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1.  Comparison of the prevalence of enteroviruses in blood samples of patients with and without unstable angina 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2017;13(4):161-166.
Although the role of enteroviruses has been proved in heart diseases, extensive information is not available on the association between enteroviruses and unstable angina. In the present study, the authors compared the prevalence of enteroviruses in patients with and without unstable angina.
Blood samples were taken from 51 patients with unstable angina and 55 patients without unstable angina or myocardial infarction that were admitted to Imam Reza and Ghaem hospitals (Mashhad, northeast of Iran). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using specific primers for the detection of the enteroviruses in blood samples of study subjects.
Patients with and without unstable angina were similar in age with mean ± standard deviation of 62.6 ± 12.8 and 59.7 ± 12.7 years, respectively (P = 0.243) and there were no differences in gender in these two groups (P = 0.174). Prevalence of the enteroviruses in patients with unstable angina was higher only in 66-80 years age group compared to the control group (patients without unstable angina, P = 0.032). There was a higher prevalence of enterovirus RNA positivity in the blood samples of women with unstable angina (75.9%) than those without unstable angina (41.7%, P = 0.011), however, no significant difference was observed in men (P = 0.983).
Our data showed that enteroviral RNA positivity was higher in patients with unstable angina compared to those without unstable angina. However, the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant.
PMCID: PMC5677318
Unstable Angina; Enterovirus; Reverse Transcriptase PCR
2.  Is Sudden Hearing Loss Associated with Atherosclerosis? 
Sudden sensorineural hearing-loss (SSNHL) patients constitute approximately 2–3% of referrals to ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics. Several predisposing factors have been proposed for this condition; one of which is vascular disorders and perfusion compromise. In this research the atherosclerotic changes and their known risk factors are studied in SSNHL patients.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty SSNHL patients and 30 controls were evaluated with regard to cardiovascular risks including history, heart examination, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, electrocardiogram, blood sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP); also, carotid artery color Doppler study was undertaken to measure intima media thickness(IMT).
IMT and HSCRP showed an increased risk in the case group compared with the controls (P= 0.005 & P=0.001). However, waist circumference, history of smoking, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and electrocardiogram revealed no significant difference between the two groups. Interestingly, blood pressure and body mass index were higher in the controls in this study.
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss may be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC4930841  PMID: 27429947
Atherosclerosis; risk factors; Carotid Intima-Media Thickness; Doppler C-reactive protein; Ultrasonography; Sudden sensorineural hearing loss
3.  Anxiety, Depression, Coronary Artery Disease and Diabetes Mellitus; An Association Study in Ghaem Hospital, Iran 
There is an increasing trend in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Iran.
The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of anxiety, depression, diabetes and coronary artery disease among patients undergoing angiography in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran.
Patients and Methods:
This case-control study was conducted between September 2011 and August 2012 among 200 patients undergoing coronary angiography for symptoms of coronary disease at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The control group consisted of 697 healthy adults recruited from the individuals who attended the clinic for routine medical checkups or pre-employment examinations. The Beck anxiety and depression inventory scores and fasting blood glucose results were assessed in all the subjects. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant.
The mean age of patients was 57.52 ± 9.33 years old and for the control group it was 55.35 ± 8.45 years; there was no significant difference between the subjects (P = 0.647) regarding age. There was also no significant difference in gender distribution between the patients and control groups (P = 0.205). There was however a significant difference in anxiety and depression scores between the patients and healthy controls (P < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between anxiety score and depression score in both groups when data were analyzed by Pearson test. (P < 0.001, r = 0.604 and r = 0.521). Moreover, there was a significant positive linear correlation between the depression/anxiety scores and fasting blood glucose concentrations in the patients group (r = 0.3, P < 0.001) and a weak negative correlation in the healthy controls (r = -0.096, P < 0.05).
Depression and anxiety are potentially important factors among patients with angiographically-defined CAD. There appear to be significant associations between glucose tolerance and anxiety and depression in these patients.
PMCID: PMC4270671  PMID: 25593715
Coronary Artery Disease; Anxiety; Depression; Angiography
4.  Serum Inflammatory Cytokines and Depression in Coronary Artery Disease 
Severe depression may be accompanied by immune dysregulation and is also associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD).
We investigated serum levels of 10 cytokines and their relationship with depression in patients with cardiovascular diseases as well as healthy subjects in northeast of Iran.
Patients and Methods:
The study was carried out on 462 subjects (120 healthy subjects and 342 candidates undergoing angiography). The healthy subjects were referred for routine annual checkups or pre-employment examinations; they did not have clinically evident CAD. A questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data and the Beck depression inventory (BDI) was applied to assess depression. The Evidence Investigator® platform was used for cytokines assays for IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, MCP-1 and IFN-γ, using sandwich chemiluminescent method. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 11.5.
The mean age was 53.3 ± 11.5, 54.8 ± 11.3, and 59.5 ± 11.3 in healthy, angiography (-), and angiography (+) subjects, respectively (P < 0.05). There were significant differences in serum levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 cytokines, comparing subjects with CAD and healthy persons (P < 0.05). When all subjects were divided to with and without depression regardless of their cardiovascular status, there was a significant difference in serum levels of IL-8 and IL-6 between the groups (P < 0.05). When the subgroup with features of CAD was selected and divided to those with and without depression, there was also a significant difference in serum levels of IL-8 and TNF-α (P < 0.05).
The positive interaction between depression and CAD was probably mediated by inflammatory mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC4166097  PMID: 25237578
Coronary Artery Disease; Depression; Cytokines; Tumor Necrosis Factor; Interleukin-8
5.  Micronutrient Intake and the Presence of the Metabolic Syndrome 
Dietary micronutrients have been proposed to protect against oxidative damage and related clinical complications.
We aimed to compare the micronutrient intake between individuals with and without metabolic syndrome (MS).
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study included 3800 men and women who were aged between 35 and 65 years. The diagnosis of the MS was based on International Diabetes Federation criteria. Dietary intake of participants was assessed using a questionnaire for 24 h dietary recall. Student's t-test and Mann–Whitney U-tests were used for comparing the micronutrient intake of subjects with or without the MS and the odds ratio for the presence of the MS was calculated for each micronutrient by control for total energy intake adjusted by the residue method.
The mean age of MS subjects and the control group was 48.8 ± 7.9 years and 47.6 ± 7.6 years, respectively. Energy-adjusted intake of vitamin E (P < 0.05), B2 (P < 0.01), and B12 (P < 0.05) was higher in normal women compared with women with MS. Energy-adjusted intake of vitamin B1 was significantly higher in women with MS. After logistic regression analysis, no significant association between micronutrient intake and MS was shown.
We found no significant association between micronutrient intake and MS.
PMCID: PMC3731870  PMID: 23923113
Dietary assessment; metabolic syndrome; micronutrients

Results 1-5 (5)