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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  Is Sudden Hearing Loss Associated with Atherosclerosis? 
Sudden sensorineural hearing-loss (SSNHL) patients constitute approximately 2–3% of referrals to ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics. Several predisposing factors have been proposed for this condition; one of which is vascular disorders and perfusion compromise. In this research the atherosclerotic changes and their known risk factors are studied in SSNHL patients.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty SSNHL patients and 30 controls were evaluated with regard to cardiovascular risks including history, heart examination, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, electrocardiogram, blood sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP); also, carotid artery color Doppler study was undertaken to measure intima media thickness(IMT).
IMT and HSCRP showed an increased risk in the case group compared with the controls (P= 0.005 & P=0.001). However, waist circumference, history of smoking, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and electrocardiogram revealed no significant difference between the two groups. Interestingly, blood pressure and body mass index were higher in the controls in this study.
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss may be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC4930841  PMID: 27429947
Atherosclerosis; risk factors; Carotid Intima-Media Thickness; Doppler C-reactive protein; Ultrasonography; Sudden sensorineural hearing loss
2.  Could Neonatal Hypernatremia Dehydration Influence Hearing Status? 
Neonatal hypernatremia dehydration (NHD) is a dangerous condition in neonates, which is accompanied by acute complications (renal failure, cerebral edema, and cerebral hemorrhage) and chronic complications (developmental delay). Children begin learning language from birth, and hearing impairment interferes with this process. We assessed the hearing status of infants with hypernatremia dehydration.
Materials and Methods:
In a case-control study in 110 infants presenting at the Ghaem Hospital (Mashhad, Iran) between 2007 and 2011, we examined the incidence of hearing impairment in infants suffering from hypernatremia dehydration (serum sodium >150 mEq/L) in comparison with infants with normal sodium level (serum sodium ≤150 mEq/L).
Three of 110 cases examined in the study group showed a transient hearing impairment. A mean serum sodium level of 173mg/dl was reported among hearing-impaired infants.
Transient hearing impairment was higher in infants with hypernatremia; although this difference was not significant (P>0.05). Hearing impairment was observed in cases of severe hypernatremia.
PMCID: PMC3915064  PMID: 24505569
Auditory Brainstem Response; Hearing loss; Hypernatremic dehydration; Newborn; Otoacustic emissions
3.  Postoperative Histological Changes in Polypose Rhinosinusitis 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of surgery on the histology of nasal mucosa in patients with nasal polyposis and the comparison/also to compare it with normal population. This case-control study was conducted on 20 patients at the Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Department, Qaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences during October 2007 to June 2008. Patients with polyposis and patients with septal deviation who were candidate for septoplasty were considered as case and control groups, respectively, including 10 subjects in each. Specimens of polyp tissue and the inferior conchae (mucosa) were taken during sinus endoscopy from the case group. One month later, another specimen was taken from the inferior conchae (mucosa). Moreover, specimens of the inferior conchae (mucosa) were taken of the control group. Percentage of goblet cells among the epithelial cells was determined for each group. Goblet cell percentage found to be 15.7% in polyps, consistent with significant difference with that of in postoperative (13.3%) and in preoperative nasal mucosa specimens (39.86%), (P = 0.043 and P = 0.03, respectively). Goblet cell percentage was 39.86% and 4.9% in the case and control groups, in that order, which were significantly high (P < 0.001). Percentage of goblet cells showed to be lower in polyps than mucosa. Also percentage of goblet cells in postoperative nasal mucosa specimens was significantly lower than preoperative specimens. Therefore, surgery has additional benefit of histological improvement rather than opening nasal airway.
PMCID: PMC3477442  PMID: 24294588
Nasal polyposis; Goblet cell; Surgery; Endoscopy

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