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1.  Artificial neural network based gynaecological image-guided adaptive brachytherapy treatment planning correction of intra-fractional organs at risk dose variation 
Purpose
Intra-fractional organs at risk (OARs) deformations can lead to dose variation during image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). The aim of this study was to modify the final accepted brachytherapy treatment plan to dosimetrically compensate for these intra-fractional organs-applicators position variations and, at the same time, fulfilling the dosimetric criteria.
Material and methods
Thirty patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) of 45-50 Gy over five to six weeks with concomitant weekly chemotherapy, and qualified for intracavitary high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with tandem-ovoid applicators were selected for this study. Second computed tomography scan was done for each patient after finishing brachytherapy treatment with applicators in situ. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) based models were used to predict intra-fractional OARs dose-volume histogram parameters variations and propose a new final plan.
Results
A model was developed to estimate the intra-fractional organs dose variations during gynaecological intracavitary brachytherapy. Also, ANNs were used to modify the final brachytherapy treatment plan to compensate dosimetrically for changes in ‘organs-applicators’, while maintaining target dose at the original level.
Conclusions
There are semi-automatic and fast responding models that can be used in the routine clinical workflow to reduce individually IGABT uncertainties. These models can be more validated by more patients’ plans to be able to serve as a clinical tool.
doi:10.5114/jcb.2017.72567
PMCID: PMC5807998
ANN-based model; cervical cancer; IGABT; intra-fractional dose variations
2.  Numerical Taxonomy Helps Identification of Merliniidae and Telotylenchidae (Nematoda: Tylenchoidea) from Iran 
Journal of Nematology  2017;49(2):207-222.
Numerical taxonomy was used for identification and grouping of the genera, species, and populations in the families Merliniidae and Telotylenchidae. The variability of each of 44 morphometric characters was evaluated by calculation of the coefficient of variability (CV) and the ratio of extremes (max/min) in the range of 1,020 measured females. Also correlation and regression analyses were made between characters to find potential collinearities. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used for (i) grouping 21 genera in the superfamily Dolichodoroidea based on literature data coded for states of 18 diagnostic characters, and (ii) for grouping Iranian populations belonging to selected genera. Furthermore, STEPDISC analysis was used for (i) grouping 11 genera of Merliniidae and Telotylenchidae based on the measurements of 35 characters from 1,007 Iranian female specimens, and (ii) grouping measured females of eight species of Amplimerlinius and Pratylenchoides. The multivariate data analysis approach showed robust enough to summarize relationship between morphometric characters and group genera, species, and populations of the nematodes and in particular help to identify the genera and species of Amplimerlinius and Pratylenchoides.
PMCID: PMC5507141  PMID: 28706320
Amplimerlinius; correlation; hierarchical cluster analysis; Pratylenchoides, principal component analysis
3.  Optimum organ volume ranges for organs at risk dose in cervical cancer intracavitary brachytherapy 
Purpose
To analyze the optimum organ filling point for organs at risk (OARs) dose in cervical cancer high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy.
Material and methods
In a retrospective study, 32 locally advanced cervical cancer patients (97 insertions) who were treated with 3D conformal external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and concurrent chemotherapy during 2010-2013 were included. Rotterdam HDR tandem-ovoid applicators were used and computed tomography (CT) scanning was performed after each insertion. The OARs delineation and GEC-ESTRO-based clinical target volumes (CTVs) contouring was followed by 3D forward planning. Then, dose volume histogram (DVH) parameters of organs were recorded and patients were classified based on their OARs volumes, as well as their inserted tandem length.
Results
The absorbed dose to point A ranged between 6.5-7.5 Gy. D0.1cm3 and D2cm3 of the bladder significantly increased with the bladder volume enlargement (p value < 0.05). By increasing the bladder volume up to about 140 cm3, the rectum dose was also increased. For the cases with bladder volumes higher than 140 cm3, the rectum dose decreased. For bladder volumes lower than 75 cm3, the sigmoid dose decreased; however, for bladder volumes higher than 75 cm3, the sigmoid dose increased. The D2cm3 of the bladder and rectum were higher for longer tandems than for shorter ones, respectively. The divergence of the obtained results for different tandem lengths became wider by the extension of the bladder volume. The rectum and sigmoid volume had a direct impact on increasing their D0.1cm3 and D2cm3, as well as decreasing their D10, D30, and D50.
Conclusions
There is a relationship between the volumes of OARs and their received doses. Selecting a bladder with a volume of about 70 cm3 or less proved to be better with regards to the dose to the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid.
doi:10.5114/jcb.2016.59687
PMCID: PMC4873556  PMID: 27257418
bladder volume; brachytherapy; cervical cancer; OARs
4.  Effects of Topical Emu Oil on Burn Wounds in the Skin of Balb/c Mice 
The goal of this study was to determine the effect of topical Emu oil on the healing of burn wounds and hair follicle restoration in superficial II-degree burns in the skin of Balb/c mice. Thirty-two male Balb/c mice with burns on the back of the neck were divided into two groups: The Emu oil group received topical Emu oil twice daily, whereas the control was left untreated. Skin biopsies were obtained on days 4, 7, 10, and 14 of the experiment. Then the specimens were viewed with Olympus SZX research microscope. The Emu oil treated burns were found to heal more slowly and inflammation lasted longer in this group. The number of hair follicles in the margins of the wounds increased through time in the Emu oil group compared to the control group. Also, the hair follicles in the Emu oil group were in several layers and seemed to be more active and mature. Moreover, Emu oil had a positive effect on fibrogenesis and synthesis of collagen. The findings indicate that although Emu oil delays the healing process, it has a positive effect on wound healing and it increases the number of hair follicles in the margins of the wound.
doi:10.1155/2016/6419216
PMCID: PMC4812284  PMID: 27069472
5.  Urinary Melatonin Levels and Skin Malignancy 
Melatonin inhibits tumor genesis in a variety of in vivo and in vitro experimental models of neoplasia. In industrialized societies, light at night, by suppressing melatonin production, poses a new risk for the development of a variety of cancers such as breast cancer. This effect on skin has been previously studied only in animals and not in humans. Our goal was to examine the relationship between 24-hour 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels and skin cancer in a case-control study of 70 patients with skin cancer and 70 healthy individuals. The level of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was measured in 24-hour urine by the ELISA method. In the case group, 55 (78%) patients had basal cell carcinoma and 15 (22%) had squamous cell carcinoma. The mean level of 24-hour urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was significantly higher in the control group (P<0.001). Also, sleep duration had a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.001). It seems that a low level of 24-hour urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin renders human beings prone to skin cancer. This association, however, requires further investigation.
PMCID: PMC3895897  PMID: 24453396
Melatonin; Skin neoplasm; Basal cell carcinoma; Squamous cell carcinoma
6.  Evaluating of Life Quality in Patients with Acne Vulgaris Using Generic and Specific Questionnaires 
Background. Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease that can adversely affect the quality of life of patients. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris. Methods. This study was carried out on 70 patients with acne vulgaris (28 males, 42 females). All the patients filled out two Persian versions of questionnaires: short form 36 (SF-36) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The obtained data were analyzed by using SPSS software (version 17). Results. The scores for physical functioning, social functioning, and bodily pain domains in patients were over 70%, but the scores for role physical, general health, vitality, role emotional, and mental health in patients were under 70%. Scores on the DLQI in patients with acne vulgaris ranged from 0 to 22 (mean ± SD, 8.18 ± 4.83). After comparing mean score of DLQI with respect to gender and age, it was found that the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Acne vulgaris has a significant effect on the quality of life. There was not any significant gender or age related difference in QOL.
doi:10.1155/2013/108624
PMCID: PMC3859265  PMID: 24371434
7.  MSX1 Mutation in Witkop Syndrome; A Case Report 
Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences  2013;38(2 Suppl):191-194.
The Witkop syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the absence of several teeth and abnormalities of the nails. This is the first report of a rare genetic tooth and nail syndrome diagnosed in a 2.5-year-old boy with early exfoliation of the primary canine, absence of the primary incisors, and nail dysplasia. A homozygous mutation was identified in 3’-UTR of MSX1 gene in the proband. The parents of the patient had no dental and nail anomalies.
PMCID: PMC3771223  PMID: 24031111
Witkop syndrome; MSX1; Nail dysplasia

Results 1-7 (7)