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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  Controlled vs Spontaneous Ventilation for Bronchoscopy in Children with Tracheobronchial Foreign Body 
Introduction
Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration is a common life-threatening condition in children. There are controversies in the management of this condition, including the type of ventilation during bronchoscopy. This study aims to compare anesthesia with controlled ventilation versus spontaneous ventilation in rigid bronchoscopy in children with foreign body aspiration.
Materials and Methods:
Patients who were candidates for rigid bronchoscopy due to foreign body aspiration were randomly assigned to either anesthesia with spontaneous ventilation or controlled ventilation. End tidal CO2 (ETCO2), electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) and complications and accidents during the surgery and recovery were recorded for each patient. Surgeon comfort during the procedure was also evaluated for each patient. A 20% change in HR or NIBP was considered significant. SpO2 values under 90% are considered desaturation.
Results:
Fifty-one patients (31 male and 20 female) entered the study. The mean age was 26.76 months, ranging from 6 to 100 months. Choking and cough were present in 94% and 96.1% of the patients, respectively. Nuts were the most common foreign body (76.9%). The controlled ventilation group had significantly fewer complications, and surgeon comfort was significantly higher in this group. Oxygen desaturation was significantly more prevalent in the spontaneous ventilation group during laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy (P<0.001).
Conclusion:
Controlled ventilation has the potential to be used as an effective alternative option in anesthesia for patients with suspected foreign body aspiration.
PMCID: PMC5785113
Children; Controlled ventilation; Respiratory aspiration; Spontaneous ventilation
2.  The Diagnostic Value of B-Mode Sonography in Differentiation of Malignant and Benign Tumors of the Parotid Gland 
Introduction:
Different imaging modalities are used to evaluate salivary gland diseases, including tumors. Ultrasonography (US) is the preferred method on account of its ease of use, affordability, safety profile, and good tolerance among patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of US in differentiating malignant from benign parotid tumors, in the context of previous controversy in the literature on this subject.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study was performed in patients who presented to Qaem Medical Center with parotid masses and who were candidates for parotidectomy between June 2013 and January 2015. Patients were initially referred for a diagnostic US of the parotid. US examinations were performed and sonographic features were reported. The tumors were then classified as benign or malignanton the basis of literature descriptions of the US features of parotid tumors, and were next diagnosed pathologically. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of US for the purpose of differentiating malignant from benign tumors were then calculated.
Results:
Twenty-eight patients (aged 18–92 years) underwent US of parotid masses. Twenty-three tumors were diagnosed as benign and five were diagnosed as malignant. The final histopathologic examination showed 21 benign and seven malignant tumors. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of US for differentiating malignant from benign tumors were calculated as 57%, 95%, 80%, and 87%, respectively.
Conclusion:
US has a high specificity in differentiating between malignant and benign tumors. However, fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy is advocated for an exact diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC5045700  PMID: 27738606
Benign tumor; Malignant tumor; Parotid; Ultrasonography
3.  The Stromal Overexpression of CD10 in Invasive Breast Cancer and its Association with Clincophathologic Factors 
Background
Breast carcinoma is the most common non-skin malignancy in women. More recently, it has been suggested that extracellular proteinase has also regulated growth factors and cytokines that might contribute to tumor progression. CD10 is a 90-110kd cell surface zinc-dependent metalloproteinase. Since CD10 is structurally similar to matrix metalloproteinase and stromelysin, it might facilitate cancer cell invasion and/or metastasis. The aim of this study was investigation the rate of CD10 expression in the stromal cells of invasive ductal breast carcinomas, Immunohistochemical aspects, then any other aspects to be able to clarify its correlation with other clinicopathological factors of this disease.
Methods
One hundred patients with histopathologic diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma and 50 patients with fibroadenoma of breast (as the control group) have selected, then 150 paraffin blocks have obtained. The stained slides by immunohistochemistry method for CD10 marker have examined separately by two pathologists, and discrepancies have reviewed in common session to get the final result.
Results
Stromal CD10 has detected in 28% of the IDC. No kind of immunoreactivity has identified in the stromal cells of normal breast. Stromal CD10 expression in IDC has significantly correlated with increasing tumor size (p<0.001), increasing histologic grade (p<0.001), the presence of nodal metastases (p<0.001) and estrogen receptor negative status (p=0.003).
Conclusion
Stromal CD10 expression in IDC has closely correlated with invasion and metastasis and it might play an important role in the pathogenesis of IDC.
PMCID: PMC4142952  PMID: 25250143
CD10; Immunohistochemistry; Breast carcinoma; Stromal cell

Results 1-3 (3)