrutinized to identify periorbital ecchymosis and subconjunctival hemorrhage. Results. Eight cases out of 756 patients were noted to have periorbital ecchymosis, and two of the patients also had simultaneous subconjunctival hemorrhage. All cases in which the complications occurred had undergone tympanoplasty, and in three patients mastoidectomy had also been performed. The age of the affected patients ranged from 24 to 70 years old. In all of them the condition ensued the day after the surgery and became better within 5 to 10 days. Complete recovery took approximately 1 month. Conclusion. Periorbital ecchymosis and subconjunctival hemorrhage are rare but safe complications of ear surgeries. The conditions are self-limiting and no management is necessary.
PMCID: PMC3806237  PMID: 24198972

Results 1-4 (4)