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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  Flexible near field wireless optoelectronics as subdermal implants for broad applications in optogenetics 
Neuron  2017;93(3):509-521.e3.
In vivo optogenetics provides unique, powerful capabilities in the dissection of neural circuits implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Conventional hardware for such studies, however, physically tethers the experimental animal to an external light source limiting the range of possible experiments. Emerging wireless options offer important capabilities that avoid some of these limitations, but the current size, bulk, weight, and wireless area of coverage is often disadvantageous. Here, we present a simple but powerful setup based on wireless, near-field power transfer and miniaturized, thin flexible optoelectronic implants, for complete optical control in a variety of behavioral paradigms. The devices combine subdermal magnetic coil antennas connected to microscale, injectable LEDs, with the ability to operate at wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet to blue, green/yellow, and red. An external loop antenna allows robust, straightforward application in a multitude of behavioral apparatuses. The result is a readily mass-producible, user-friendly technology with broad potential for optogenetics applications.
PMCID: PMC5377903  PMID: 28132830
2.  Miniaturized Battery-Free Wireless Systems for Wearable Pulse Oximetry 
Advanced functional materials  2016;27(1):1604373.
Development of unconventional technologies for wireless collection, storage and analysis of quantitative, clinically relevant information on physiological status is of growing interest. Soft, biocompatible systems are widely regarded as important because they facilitate mounting on external (e.g. skin) and internal (e.g. heart, brain) surfaces of the body. Ultra-miniaturized, lightweight and battery-free devices have the potential to establish complementary options in bio-integration, where chronic interfaces (i.e. months) are possible on hard surfaces such as the fingernails and the teeth, with negligible risk for irritation or discomfort. Here we report materials and device concepts for flexible platforms that incorporate advanced optoelectronic functionality for applications in wireless capture and transmission of photoplethysmograms, including quantitative information on blood oxygenation, heart rate and heart rate variability. Specifically, reflectance pulse oximetry in conjunction with near-field communication (NFC) capabilities enables operation in thin, miniaturized flexible devices. Studies of the material aspects associated with the body interface, together with investigations of the radio frequency characteristics, the optoelectronic data acquisition approaches and the analysis methods capture all of the relevant engineering considerations. Demonstrations of operation on various locations of the body and quantitative comparisons to clinical gold standards establish the versatility and the measurement accuracy of these systems, respectively.
table of contents
We introduce materials and device concepts for ultraminiaturized wireless optoelectronic systems that incorporates advanced optoelectronic functionality for applications in wireless capture and transmission of heart rate and pulse oximetry. Specifically, reflectance pulse oximetry in conjunction with near-field communication (NFC) capabilities enable operation in thin, miniaturized flexible devices. Demonstrations of operation on various locations of the body establish the versatility and the measurement accuracy of these systems and highlight advantages of signal acquisition during operation without motion artifacts.
PMCID: PMC5545889  PMID: 28798658
NFC; oximetry; flexible electronics; wireless; photonics
3.  Skin-like biosensor system via electrochemical channels for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring 
Science Advances  2017;3(12):e1701629.
Electrochemical twin channels make glucose in vessels measurable by noninvasive ultrathin skin-like highly sensitive biosensors.
Currently, noninvasive glucose monitoring is not widely appreciated because of its uncertain measurement accuracy, weak blood glucose correlation, and inability to detect hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia during sleep. We present a strategy to design and fabricate a skin-like biosensor system for noninvasive, in situ, and highly accurate intravascular blood glucose monitoring. The system integrates an ultrathin skin-like biosensor with paper battery–powered electrochemical twin channels (ETCs). The designed subcutaneous ETCs drive intravascular blood glucose out of the vessel and transport it to the skin surface. The ultrathin (~3 μm) nanostructured biosensor, with high sensitivity (130.4 μA/mM), fully absorbs and measures the glucose, owing to its extreme conformability. We conducted in vivo human clinical trials. The noninvasive measurement results for intravascular blood glucose showed a high correlation (>0.9) with clinically measured blood glucose levels. The system opens up new prospects for clinical-grade noninvasive continuous glucose monitoring.
PMCID: PMC5738229
4.  miR-199a modulates cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer by targeting Hif1α 
OncoTargets and therapy  2017;10:5899-5906.
Resistance to chemotherapy is a primary problem for the effective treatment of ovarian cancer. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated that miRNAs modulate many important molecular pathways involved in chemotherapy. Previous studies demonstrated that miR-199a affected ovarian cancer cell resistance to cisplatin (DDP). However, the role of miR-199a and its target genes in determination of ovarian cancer sensitivity to DDP remains unclear. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression levels of miR-199a in ovarian cancer tissues and C13* and OV2008 cell lines. After transfection of miR-199a mimic or inhibitor, flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis exposed to DDP. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot assay were applied to detect tumor necrosis factor-α levels and protein expression levels of Bax, Fas, Fas-associated death domain, and caspase-8. The results indicated that the expression of miR-199a was downregulated and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif1α) upregulated in the ovarian tumors compared with those in the corresponding normal tissues. Besides, the expression levels of miR-199a were significantly higher in OV2008 cells compared with those in C13* cells. Moreover, suppression of Hif1α reversed the inhibiting function of miR-199a inhibitor on DDP-induced apoptosis in the OV2008 cells. However, overexpression of both miR-199a and Hif1α reduced DDP-induced apoptosis in C13* cells. In conclusion, miR-199a may change DDP resistance in ovarian cancer by regulating Hif1α.
PMCID: PMC5731338  PMID: 29276393
miR-199a; ovarian cancer; cisplatin resistance; Hif1α
7.  Routinely detected indicators in plasma have a predictive effect on the identification of HIV-infected patients with non-tuberculous mycobacterial and tuberculous infections 
It is difficult to quickly distinguish non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection from tuberculosis (TB) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients because of many similarities between these diseases. A simple and effective way to determine the differences using routine blood tests is necessary in developing countries.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted to recruit HIV-infected patients with either NTM infection or TB infection diagnosed for the first time according to mycobacterial culture and microscopic identification from May 2010 to March 2016. These data included the analysis of blood cells, liver function, renal function, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and were compared between the HIV/TB and HIV/NTM groups.
A total of 240 patients were enrolled. The number of HIV/TB and HIV/NTM patients was 113 and 127, respectively. There were no significant differences in the CD4 T-cell count, age, sex, percentage of patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) before the explicit diagnosis of TB or NTM infection. NTM infection was more likely to be restricted in the pulmonary while TB infection also involves extra-pulmonary sites. Both the leukocyte count(5.60 × 109/L) and the proportion of neutrophils in the leukocyte count (76.70%) in the HIV/TB group were significantly higher than those in the HIV/NTM group (4.40 × 109/L [P = 0.0014] and 69.30% [P < 0.001]. The analysis of liver function markers indicated that the concentration of albumin but not ALT and AST was significantly lower in the HIV/TB group than in the HIV/NTM group (P < 0.001). The creatinine and urea levels were not significantly different between the two groups. The ESR (84.00 mm/h) and the concentration of CRP (59.60 mg/L) were significantly higher in the HIV/TB group than in the HIV/NTM group (52.00 mm/h and 19.60 mg/L, respectively) (P < 0.001). To distinguish TB infection from NTM infection, the best cut-off value was 69.5 mm/h for ESR, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.740 and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.721, and 48.8 mg/L for CRP, with a PPV of 0.676 and NPV of 0.697.
The dissemination character as well as stronger immune response characterized by higher inflammation markers (e.g. WBC, ESR, CRP) can help distinguish TB from NTM infection in HIV-infected patients who need empirical therapy or diagnostic therapy immediately in low-income areas.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40249-017-0347-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC5667182  PMID: 29092717
HIV; Tuberculosis; Non-tuberculous mycobacteria
8.  Microbial Taxa Distribution Is Associated with Ecological Trophic Cascades along an Elevation Gradient 
The elevational pattern of soil microbial diversity along mountain slopes has received considerable interest over the last decade. An increasing amount of taxonomic data on soil microbial community composition along elevation gradients have been collected, however the trophic patterns and environmental drivers of elevational changes remain largely unclear. Here, we examined the distribution patterns of major soil bacterial and fungal taxa along the northern slope of Changbai Mountain, Northeast China, at five typical vegetation types located between 740 and 2,691 m above sea level. Elevational patterns of the relative abundance of specific microbial taxa could be partially explained by the oligotrophic-copiotrophic theory. Specifically, two dark-coniferous forests, located at mid-elevation sites, were considered to be oligotrophic habitats, with relatively higher soil C/N ratio and NH4+-N concentrations. As expected, oligotrophic microbial taxa, belonging to the bacterial phyla Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes, and fungal phylum Basidiomycota, were predominant in the two dark-coniferous forests, exhibiting a mid-elevation maximum pattern. In contrast, the broad leaf-Korean pine mixed forest located at the foot of the mountain, Betula ermanii-dominated forest located below the tree line, and alpine tundra at the highest elevation were considered more copiotrophic habitats, characterized by higher substrate-induced-respiration rates and NO3--N concentrations. Microbial taxa considered to be so called copiotrophic members, such as bacterial phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and fungal phylum Ascomycota, were relatively abundant in these locations, resulting in a mid-elevation minimum pattern. At finer taxonomic levels, the two most abundant proteobacterial classes, alpha- and beta-Proteobacteria, along with Acidobacteria Gp1, 2, 3, 15, and the Basidiomycotal class of Tremellomycetes were classified with the copiotrophic group. Gamma- and delta-Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria Gp4, 6, 7, 16, and Basidiomycotal class of Agaricomycetes were classified as oligotrophic taxa. This work uses the oligotrophic-copiotrophic theory to explain the elevational distribution pattern of the relative abundance of specific microbial taxa, confirming some of the existing trophic classifications of microbial taxa and expanding on the theory to include a broader range of taxonomic levels.
PMCID: PMC5663944
microbial biogeography; soil bacteria; soil fungi; amplicon sequencing; microbial taxonomic survey; oligotrophic-copiotrophic theory; elevational gradient
9.  Ferromagnetic, folded electrode composite as a soft interface to the skin for long-term electrophysiological recording 
Advanced functional materials  2016;26(40):7281-7290.
This paper introduces a class of ferromagnetic, folded, soft composite material for skin-interfaced electrodes with releasable interfaces to stretchable, wireless electronic measurement systems. These electrodes establish intimate, adhesive contacts to the skin, in dimensionally stable formats compatible with multiple days of continuous operation, with several key advantages over conventional hydrogel based alternatives. The reported studies focus on aspects ranging from ferromagnetic and mechanical behavior of the materials systems, to electrical properties associated with their skin interface, to system-level integration for advanced electrophysiological monitoring applications. The work combines experimental measurement and theoretical modeling to establish the key design considerations. These concepts have potential uses across a diverse set of skin-integrated electronic technologies.
Graphical Abstract
This paper introduces a ferromagnetic, folded, soft electrode composite material with capabilities in long-term usage and system-level integration in electrophysiological monitoring. Systematic investigations including studies of the ferromagnetism behaviors, the mechanical properties, the electrical interfaces to the skin, and the underlying materials aspects associated with their optimized construction. Electrodes based on these materials provide advantages in intimate, non-irritating contacts to the skin, dimensionally stable geometries and robust bonding to the skin and the measurement platforms. Detailed experimental measurements and theoretical modeling of the essential properties of the system, including interfaces to the skin, establish the key design consideration. These concepts have applicability to broad classes of skin-mounted electronic systems.
PMCID: PMC5390688  PMID: 28413376
stretchable electronics; ferromagnetism; dry electrodes; finite element method; electrophysiology; equivalent circuit model; composite; folded electrode; stretchable electronics; ferromagnetism; impedance
10.  Design of Strain-Limiting Substrate Materials for Stretchable and Flexible Electronics 
Advanced functional materials  2016;26(29):5345-5351.
Recently developed classes of electronics for biomedical applications exploit substrates that offer low elastic modulus and high stretchability, to allow intimate, mechanically biocompatible integration with soft biological tissues. A challenge is that such substrates do not generally offer protection of the electronics from high peak strains that can occur upon large-scale deformation, thereby creating a potential for device failure. The results presented here establish a simple route to compliant substrates with strain-limiting mechanics based on approaches that complement those of recently described alternatives. Here, a thin film or mesh of a high modulus material transferred onto a prestrained compliant substrate transforms into wrinkled geometry upon release of the prestrain. The structure formed by this process offers a low elastic modulus at small strain due to the small effective stiffness of the wrinkled film or mesh; it has a high tangent modulus (e.g., >1000 times the elastic modulus) at large strain, as the wrinkles disappear and the film/mesh returns to a flat geometry. This bilinear stress–strain behavior has an extremely sharp transition point, defined by the magnitude of the prestrain. A theoretical model yields analytical expressions for the elastic and tangent moduli and the transition strain of the bilinear stress–strain relation, with quantitative correspondence to finite element analysis and experiments.
PMCID: PMC5639729
11.  MMP9 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to non-traumatic osteonecrosis of femoral head in a Chinese Han population 
Oncotarget  2017;8(47):82835-82841.
Non-traumatic osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) is an orthopedic refractory disease with escalating morbidity in Chinese Han population. In our case-control study, we examined eight previously identified MMP9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 585 non-traumatic ONFH patients and 507 healthy individuals from northern China to determine whether these SNPs associated with the risk of developing non-traumatic ONFH. Genetic model and haplotype analyses were used to evaluate the association between SNPs and non-traumatic ONFH. MMP9 rs2274755 (OR, 0.740; 95% CI, 0.578-0.949; p = 0.017) was associated with a reduced risk of non-traumatic ONFH. After adjusting for age and gender, the logistic regression results showed that rs2274755 associated with a lower risk of non-traumatic ONFH in the dominant (OR=0.71, 95% CI: 0.54-0.94, p=0.016), overdominant (OR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.55-0.96, p=0.026) and log-additive (OR=0.74740; 95% CI, 0.578-0.949; p=0.017) models. In addition, the “TGC” haplotype of rs2274755 was associated with a 0.79-fold decrease in risk while the “CTC” haplotype associated with a 0.65-fold decrease risk of the non-traumatic ONFH. These results provide evidence that the MMP9 SNP at the rs2274755 locus is associated with a decreased risk of non-traumatic ONFH in a Chinese Han population.
PMCID: PMC5669932
MMP9; MMP2; non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head; single nucleotide polymorphisms; association study
12.  Chemical Sensing Systems that Utilize Soft Electronics on Thin Elastomeric Substrates with Open Cellular Designs 
Advanced functional materials  2017;9(3):1605476.
A collection of materials and device architectures are introduced for thin, stretchable arrays of ion sensors that mount on open cellular substrates to facilitate solution exchange for use in biointegrated electronics. The results include integration strategies and studies of fundamental characteristics in chemical sensing and mechanical response. The latter involves experimental measurements and theoretical simulations that establish important considerations in the design of low modulus, stretchable properties in cellular substrates, and in the realization of advanced capabilities in spatiotemporal mapping of chemicals' gradients. As the chemical composition of extracellular fluids contains valuable information related to biological function, the concepts introduced here have potential utility across a range of skin- and internal-organ-integrated electronics where soft mechanics, fluidic permeability, and advanced chemical sensing capabilities are key requirements.
PMCID: PMC5630126
13.  Computational models for the determination of depth-dependent mechanical properties of skin with a soft, flexible measurement device 
Conformal modulus sensors (CMS) incorporate PZT nanoribbons as mechanical actuators and sensors to achieve reversible conformal contact with the human skin for non-invasive, in vivo measurements of skin modulus. An analytic model presented in this paper yields expressions that connect the sensor output voltage to the Young moduli of the epidermis and dermis, the thickness of the epidermis, as well as the material and geometrical parameters of the CMS device itself and its encapsulation layer. Results from the model agree well with in vitro experiments on bilayer structures of poly(dimethylsiloxane). These results provide a means to determine the skin moduli (epidermis and dermis) and the thickness of the epidermis from in vivo measurements of human skin.
PMCID: PMC5095436  PMID: 27843395
conformal modulus sensors; skin moduli; epidermis and dermis; electromechanical coupling
14.  Trim27 interacts with Slx2, is associated with meiotic processes during spermatogenesis 
Cell Cycle  2016;15(19):2576-2584.
Formation of the XY body is believed to prevent recombination between X and Y chromosomes during meiosis. We recently demonstrated that SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (Slx2) could be involved in synaptonemal complex formation as well as XY body maintenance during meiosis. In order to further investigate the role and composition of XY body protein complexes in meiotic processes and spermatogenesis, a yeast 2-hybrid screening was performed, and the tripartite motif protein 27(Trim27) was found to interact with Slx2 and co-localized in the XY body. Trim27 has a tripartite motif (TRIM) consisting of a RING finger, B-box and coiled-coil domains, and is a transcriptional regulator that is expressed in various tumor cell lines. In this study, we showed that Slx2 and Trim27 were highly expressed in meiosis of mouse testis. And the Slx2/Trim27 interaction was confirmed in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation and mammalian 2-hybrid interaction assays. Moreover, cytoimmuno localization experiments revealed that Slx2/Trim27 was co-localized to the XY body of spermatocytes during meiosis, and immunohistochemical results revealed co-localization of Trim27 and γ-H2AX in the XY body of primary spermatocytes in the mouse testis. Trim27 may therefore be a transcriptional regulation protein connecting Slx2 and γ-H2AX, thereby promoting the formation of a more potent XY body protein complex in meiotic processes and spermatogenesis. In conclusion, Trim27 connecting Slx2 may regulate meiotic processes in multiple ways by influencing XY body formation and germ cell proliferation during spermatogenesis.
PMCID: PMC5053551  PMID: 27612028
mouse; spermatogenesis; Slx2; Trim27; XY body
15.  Effects of low-intensity pulsed electromagnetic fields on bone microarchitecture, mechanical strength and bone turnover in type 2 diabetic db/db mice 
Scientific Reports  2017;7:10834.
Type 2 diabetic patients have impaired bone quality, leading to increased fracture risk. Substantial evidence demonstrates that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) could resist osteopenia/osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency and disuse. However, the effects of PEMF on osteopenia/osteoporosis associated with diabetes, especially for more prevalent type 2 diabetes, remain poorly understood. We herein investigated the skeletal effects and mechanisms of PEMF (15 Hz, 20 Gs) on leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice with typical type 2 diabetic symptoms. Our µCT results showed that 12-week PEMF exposure significantly improved both cancellous and cortical bone microarchitecture in db/db mice. Three-point bending and biomechanical indentation testing demonstrated that PEMF improved whole-bone structural properties and tissue-level material properties in db/db mice. PEMF significantly promoted bone formation in db/db mice evidenced by increased serum osteocalcin and bone mineral apposition rate, whereas PEMF exerted no observable alteration in bone resorption. Real-time PCR showed that PEMF upregulated tibial gene expression of osteoblastogenesis-related of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling but not osteoclastogenesis-related RANKL-RANK signaling in db/db mice. Our findings demonstrate that PEMF improved bone quantity and quality with obvious anabolic activities in db/db mice, and imply that PEMF might become a clinically applicable treatment modality for improving bone quality in type 2 diabetic patients.
PMCID: PMC5589741  PMID: 28883516
16.  Opioid-associated iatrogenic withdrawal in critically ill adult patients: a multicenter prospective observational study 
Opioids and benzodiazepines are frequently used in the intensive care unit (ICU). Regular use and prolonged exposure to opioids in ICU patients followed by abrupt tapering or cessation may lead to iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome (IWS). IWS is well described in pediatrics, but no prospective study has evaluated this syndrome in adult ICU patients. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of IWS caused by opioids in a critically ill adult population. This multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted at two level-1 trauma ICUs between February 2015 and September 2015 and included 54 critically ill patients. Participants were eligible if they were 18 years and older, mechanically ventilated and had received more than 72 h of regular intermittent or continuous intravenous infusion of opioids. For each enrolled patient and per each opioid weaning episode, presence of IWS was assessed by a qualified ICU physician or senior resident according to the 5th edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for opioid withdrawal.
The population consisted mostly of males (74.1%) with a median age of 50 years (25th–75th percentile 38.2–64.5). The median ICU admission APACHE II score was 22 (25th–75th percentile 12.0–28.2). The overall incidence of IWS was 16.7% (95% CI 6–27). The median cumulative opioid dose prior to weaning was higher in patients with IWS (245.7 vs. 169.4 mcg/kg, fentanyl equivalent). Patients with IWS were also exposed to opioids for a longer period of time as compared to patients without IWS (median 151 vs. 125 h). However, these results were not statistically significant.
IWS was occasionally observed in this very specific population of mechanically ventilated, critically ill ICU patients. Further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results and identify risk factors.
PMCID: PMC5581799  PMID: 28866754
Iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome; Opioids; DSM-V; Mechanical ventilation; Critically ill; Intensive care unit; Adult
17.  Moisture-triggered physically transient electronics 
Science Advances  2017;3(9):e1701222.
We present a type of electronics that can be dissolved upon the presence of moisture within a controllable time scale.
Physically transient electronics, a form of electronics that can physically disappear in a controllable manner, is very promising for emerging applications. Most of the transient processes reported so far only occur in aqueous solutions or biofluids, offering limited control over the triggering and degradation processes. We report novel moisture-triggered physically transient electronics, which exempt the needs of resorption solutions and can completely disappear within well-controlled time frames. The triggered transient process starts with the hydrolysis of the polyanhydride substrate in the presence of trace amounts of moisture in the air, a process that can generate products of corrosive organic acids to digest various inorganic electronic materials and components. Polyanhydride is the only example of polymer that undergoes surface erosion, a distinct feature that enables stable operation of the functional devices over a predefined time frame. Clear advantages of this novel triggered transience mode include that the lifetime of the devices can be precisely controlled by varying the moisture levels and changing the composition of the polymer substrate. The transience time scale can be tuned from days to weeks. Various transient devices, ranging from passive electronics (such as antenna, resistor, and capacitor) to active electronics (such as transistor, diodes, optoelectronics, and memories), and an integrated system as a platform demonstration have been developed to illustrate the concept and verify the feasibility of this design strategy.
PMCID: PMC5580884
18.  Modulation of Acid-sensing Ion Channel 1a by Intracellular pH and Its Role in Ischemic Stroke* 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2016;291(35):18370-18383.
An important contributor to brain ischemia is known to be extracellular acidosis, which activates acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), a family of proton-gated sodium channels. Lines of evidence suggest that targeting ASICs may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for stroke. Investigations of the role of ASICs in ischemic brain injury have naturally focused on the role of extracellular pH in ASIC activation. By contrast, intracellular pH (pHi) has received little attention. This is a significant gap in our understanding because the ASIC response to extracellular pH is modulated by pHi, and activation of ASICs by extracellular protons is paradoxically enhanced by intracellular alkalosis. Our previous studies show that acidosis-induced cell injury in in vitro models is attenuated by intracellular acidification. However, whether pHi affects ischemic brain injury in vivo is completely unknown. Furthermore, whereas ASICs in native neurons are composed of different subunits characterized by distinct electrophysiological/pharmacological properties, the subunit-dependent modulation of ASIC activity by pHi has not been investigated. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo ischemic brain injury models, electrophysiological, biochemical, and molecular biological approaches, we show that the intracellular alkalizing agent quinine potentiates, whereas the intracellular acidifying agent propionate inhibits, oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cell injury in vitro and brain ischemia-induced infarct volume in vivo. Moreover, we find that the potentiation of ASICs by quinine depends on the presence of the ASIC1a, ASIC2a subunits, but not ASIC1b, ASIC3 subunits. Furthermore, we have determined the amino acids in ASIC1a that are involved in the modulation of ASICs by pHi.
PMCID: PMC5000083  PMID: 27402850
acid sensing ion channel (ASIC); brain; electrophysiology; ischemia; patch clamp
19.  Genome-Wide Variation Patterns Uncover the Origin and Selection in Cultivated Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) 
Genome Biology and Evolution  2017;9(9):2159-2169.
Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a medicinally important herb and plays crucial roles in traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological analyses identified diverse bioactive components from Chinese ginseng. However, basic biological attributes including domestication and selection of the ginseng plant remain under-investigated. Here, we presented a genome-wide view of the domestication and selection of cultivated ginseng based on the whole genome data. A total of 8,660 protein-coding genes were selected for genome-wide scanning of the 30 wild and cultivated ginseng accessions. In complement, the 45s rDNA, chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were included to perform phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. The observed spatial genetic structure between northern cultivated ginseng (NCG) and southern cultivated ginseng (SCG) accessions suggested multiple independent origins of cultivated ginseng. Genome-wide scanning further demonstrated that NCG and SCG have undergone distinct selection pressures during the domestication process, with more genes identified in the NCG (97 genes) than in the SCG group (5 genes). Functional analyses revealed that these genes are involved in diverse pathways, including DNA methylation, lignin biosynthesis, and cell differentiation. These findings suggested that the SCG and NCG groups have distinct demographic histories. Candidate genes identified are useful for future molecular breeding of cultivated ginseng.
PMCID: PMC5737880  PMID: 28922794
artificial selection; domestication; ginsenoside; nucleotide diversity; Panax ginseng
20.  Identifying the tilt angle and correcting the orbital angular momentum spectrum dispersion of misaligned light beam 
Scientific Reports  2017;7:7873.
The axis tilt of light beam in optical system would introduce the dispersion of orbital angular momentum (OAM) spectrum. To deal with it, a two-step method is proposed and demonstrated. First, the tilt angle of optical axis is identified with a deduced relation between the tilt angle and the variation of OAM topological charges with different reference axes, which is obtained with the help of a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. In our experiments, the precision of measured tilt angle is about 10−4 rad with topological charges of −3~3. With the measured angle value, the additional phase delay due to axis tilt can be calculated so that the dispersion of OAM spectrum can be corrected with a simple formula while the optical axis is not aligned. The experimental results indicate that the original OAM spectrum has been successfully extracted for not only the pure state but also the superposed OAM states.
PMCID: PMC5554247  PMID: 28801603
21.  World Congress Integrative Medicine & Health 2017: Part one 
Brinkhaus, Benno | Falkenberg, Torkel | Haramati, Aviad | Willich, Stefan N. | Briggs, Josephine P. | Willcox, Merlin | Linde, Klaus | Theorell, Töres | Wong, Lisa M. | Dusek, Jeffrey | Wu, Darong | Eisenberg, David | Haramati, Aviad | Berger, Bettina | Kemper, Kathi | Stock-Schröer, Beate | Sützl-Klein, Hedda | Ferreri, Rosaria | Kaplan, Gary | Matthes, Harald | Rotter, Gabriele | Schiff, Elad | Arnon, Zahi | Hahn, Eckhard | Luberto, Christina M. | Martin, David | Schwarz, Silke | Tauschel, Diethard | Flower, Andrew | Gramminger, Harsha | Gupta, Hedwig H. | Gupta, S. N. | Kerckhoff, Annette | Kessler, Christian S. | Michalsen, Andreas | Kessler, Christian S. | Kim, Eun S. | Jang, Eun H. | Kim, Rana | Jan, Sae B. | Mittwede, Martin | Mohme, Wiebke | Ben-Arye, Eran | Bonucci, Massimo | Saad, Bashar | Breitkreuz, Thomas | Rossi, Elio | Kebudi, Rejin | Daher, Michel | Razaq, Samaher | Gafer, Nahla | Nimri, Omar | Hablas, Mohamed | Kienle, Gunver Sophia | Samuels, Noah | Silbermann, Michael | Bandelin, Lena | Lang, Anna-Lena | Wartner, Eva | Holtermann, Christoph | Binstock, Maxwell | Riebau, Robert | Mujkanovic, Edin | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Michalsen, Andres | Ward, Lesley | Cramer, Holger | Irnich, Dominik | Stör, Wolfram | Burnstock, Geoffrey | Schaible, Hans-Georg | Ots, Thomas | Langhorst, Jost | Lauche, Romy | Sundberg, Tobias | Falkenberg, Torkel | Amarell, Catherina | Amarell, Catherina | Anheyer, Melanie | Eckert, Marion | Eckert, Marion | Ogal, Mercedes | Eckert, Marion | Amarell, Catherina | Schönauer, Annette | Reisenberger, Birgit | Brand, Bernhard | Anheyer, Dennis | Dobos, Gustav | Kroez, Matthias | Martin, David | Matthes, Harald | Ammendola, Aldo | Mao, Jun J. | Witt, Claudia | Yang, Yufei | Dobos, Gustav | Oritz, Miriam | Horneber, Markus | Voiß, Petra | Reisenberger, Birgit | von Rosenstiel, Alexandra | Eckert, Marion | Ogal, Mercedes | Amarell, Catharina | Anheyer, Melanie | Schad, Friedemann | Schläppi, Marc | Kröz, Matthias | Büssing, Arndt | Bar-Sela, Gil | Matthes, Harald | Schiff, Elad | Ben-Arye, Eran | Arnon, Zahi | Avshalomov, David | Attias, Samuel | Schönauer, Annette | Haramati, Aviad | Witt, Claudia | Brinkhaus, Benno | Cotton, Sian | Jong, Miek | Jong, Mats | Scheffer, Christian | Haramati, Aviad | Tauschel, Diethard | Edelhäuser, Friedrich | AlBedah, Abdullah | Lee, Myeong Soo | Khalil, Mohamed | Ogawa, Keiko | Motoo, Yoshiharu | Arimitsu, Junsuke | Ogawa, Masao | Shimizu, Genki | Stange, Rainer | Kraft, Karin | Kuchta, Kenny | Watanabe, Kenji | Bonin, D | Büssing, Arndt | Gruber, Harald | Koch, Sabine | Gruber, Harald | Pohlmann, Urs | Caldwell, Christine | Krantz, Barbara | Kortum, Ria | Martin, Lily | Wieland, Lisa S. | Kligler, Ben | Gould-Fogerite, Susan | Zhang, Yuqing | Wieland, Lisa S. | Riva, John J. | Lumpkin, Michael | Ratner, Emily | Ping, Liu | Jian, Pei | Hamme, Gesa-Meyer | Mao, Xiaosong | Chouping, Han | Schröder, Sven | Hummelsberger, Josef | Wullinger, Michael | Brodzky, Marc | Zalpour, Christoff | Langley, Julia | Weber, Wendy | Mudd, Lanay M. | Wayne, Peter | Witt, Clauda | Weidenhammer, Wolfgang | Fønnebø, Vinjar | Boon, Heather | Steel, Amie | Bugarcic, Andrea | Rangitakatu, Melisa | Steel, Amie | Adams, Jon | Sibbritt, David | Wardle, Jon | Leach, Matthew | Schloss, Janet | Dieze, Helene | Boon, Heather | Ijaz, Nadine | Willcox, Merlin | Heinrich, Michael | Lewith, George | Flower, Andrew | Graz, Bertrand | Adam, Daniela | Grabenhenrich, Linus | Ortiz, Miriam | Binting, Sylvia | Reinhold, Thomas | Brinkhaus, Benno | Andermo, Susanne | Sundberg, Tobias | Falkenberg, Torkel | Nordberg, Johanna Hök | Arman, Maria | Bhasin, Manoj | Fan, Xueyi | Libermann, Towia | Fricchione, Gregory | Denninger, John | Benson, Herbert | Berger, Bettina | Stange, Rainer | Michalsen, Andreas | Martin, David D. | Boers, Inge | Vlieger, Arine | Jong, Miek | Brinkhaus, Benno | Teut, Michael | Ullmann, Alexander | Ortiz, Miriam | Rotter, Gabriele | Binting, Sylvia | Lotz, Fabian | Roll, Stephanie | Canella, Claudia | Mikolasek, Michael | Rostock, Matthias | Beyer, Jörg | Guckenberger, Matthias | Jenewein, Josef | Linka, Esther | Six, Claudia | Stoll, Sarah | Stupp, Roger | Witt, Claudia M. | Chuang, Elisabeth | Kligler, Ben | McKee, Melissa D. | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Klose, Petra | Lange, Silke | Langhorst, Jost | Dobos, Gustav | Chung, Vincent C. H. | Wong, Hoi L. C. | Wu, Xin Y. | Wen, Grace Y. G. | Ho, Robin S. T. | Ching, Jessica Y. L. | Wu, Justin C. Y. | Coakley, Amanda | Flanagan, Jane | Annese, Christine | Empoliti, Joanne | Gao, Zishan | Liu, Xugang | Yu, Shuguang | Yan, Xianzhong | Liang, Fanrong | Hohmann, Christoph D. | Steckhan, Nico | Ostermann, Thomas | Paetow, Arion | Hoff, Evelyn | Michalsen, Andreas | Hu, Xiao-Yang | Wu, Ruo-Han | Logue, Martin | Blonde, Clara | Lai, Lily Y. | Stuart, Beth | Flower, Andrew | Fei, Yu-Tong | Moore, Michael | Liu, Jian-Ping | Lewith, George | Hu, Xiao-Yang | Wu, Ruo-Han | Logue, Martin | Blonde, Clara | Lai, Lily Y. | Stuart, Beth | Flower, Andrew | Fei, Yu-Tong | Moore, Michael | Liu, Jian-Ping | Lewith, George | Jeitler, Michael | Zillgen, Hannah | Högl, Manuel | Steckhan, Nico | Stöckigt, Barbara | Seifert, Georg | Michalsen, Andreas | Kessler, Christian | Khadivzadeh, Talat | Bashtian, Maryam Hassanzadeh | Aval, Shapour Badiee | Esmaily, Habibollah | Kim, Jihye | Kim, Keun H. | Klocke, Carina | Joos, Stefanie | Koshak, Abdulrahman | Wie, Li | Koshak, Emad | Wali, Siraj | Alamoudi, Omer | Demerdash, Abdulrahman | Qutub, Majdy | Pushparaj, Peter | Heinrich, Michael | Kruse, Sigrid | Fischer, Isabell | Tremel, Nadine | Rosenecker, Joseph | Leung, Brenda | Takeda, Wendy | Liang, Ning | Feng, Xue | Liu, Jian-ping | Cao, Hui-juan | Luberto, Christina M. | Shinday, Nina | Philpotts, Lisa | Park, Elyse | Fricchione, Gregory L. | Yeh, Gloria | Munk, Niki | Zakeresfahani, Arash | Foote, Trevor R. | Ralston, Rick | Boulanger, Karen | Özbe, Dominik | Gräßel, Elmar | Luttenberger, Katharina | Pendergrass, Anna | Pach, Daniel | Bellmann-Strobl, Judit | Chang, Yinhui | Pasura, Laura | Liu, Bin | Jäger, Sven F. | Loerch, Ronny | Jin, Li | Brinkhaus, Benno | Ortiz, Miriam | Reinhold, Thomas | Roll, Stephanie | Binting, Sylvia | Icke, Katja | Shi, Xuemin | Paul, Friedemann | Witt, Claudia M. | Rütz, Michaela | Lynen, Andreas | Schömitz, Meike | Vahle, Maik | Salomon, Nir | Lang, Alon | Lahat, Adi | Kopylov, Uri | Ben-Horin, Shomron | Har-Noi, Ofir | Avidan, Benjamin | Elyakim, Rami | Gamus, Dorit | NG, Siew | Chang, Jessica | Wu, Justin | Kaimiklotis, John | Schumann, Dania | Buttó, Ludovica | Langhorst, Jost | Dobos, Gustav | Haller, Dirk | Cramer, Holger | Smith, Caroline | de Lacey, Sheryl | Chapman, Michael | Ratcliffe, Julie | Johnson, Neil | Lyttleton, Jane | Boothroyd, Clare | Fahey, Paul | Tjaden, Bram | van Vliet, Marja | van Wietmarschen, Herman | Jong, Miek | Tröger, Wilfried | Vuolanto, Pia | Aarva, Paulina | Sorsa, Minna | Helin, Kaija | Wenzel, Claudia | Zoderer, Iris | Pammer, Patricia | Simon, Patrick | Tucek, Gerhard | Wode, Kathrin | Henriksson, Roger | Sharp, Lena | Stoltenberg, Anna | Nordberg, Johanna Hök | Xiao-ying, Yang | Wang, Li-qiong | Li, Jin-gen | Liang, Ning | Wang, Ying | Liu, Jian-ping | Balneaves, Lynda | Capler, Rielle | Bocci, Chiara | Guffi, Marta | Paolini, Marina | Meaglia, Ilaria | Porcu, Patrizia | Ivaldi, Giovanni B. | Dragan, Simona | Bucuras, Petru | Pah, Ana M. | Badalica-Petrescu, Marius | Buleu, Florina | Hogea-Stoichescu, Gheorghe | Christodorescu, Ruxandra | Kao, Lan | Cho, Yumin | Klafke, Nadja | Mahler, Cornelia | von Hagens, Cornelia | Uhlmann, Lorenz | Bentner, Martina | Schneeweiss, Andreas | Mueller, Andreas | Szecsenyi, Joachim | Joos, Stefanie | Neri, Isabella | Ortiz, Miriam | Schnabel, Katharina | Teut, Michael | Rotter, Gabriele | Binting, Sylvia | Cree, Margit | Lotz, Fabian | Suhr, Ralf | Brinkhaus, Benno | Rossi, Elio | Baccetti, Sonia | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Monechi, Maria V. | Di Stefano, Mariella | Amunni, Gianni | Wong, Wendy | Chen, Bingzhong | Wu, Justin | Amri, Hakima | Haramati, Aviad | Kotlyanskaya, Lucy | Anderson, Belinda | Evans, Roni | Kligler, Ben | Marantz, Paul | Bradley, Ryan | Booth-LaForce, Cathryn | Zwickey, Heather | Kligler, Benjamin | Brooks, Audrey | Kreitzer, Mary J. | Lebensohn, Patricia | Goldblatt, Elisabeth | Esmel-Esmel, Neus | Jiménez-Herrera, Maria | Ijaz, Nadine | Boon, Heather | Jocham, Alexandra | Stock-Schröer, Beate | Berberat, Pascal O. | Schneider, Antonius | Linde, Klaus | Masetti, Morgana | Murakozy, Henriette | Van Vliet, Marja | Jong, Mats | Jong, Miek | Agdal, Rita | Atarzadeh, Fatemeh | Jaladat, Amir M. | Hoseini, Leila | Amini, Fatemeh | Bai, Chen | Liu, Tiegang | Zheng, Zian | Wan, Yuxiang | Xu, Jingnan | Wang, Xuan | Yu, He | Gu, Xiaohong | Daneshfard, Babak | Nimrouzi, Majid | Tafazoli, Vahid | Alorizi, Seyed M. Emami | Saghebi, Seyed A. | Fattahi, Mohammad R. | Salehi, Alireza | Rezaeizadeh, Hossein | Zarshenas, Mohammad M. | Nimrouzi, Majid | Fox, Kealoha | Hughes, John | Kostanjsek, Nenad | Espinosa, Stéphane | Lewith, George | Fisher, Peter | Latif, Abdul | Lefeber, Donald | Paske, William | Öztürk, Ali Ö. | Öztürk, Gizemnur | Boers, Inge | Tissing, Wim | Naafs, Marianne | Busch, Martine | Jong, Miek | Daneshfard, Babak | Sanaye, Mohammad R. | Dräger, Kilian | Fisher, Peter | Kreitzer, Mary J. | Evans, Roni | Leininger, Brent | Shafto, Kate | Breen, Jenny | Sanaye, Mohammad R. | Daneshfard, Babak | Simões-Wüst, Ana P. | Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina | van Dongen, Martien | Dagnelie, Pieter | Thijs, Carel | White, Shelley | Wiesener, Solveig | Salamonsen, Anita | Stub, Trine | Fønnebø, Vinjar | Abanades, Sergio | Blanco, Mar | Masllorens, Laia | Sala, Roser | Al-Ahnoumy, Shafekah | Han, Dongwoon | He, Luzhu | Kim, Ha Yun | In Choi, Da | Alræk, Terje | Stub, Trine | Kristoffersen, Agnete | von Sceidt, Christel | Michalsen, Andreas | Bruset, Stig | Musial, Frauke | Anheyer, Dennis | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Saha, Felix J. | Dobos, Gustav | Anheyer, Dennis | Haller, Heidemarie | Lauche, Romy | Dobos, Gustav | Cramer, Holger | Azizi, Hoda | Khadem, Nayereh | Hassanzadeh, Malihe | Estiri, Nazanin | Azizi, Hamideh | Tavassoli, Fatemeh | Lotfalizadeh, Marzieh | Zabihi, Reza | Esmaily, Habibollah | Azizi, Hoda | Shabestari, Mahmoud Mohammadzadeh | Paeizi, Reza | Azari, Masoumeh Alvandi | Bahrami-Taghanaki, Hamidreza | Zabihi, Reza | Azizi, Hamideh | Esmaily, Habibollah | Baars, Erik | De Bruin, Anja | Ponstein, Anne | Baccetti, Sonia | Di Stefano, Mariella | Rossi, Elio | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Segantini, Sergio | Monechi, Maria Valeria | Voller, Fabio | Barth, Jürgen | Kern, Alexandra | Lüthi, Sebastian | Witt, Claudia | Barth, Jürgen | Zieger, Anja | Otto, Fabius | Witt, Claudia | Beccia, Ariel | Dunlap, Corina | Courneene, Brendan | Bedregal, Paula | Passi, Alvaro | Rodríguez, Alfredo | Chang, Mayling | Gutiérrez, Soledad | Beissner, Florian | Beissner, Florian | Preibisch, Christine | Schweizer-Arau, Annemarie | Popovici, Roxana | Meissner, Karin | Beljanski, Sylvie | Belland, Laura | Rivera-Reyes, Laura | Hwang, Ula | Berger, Bettina | Sethe, Dominik | Hilgard, Dörte | Heusser, Peter | Bishop, Felicity | Al-Abbadey, Miznah | Bradbury, Katherine | Carnes, Dawn | Dimitrov, Borislav | Fawkes, Carol | Foster, Jo | MacPherson, Hugh | Roberts, Lisa | Yardley, Lucy | Lewith, George | Bishop, Felicity | Al-Abbadey, Miznah | Bradbury, Katherine | Carnes, Dawn | Dimitrov, Borislav | Fawkes, Carol | Foster, Jo | MacPherson, Hugh | Roberts, Lisa | Yardley, Lucy | Lewith, George | Bishop, Felicity | Holmes, Michelle | Lewith, George | Yardley, Lucy | Little, Paul | Cooper, Cyrus | Bogani, Patrizia | Maggini, Valentina | Gallo, Eugenia | Miceli, Elisangela | Biffi, Sauro | Mengoni, Alessio | Fani, Renato | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Brands-Guendling, Nadine | Guendling, Peter W. | Bronfort, Gert | Evans, Roni | Haas, Mitch | Leininger, Brent | Schulz, Craig | Bu, Xiangwei | Wang, J. | Fang, T. | Shen, Z. | He, Y. | Zhang, X. | Zhang, Zhengju | Wang, Dali | Meng, Fengxian | Büssing, Arndt | Baumann, Klaus | Frick, Eckhard | Jacobs, Christoph | Büssing, Arndt | Grünther, Ralph-Achim | Lötzke, Désirée | Büssing, Arndt | Jung, Sonny | Lötzke, Désirée | Recchia, Daniela R. | Robens, Sibylle | Ostermann, Thomas | Berger, Bettina | Stankewitz, Josephin | Kröz, Matthias | Jeitler, Mika | Kessler, Christian | Michalsen, Andreas | Cheon, Chunhoo | Jang, Bo H. | Ko, Seong G. | Huang, Ching W. | Sasaki, Yui | Ko, Youme | Cheshire, Anna | Ridge, Damien | Hughes, John | Peters, David | Panagioti, Maria | Simon, Chantal | Lewith, George | Cho, Hyun J. | Han, Dongwoon | Choi, Soo J. | Jung, Young S. | Im, Hyea B | Cooley, Kieran | Tummon-Simmons, Laura | Cotton, Sian | Luberto, Christina M. | Wasson, Rachel | Kraemer, Kristen | Sears, Richard | Hueber, Carly | Derk, Gwendolyn | Lill, JR | An, Ruopeng | Steinberg, Lois | Rodriguez, Lourdes Diaz | la Fuente, Francisca García-de | De la Vega, Miguel | Vargas-Román, Keyla | Fernández-Ruiz, Jonatan | Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene | Rodriguez, Lourdes Diaz | García-De la Fuente, Francisca | Jiménez-Guerrero, Fanny | Vargas-Román, Keyla | Fernández-Ruiz, Jonatan | Galiano-Castillo, Noelia | Diaz-Saez, Gualberto | Torres-Jimenez, José I. | Garcia-Gomez, Olga | Hortal-Muñoz, Luis | Diaz-Diez, Camino | Dicen, Demijon | Diezel, Helene | Adams, Jon | Steel, Amie | Wardle, Jon | Diezel, Helene | Steel, Amie | Frawley, Jane | Wardle, Jon | Broom, Alex | Adams, Jon | Dong, Fei | Yu, He | Liu, Tiegang | Ma, Xueyan | Yan, Liyi | Wan, Yuxiang | Zheng, Zian | Gu, Xiaohong | Dong, Fei | Yu, He | Wu, Liqun | Liu, Tiegang | Ma, Xueyan | Ma, Jiaju | Yan, Liyi | Wan, Yuxiang | Zheng, Zian | Zhen, Jianhua | Gu, Xiaohong | Dubois, Julie | Rodondi, Pierre-Yves | Edelhäuser, Friedrich | Schwartze, Sophia | Trapp, Barbara | Cysarz, Dirk
PMCID: PMC5498855
23.  Ultralight, scalable, and high-temperature–resilient ceramic nanofiber sponges 
Science Advances  2017;3(6):e1603170.
Scalable synthesis of ultralight, multifunctional, and high-temperature resilient ceramic nanofiber sponges by blow-spinning.
Ultralight and resilient porous nanostructures have been fabricated in various material forms, including carbon, polymers, and metals. However, the development of ultralight and high-temperature resilient structures still remains extremely challenging. Ceramics exhibit good mechanical and chemical stability at high temperatures, but their brittleness and sensitivity to flaws significantly complicate the fabrication of resilient porous ceramic nanostructures. We report the manufacturing of large-scale, lightweight, high-temperature resilient, three-dimensional sponges based on a variety of oxide ceramic (for example, TiO2, ZrO2, yttria-stabilized ZrO2, and BaTiO3) nanofibers through an efficient solution blow-spinning process. The ceramic sponges consist of numerous tangled ceramic nanofibers, with densities varying from 8 to 40 mg/cm3. In situ uniaxial compression in a scanning electron microscope showed that the TiO2 nanofiber sponge exhibits high energy absorption (for example, dissipation of up to 29.6 mJ/cm3 in energy density at 50% strain) and recovers rapidly after compression in excess of 20% strain at both room temperature and 400°C. The sponge exhibits excellent resilience with residual strains of only ~1% at 800°C after 10 cycles of 10% compression strain and maintains good recoverability after compression at ~1300°C. We show that ceramic nanofiber sponges can serve multiple functions, such as elasticity-dependent electrical resistance, photocatalytic activity, and thermal insulation.
PMCID: PMC5457032
ultra-light materials; high-temperature resilience; nanofiber; blow-spinning
24.  Spatially-segmented undersampled MRI temperature reconstruction for transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound 
Volumetric thermometry with fine spatiotemporal resolution is desirable to monitor MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) procedures in the brain, but requires some form of accelerated imaging. Accelerated MR temperature imaging methods have been developed that undersample k-space and leverage signal correlations over time to suppress the resulting undersampling artifacts. However, in transcranial MRgFUS treatments, the water bath surrounding the skull creates signal variations that do not follow those correlations, leading to temperature errors in the brain due to signal aliasing.
To eliminate temperature errors due to the water bath, a spatially-segmented iterative reconstruction method was developed. The method fits a k-space hybrid signal model to reconstruct temperature changes in the brain, and a conventional MR signal model in the water bath. It was evaluated using single-channel 2DFT Cartesian, golden angle radial, and spiral data from gel phantom heating, and in vivo 8-channel 2DFT data from a FUS thalamotomy. Water bath signal intensity in phantom heating images was scaled between 0-100% to investigate its effect on temperature error. Temperature reconstructions of retrospectively undersampled data were performed using the spatially-segmented method, and compared to conventional whole-image k-space hybrid (phantom) and SENSE (in vivo) reconstructions.
At 100% water bath signal intensity, 3 ×-undersampled spatially-segmented temperature reconstruction error was nearly 5-fold lower than the whole-image k-space hybrid method. Temperature root-mean square error in the hot spot was reduced on average by 27 × (2DFT), 5 × (radial), and 12 × (spiral) using the proposed method. It reduced in vivo error 2 × in the brain for all acceleration factors, and between 2 × and 3 × in the temperature hot spot for 2-4 × undersampling compared to SENSE.
Separate reconstruction of brain and water bath signals enables accelerated MR temperature imaging during MRgFUS procedures with low errors due to undersampling using Cartesian and non-Cartesian trajectories. The spatially-segmented method benefits from multiple coils, and reconstructs temperature with lower error compared to measurements from SENSE-reconstructed images. The acceleration can be applied to increase volumetric coverage and spatiotemporal resolution.
PMCID: PMC5448150
Temperature imaging; Image reconstruction; Proton resonance frequency-shift; Thermometry; MRI-guided focused ultrasound
25.  Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Efficacies of Continuous versus Intermittent Administration of Meropenem in Patients with Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Prospective Randomized Pilot Study 
Chinese Medical Journal  2017;130(10):1139-1145.
The antibiotic meropenem is commonly administered in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. We compared the pharmacokinetic, clinical, and bacteriological efficacies of continuous infusion of meropenem versus intermittent administration in such patients.
Patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with severe sepsis or septic shock who received meropenem were randomly assigned to either the continuous (n = 25) or intermittent groups (n = 25). The continuous group received a loading dose of 0.5 g of meropenem followed by a continuous infusion of 3 g/day; the intermittent group received an initial dose of 1.5 g followed by 1 g for every 8 h. Clinical success, microbiological eradication, superinfection, ICU mortality, length of ICU stay, and duration of meropenem treatment were assessed. Serial plasma meropenem concentrations for the first and third dosing periods (steady state) were also measured.
Clinical success was similar in both the continuous (64%) and intermittent (56%) groups (P = 0.564); the rates of microbiological eradication and superinfection (81.8% vs. 66.7% [P = 0.255] and 4% vs. 16% [P = 0.157], respectively) showed improvement in the continuous group. The duration of meropenem treatment was significantly shorter in the continuous group (7.6 vs. 9.4 days; P = 0.035), where a better steady-state concentration was also achieved. Peak and trough concentrations were significantly different between the continuous and intermittent groups both in the first (Cmax: 19.8 mg/L vs. 51.8 mg/L, P = 0.000; Cmin: 11.2 mg/L vs. 0.5 mg/L, P = 0.000) and third dosing periods (Cmax: 12.5 mg/L vs. 46.4 mg/L, P = 0.000; Cmin: 11.4 mg/L vs. 0.6 mg/L, P = 0.000). For medium-susceptibility pathogens, continuous infusion concentrations above the minimal inhibitory concentration were 100%, which was better than that in the intermittent group.
Continuous infusion of meropenem provides significantly shorter treatment duration and a tendency for superior bacteriological efficacy than intermittent administration. Continuous infusion may be more optimal against intermediate-susceptibility pathogens.
PMCID: PMC5443018  PMID: 28485312
Continuous Infusion; Intermittent Infusion; Meropenem; Pharmacodynamic; Pharmacokinetic

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