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1.  Effect of the Fish Oil Fortified Chitosan Edible Film on Microbiological, Chemical Composition and Sensory Properties of Göbek Kashar Cheese during Ripening Time 
Objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of coated edible films with chitosan solutions enriched with essential oil (EO) on the chemical, microbial and sensory properties of Kashar cheese during ripening time. Generally, no differences were found in total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, streptococci and lactoccocci counts among cheeses but these microorganism counts increased during 60 and 90 d storage especially in C1 (uncoated sample) as compared with coated samples. Antimicrobial effectiveness of the films against moulds was measured on 30, 60, and 90 d of storage. In addition of fish EO into chitosan edible films samples were showed to affect significantly decreased the moulds (p<0.05) as 1.15 Log CFU/g in C4 (with fish oil (1% w/v) fortified chitosan film) on the 90th d, while in C1 as 3.89 Log CFU/g on the 90th d of ripening. Compared to other cheese samples, C2 (coated with chitosan film) and C4 coated cheese samples revealed higher levels of water-soluble nitrogen and ripening index at the end of storage. C2 coated cheese samples were preferred more by the panellists while C4 coated cheese samples received the lowest scores.
PMCID: PMC4942553  PMID: 27433109
fish oil; essential oil; chitosan; edible coating; shelf-life
2.  Evaluation of Freeze-Dried Kefir Coculture as Starter in Feta-Type Cheese Production 
The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4°C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were studied. The use of kefir coculture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product associated with significantly higher conversion rates compared to salted rennet cheese. Determination of bacterial diversity at the end of the ripening process in salted kefir and rennet cheeses by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology, based on both DNA and RNA analyses, suggested a potential species-specific inhibition of members of the genera Staphylococcus and Psychrobacter by kefir coculture. The main active microbial associations in salted kefir cheese appeared to be members of the genera Pseudomonas and Lactococcus, while in salted rennet cheese, Oxalobacteraceae, Janthinobacterium, Psychrobacter, and Pseudomonas species were noted. The effect of the starter culture on the production of aroma-related compounds responsible for cheese flavor was also studied by the solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Kefir coculture also appeared to extend the shelf life of unsalted cheese. Spoilage of kefir cheese was observed on the 9th and 20th days of preservation at 10 and 5°C, respectively, while spoilage in the corresponding rennet cheese was detected on the 7th and 16th days. Microbial counts during preservation of both types of unsalted cheese increased steadily and reached similar levels, with the exception of staphylococci, which were significantly lower in unsalted kefir cheese. All types of cheese produced with kefir as a starter were approved and accepted by the panel during the preliminary sensory evaluation compared to commercial feta-type cheese.
PMCID: PMC1563647  PMID: 16957238
3.  Use of corn oil in the production of Turkish white cheese 
Journal of Food Science and Technology  2012;51(10):2382-2392.
The use of corn oil in white cheese production instead of milk fat was investigated and its effects on the quality parameters of cheese were studied. It was demonstrated that the use of corn oil significantly affected the levels of dry matter, fat in dry matter, protein, salt in dry matter and titratable acidity and pH value of samples (p < 0.05). The water-soluble nitrogen based ripening indices of cheeses increased throughout the ripening period. However, there were not large quantitative differences among the peptide profiles of all the cheese samples. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios (PUFA/SFA) and total cis fatty acid contents were found to be higher whilst the saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid content were found to be lower than those of the control cheese (p < 0.05). It was found that the use of corn oil instead of milk fat in cheese production decreased the cholesterol content of the cheese samples (p < 0.05). The sensory scores of corn oil cheese were almost similar to the control cheese. The results indicated that corn oil utilization in cheese production has commercial potential in overcoming the defects related to fat reduction.
PMCID: PMC4190198  PMID: 25328177
White cheese; Corn oil; Cholesterol; Textural properties; Fatty acid composition
4.  Chitosan/whey Protein (CWP) Edible Films Efficiency for Controlling Mould Growth and on Microbiological, Chemical and Sensory Properties During Storage of Göbek Kashar Cheese 
The objective of present study was to evaluate the effects of the application of chitosan and chitosan/whey protein on the chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of Göbek Kashar cheese during ripening time (on 3rd, 30th, 60th and 90th d). Difference in microbiological and chemical changes between samples was found to be significant (p<0.05) during ripening period. Cheese samples with edible coating had statistically lower mould counts compared to the uncoated samples. Furthermore the highest and lowest mould counts were determined in control (4.20 Log CFU/g) and other samples (<1 Log CFU/g) at 60th and 90th d of storage. All samples exhibited higher levels of water soluble nitrogen and ripening index at the end of storage process. At the end of 90 day storage period, no signicant dierences in salt and fat values were observed among the cheeses studied. The edible coatings had a beneficial effect on the sensory quality of cheese samples. In the result of sensory analysis, while cheese C and the chitosan coated cheese samples were more preferred by the panellists, the chitosan/whey protein film-coated cheese samples received the lowest scores. This study shows coating suggests could be used to improve the quality of cheese during ripening time.
PMCID: PMC4682516  PMID: 26761831
chitosan; chitosan/whey protein; Göbek Kashar; ripening
5.  Sex differences in fear of pain: item-level analysis of the Fear of Pain Questionnaire III 
Journal of Pain Research  2017;10:825-831.
This study aimed to investigate sex differences in fear of pain (FOP) measured by the Fear of Pain Questionnaire III (FPQ-III) in a nonclinical sample. The FPQ-III is a self-report inventory measuring FOP, with 30 items, divided into three subscales: Severe, Minor and Medical Pain.
A total of 185 subjects participated (49.7% females) in this study. Sex differences on overall FOP, the subscales, and at item level were examined. One-way analysis of variance tested the association between sex and FOP, measured by overall FOP and the subscales. Ordinal regression analysis enabled item-level analysis of the FPQ-III and was conducted to explore further specificity of FOP in males compared to females.
Overall FOP and fear of Severe Pain was significantly higher in females than in males, as measured by the FPQ-Total and the FPQ-Severe. Moreover, females were more likely to report higher FOP than males on 16 items (p<0.05). Further inspection revealed that females scored significantly higher than males on all items on the Severe Pain subscale. When controlling for multiple comparisons six items reached significance (p<0.001). Five of these items belonged to the subscale Severe Pain. When controlling for overall FOP one item, also from the Severe Pain subscale, reached significance (p<0.001).
There are sex differences in severe FOP, with higher FOP in females compared to males. Potential explanations are sex differences in the 1) psychosocial mechanisms of fear and anxiety, and 2) emotional reactions to and interpretation of FPQ-III Severe Pain items.
PMCID: PMC5391169
fear of pain; FOP; fear of pain questionnaire III; FPQ-III; pain; sex differences
6.  Soft cheese supplemented with black cumin oil: Impact on food borne pathogens and quality during storage 
Black cumin seed oil (BCSO) was tested for its inhibitory effect against some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Salmonella enteritidis PT4) in Domiati cheese during cold storage. Physical, chemical and sensorial changes in cheese during storage were recorded. Pasteurized milk was inoculated before renneting with a mixed culture of bacteria at ca. 4 log CFU mL−1. In vitro and in situ supplementation with BCSO showed antimicrobial impact on the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. enteritidis inoculated into media and cheese samples. Supplementing of cheese with BCSO (0.1% or 0.2%, w/w) significantly reduced the counts of the inoculated pathogens by ca. 1.3 log and 1.5 log CFU g−1 after 21 days of storage. In addition, BCSO controlled the development of titratable acidity, limited the changes in ripening indices, flavor components and kept considerable physicochemical and sensorial properties of cheese.
PMCID: PMC4061416  PMID: 24955014
Soft cheese; Black cumin oil; Food borne pathogens; Antibacterial
7.  Physicochemical and hygienic effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Iranian white cheese 
Veterinary Research Forum  2012;3(3):193-197.
Increasing incidence of food-borne disease along with its social and economic consequences have led to conducting extensive research in order to produce safer food and develop new antimicrobial agents; among them, extensive use of probiotics and bacteriocins as biological additives is of significant importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interactions (growth behavior and survival) of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus acidophilus in various stages of production, ripening and storage of Iranian white cheese. Changes in pH values at different stages of cheese ripening, along with changes in organoleptic properties of cheese were also assessed. Compared to other treatments, in the treatment of cheese with probiotic agent without starter, the most significant decrease in Listeria monocytogenes count at the end of ripening stage was observed (3.16 Log per gram cheese compared with the control group) (p < 0.05). Survival of probiotic bacteria in control samples of cheese were significantly higher when compared to cheese sample contaminated with Listeria (p < 0.05). White probiotic cheese with starter had the highest of sensory acceptability (p < 0.05). Listeria Monocytogenes count decreased during ripening period of probiotic white cheese but the bacteria survived in probiotic white cheese. Lactobacillus acidophilus count decreased during ripening period of white cheese but it did not lower to less than 106 CFU per g at the end of ripening and storage periods.
PMCID: PMC4299982  PMID: 25610568
Iranian white cheese; Listeria monocytogenes; Probiotic; Starter
8.  Effect of ambient storage on the quality characteristics of aerobically packaged fish curls incorporated with different flours 
SpringerPlus  2014;3:106.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ambient storage on the quality attributes of aerobically packaged fish curls incorporated with optimum levels of different flours. The curls were developed by extrusion technology using fish meat (Catla catla). The fish curls containing optimum levels of different flours viz. 20 percent corn flour, 10 percent black gram flour and 10 percent peanut flour were compared with the control snacks containing 30 percent rice flour and assessed for storage quality and shelf life at ambient temperature. The curls were aerobically packaged in LDPE (low density polyethylene) pouches and evaluated for various physicochemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Mean values of pH of all the curls showed significantly (p < 0.05) decreasing trend with increasing days of storage (6.34 ± 0.01 on day 0 and 5.90 ± 0.005 on day 28 for control samples, 6.41 ± 0.009 on day 0 and 6.11 ± 0.02 on day 28 for corn flour incorporated samples, 6.36 ± 0.01 on day 0 and 6.14 ± 0.01 on day 28 for black gram flour incorporated samples, 6.57 ± 0.007 on day 0 and 6.34 ± 0.01 on day 28 for peanut flour incorporated samples). TBARS (mg malonaldehyde/kg), total plate count (log cfu/g) and yeast and mould count (log cfu/g) for the control as well as treatment samples showed significantly (p < 0.05) increasing trend with storage. Coliform counts (log cfu/g) were not detected until day 28 in all the products. The mean scores of sensory parameters i.e. appearance and colour, flavor, crispiness, texture and overall acceptability for control as well as treatment samples showed significantly (p < 0.05) decreasing trend with storage period. The decrease was significantly (p < 0.05) highest on 21st and 28th day of storage. The mean values for all the quality and storage parameters up to the day 21 of the storage were within the acceptable limits. Thus, based on various physicochemical and sensory parameters, the curls incorporated with optimum level of different flours were acceptable up to 21 days of ambient storage within the LDPE pouches.
PMCID: PMC3950375  PMID: 24624316
Snacks; Curls; Fish; Flours; Ambient storage; Physicochemical parameters; Sensory attributes
9.  The impact of using chickpea flour and dried carp fish powder on pizza quality 
PLoS ONE  2017;12(9):e0183657.
Pizza being the most popular food worldwide, quality and sensory appeal are important considerations during its modification effort. This study was aimed to evaluate the quality of pizza made using two different sources of proteins, chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour and dried carp fish powder (Cyprinus carpio). Analysis indicated nutrients richness specificity of chickpea flour (higher fiber, energy, iron, zinc, linoleic acid and total nonessential amino acids) and dried carp fish powder (higher contents of protein, fats, ash, oleic acid and total essential amino acids) complementing wheat flour to enhance nutritional value of pizza. Total plate count and thiobarbituric acid were increased (P<0.05) in dried carp fish powder after 45 days of storage, but no Coliform were detected. Wheat flour was substituted with 5, 7.5 and 10% chickpea flour or dried carp fish powder and chemical, textural, sensory and storage evaluation parameters of in pizza were investigated. Dried carp fish powder increased (P<0.05) contents of protein, ash, fats, zinc and protein digestibility of pizza. Chickpea flour increased iron and zinc contents of the pizza. Water activity (aw) was decreased in fish powder and chickpea pizza. Pizza firmness and gumminess were significantly (p<0.05) increased at every level of protein source, but cohesiveness was decreased with 10% chickpea flour. Pizza chewiness was the same (P>0.05) across the levels of two protein sources. Springiness was decreased (P<0.05) with high level (10%) dried fish powder and low/intermediate level of chickpea flour. Chickpea and dried carp fish incorporation up to 7.50% in pizza at the expense of wheat flour had no effect (P>0.05) on all sensorial parameters except for odor values. The results could be useful in utilization of chickpea flour and carp fish powder in designing nutritious pizza for consumers.
PMCID: PMC5584754  PMID: 28873098
10.  New insights into frequency and contents of fear of cancer progression/recurrence (FOP/FCR) in outpatients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) receiving oral capecitabine: a pilot study at a comprehensive cancer center 
Patient preference and adherence  2017;11:1907-1914.
Fear of cancer progression/recurrence (FOP/FCR) is considered one of the most prevalent sources of distress in cancer survivors and associated with lower quality of life and functional impairment. Detailed measures of FOP/FCR are needed because little is known about the knowledge of FOP/FCR, its associations with the patient–doctor relationship, and the rate of adequate therapy. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancer entities, and oral capecitabine is widely prescribed as treatment. Therefore, we initiated a pilot study to expand the literature on FOP/FCR in CRC outpatients receiving capecitabine and to generate hypotheses for future investigations.
This study included 58 patients treated at a comprehensive cancer center. FOP/FCR was assessed with the Fear of Progression Questionnaire (FOP-Q-SF). Satisfaction with the relationships with doctors was assessed with the Patient–Doctor Relationship Questionnaire-9 (PRDQ-9). Levels of side effects were rated by the patients on a visual analog scale. Clinical data were extracted from the charts.
A total of 19 out of 58 patients (36%) suffered from FOP/FCR according to our assessment. Levels of FOP/FCR seemed to be mostly moderate to high. Only four out of the 19 distressed patients (21%) were treated accordingly. Typical side effects of oncological treatment were associated with higher FOP/FCR. Satisfaction with doctor–patient relationships was not associated with FOP/FCR. Regarding single items of FOP/FCR, three out of the five most prevalent fears were associated with close relatives.
FOP/FCR occurred frequently in more than one in three patients, but was mostly untreated in this sample of consecutive outpatients with CRC receiving oral capecitabine. In detail, most fears were related to family and friends. In addition to an unmet need of patients, our data indicate sources of distress not considered thus far. If replicated in larger studies, results may help to inform intervention development and improve patient care.
PMCID: PMC5694194
oral anticancer drugs; colorectal cancer; fear of progression; screening for distress; comprehensive management
11.  Comparative analysis of mozzarella cheeses fortified with whey protein hydrolysates, diverse in hydrolysis time and concentrations 
The objective of the present study was to improve the quality of mozzarella cheese using whey protein concentrates (WPCs) hydrolyzed for varying lengths of time (1 and 3 h). Four types of cheeses were made incorporating hydrolyzed WPCs in milk 3 and 6 % level and evaluated for nutritional, structural, and functional properties during 28 days storage at 4 °C. Whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) incorporation increased protein, lactose, minerals, water-soluble-protein, non-protein-nitrogen. Mozzarella incorporated with WPHs hydrolyzed for 3 h had higher fat contents, favorable meltability and lower browning effect, stretchability, brittleness, springiness, and cohesiveness compared to mozzarella fortified with WPHs hydrolyzed for 1 h. The incorporation of hydrolyzed WPCs significantly influenced rheological and functional characteristics of mozzarella cheese. The cheeses made with hydrolyzed WPCs showed fewer changes in whiteness than control during storage. It was observed that both extent of hydrolysis and levels of WPHs incorporation had significant effect on the characteristics of mozzarella cheeses.
PMCID: PMC5069261  PMID: 27777463
Whey protein hydrolysates; Mozzarella cheese; Low-fat cheese; WPHs-fortified cheese; Mozzarella analysis
12.  Quality characteristics and consumer acceptance of a high fish protein puffed corn-fish snack 
Corn snack fortified with 7% fish protein powder made from saithe (Pollachius Virens) surimi was selected by expert panel from industry for consumer studies in Iran and Iceland. They hedonically screened products with 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% fish protein powder. Snack containing 9% fish protein powder (FP) had significantly lower liking for odour, texture, flavour, and overall acceptability than the other three prototypes. Snacks fortified with 3%, 5%, and 7% FP had similar sensory attributes. Therefore, snack with the highest level of FP (7%) was selected for acceptance tests. It was seasoned with cheese powder, vegetable oil, salt, and colorant. The amount of protein, moisture, fat, ash and salt in fortified corn snack (FCS) was 12%, 2%, 31%, 3%, and 2% respectively. Consumers’ acceptance was studied using a central location test method. Consumers were 6–16 years old children in two communities (Iceland and Iran). They liked FCS but Iranian children favoured it more than Icelandic children. Majority of parents of the participants expressed their willingness to choose this product when buying snacks.
PMCID: PMC3551053  PMID: 23572803
Corn snacks; Fish protein; Fortification; Consumer acceptance; Icelanders; Iranians
13.  Comparison of Physicochemical and Sensory Properties between Cholesterol-removed Gouda Cheese and Gouda Cheese during Ripening 
This study was performed to compare physicochemical and sensory properties of cholesterol-removed Gouda cheese (CRGC) and Gouda cheese made in the laboratory during ripening. Composition, short-chain free fatty acids (SCFFA), texture, color, and sensory properties were measured. In chemical composition analyses, moistures were significantly different between control cheeses (42.86%) and sample cheese (48.32%) (p<0.05). But fat and protein in the control and the sample were 32.77, 22.45 and 31.35, 20.39%, respectively, and were not significantly different (p>0.05). The amount of cholesterol in control was 82.52 mg/100 g and the percentage of cholesterol removal was 90.7%. SCFFA increased gradually during ripening and its level of CRGC increased and significantly different from that of control (p<0.05). The texture, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were significantly increased, but cohesiveness and springiness were not increased in both cheeses during ripening periods (p>0.05). In comparison of the control and sample cheeses, hardness, and springiness were not significantly different, but cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness were different (p<0.05). In color measurement, all color values were not different between CRGC and control (p>0.05). However, L* value decreased, while a* and b* values tended to increase significantly (p<0.05). In sensory properties, appearance, aroma, flavor and taste, and texture were significantly increased except buttery and nutty in aroma and sweetness in taste in both cheeses, and were not significantly different between the control and sample cheeses during ripening (p>0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that the quality of cholesterol-removed Gouda cheese is not different from the control cheese.
PMCID: PMC4092891  PMID: 25049768
Gouda Cheese; Cholesterol Removal; Physicochemical and Sensory Properties
14.  Neurological symptoms in individuals with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva 
Journal of neurology  2012;259(12):2636-2643.
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a rare, disabling condition caused by gain-of-function mutations of a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor, leads to episodes of heterotopic ossification and resultant immobility. Neurological problems have not been associated with FOP, but neurological symptoms are commonly reported by FOP patients. To determine the prevalence of neurological symptoms and their characteristics in individuals with FOP, we conducted a survey of the 470 patient members of the International FOP Association (IFOPA) using a questionnaire about neurological symptoms. There were 168 responses (105 females, 63 males; age 1.5–68 years) from 30 countries representing 36 % of IFOPA members. Chronic neurological symptoms were reported by 86 (51 %). Prevalence of neuropathic pain (NP) was significantly increased (P < 0.001) compared to the general population, and tenfold more common in females (15 %) than males (1.6 %). Of those with NP, 94 % reported other sensory abnormalities. Prevalence of recurrent severe headaches (HA) (26 %) was similar to that in the general population, but prevalence in females with FOP (36 %) was almost fourfold greater than in males. Prevalence of NP, HA, and other sensory abnormalities was substantially higher in post-pubertal females; 33 % reported symptoms worsened during menstrual periods. Worsening of neurological symptoms during FOP flare-ups was reported by 23 %. Three patients with FOP (1.8 %) reported myoclonus, a prevalence much greater than reported in the general population (P < 0.001). Our worldwide survey indicates that neurological symptoms are common in FOP. We speculate that these symptoms are related to effects of dysregulated BMP signaling on the central and/or peripheral nervous systems.
PMCID: PMC3523705  PMID: 22752062
ACVR1; Bone morphogenetic protein 4; Substance P
15.  Effect of Calcium Lactate on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Shank Bone Extract 
This study was conducted to develop calcium-fortified shank bone extract (SBE) and to determine the effect of adding calcium lactate on physico-chemical characteristics of SBE during cold storage. The following five experiment groups were used: Control (0%, no addition), T1 (0.05% calcium lactate), T2 (0.1% calcium lactate), T3 (0.5% calcium lactate), and T4 (1% calcium lactate). When the concentration of calcium lactate added to the SBE was increased, the pH, redness, and yellowness values were significantly reduced, whereas the salinity, sugar content, and turbidity of SBE were significantly increased. Sensory parameters such as aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability in the control, T1, and T2 had similar scores. The TBARS values of SBE was significantly increased when 1% of calcium lactate was added, and the VBN values of SBE with calcium lactate at day 7 were higher than that of control (p<0.05). However, the addition of calcium lactate showed an inhibition effect on the growth of total microbial counts in SBE until 4 d of storage. The calcium content of SBE was increased by the addition of calcium lactate in a dose-dependently manner. The proper addition level of calcium lactate in the SBE was determined to be 0.1%.
PMCID: PMC5434218
calcium lactate; shank bone extract; sensory; total microbial counts
16.  The Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Sun-dried Venison Jerky with Green Tea Powder during Storage 
This study was conducted to compare the physicochemical, microbiological and antioxidant activities of sun-dried venison amended with green tea powder (T1-3: 0, 0.5, and 1%) and Hanwoo beef jerky. Sliced beef and venison shank were marinated and sun-dried at 28-30℃ and 30-35% RH for 3.5 h. The venison jerky had a higher ash and protein content, and lower moisture and fat content than the control (p<0.05). T3 (venison+green tea powder 1%) showed a lower aw than all other samples during storage for 10 and 20 d (p<0.05). Hunter’s color a* and b* values of T2 and T3 were lower than those of T1 and the control at day 0 (p<0.05). Saturated fatty acid was significantly higher in T1, while PUFA was higher in T2 and T3 (p<0.05). Overall sensory scores of venison jerky were lower than those of the control, except for T2, which had a similar color, flavor, saltiness and acceptability as the control. T2 and T3 showed a significant decrease in TPCs after storage for 20 d (p<0.05). The TBARS values of T3 jerky were lower than those of other jerky samples (p<0.05).
PMCID: PMC5112425  PMID: 27857538
sun-dried venison jerky; green tea powder; physicochemical properties; TPC; TBARS
17.  Evaluation of edible polymer coatings enriched with green tea extract on quality of chicken nuggets 
Veterinary World  2016;9(7):685-692.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of chicken nuggets coated with sodium alginate (SA) coatings at refrigerated (4±1°C) and frozen (−18±1°C) storage condition at regular periodic intervals.
Materials and Methods:
Chicken meat nuggets were separated into three groups: Uncoated control (C), coated with alginate coating (T1), and coated with alginate coating incorporated with 1% green tea extract (GTE) (T2). The nuggets were analyzed at regular intervals of 5days for refrigerated storage and 15 days for frozen storage period in terms of pH, 2-thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), peroxide value (PV), total plate count (TPC), water loss, and sensory characteristics.
The results indicated that the nuggets coated with alginate-based coatings effectively reduced the spoilage as indicated by pH, TBA, and PVs. pH values of the formulations ranged from 6.15 to 6.34 at refrigerated storage temperature (4±1°C) and 6.49-6.71 at frozen storage temperature (−18±1°C). TBA value of the treatments ranged from 1.28 to 1.54 mg MDA/kg and 1.34 to 1.50 mg MDA/kg under refrigerated and frozen storage temperatures, respectively. Color, flavor, juiciness, tenderness, and overall acceptability of the nuggets differed significantly (p<0.05) with the coated nuggets. The coated nuggets were well acceptable upto 15 days at refrigerated storage temperature (4±1°C) and upto 75 days at frozen storage temperature (−18±1°C). Nuggets coated with GTE incorporated coating solution had a lower TBA-reactive substances values, PVs, and TPCs when compared to the nuggets coated with SA and the control group.
Study revealed that incorporation of edible coatings with antioxidants, namely, GTE at 1% level had a significant effect in reducing the fat oxidation. The samples recorded a shelf life of 15 days under refrigerated storage when compared to their controls with 10 days of storage period and 75 days under frozen storage against controls with 60 days. T1, T2, and T3 formulations had higher sensory scores in comparison to the controls. Overall acceptability scores of T1 were higher when compared to the other formulations.
PMCID: PMC4983117  PMID: 27536027
chicken nuggets; edible coatings; green tea extract; sodium alginate
18.  Effect of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage 
The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage on board. Fishes were slaughtered by asphyxia in air (AA), asphyxia in ice water (AI) or stunning fish heads (SH), and the rigor mortis, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory properties for the fishes were analyzed. On day 0, Chilean jack mackerel samples of AI group displayed higher pH values than those of AA and SH groups. TVB-N, TMA and TBARS values of all samples increased with the storage time, and these values of AI had a lower increase than AA and SH. Moreover, samples of AI had a better sensory score than AA and SH during storage. It can be concluded that slaughter method of asphyxia in ice water for Chilean jack mackerel exhibit the better efficiency on maintaining the fish quality during refrigerated storage on board.
PMCID: PMC4348266  PMID: 25745250
Trachurus murphyi; Slaughter method; Quality change; Asphyxia; Stunning
19.  Optimization of UF-Feta cheese preparation, enriched by peppermint extract 
Strong antioxidant activity, antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, and some antiallergenic potential actions have been reported in peppermint. For daily acceptance of the benefits of this plant, UF-Feta cheese, enriched by whole peppermint extract, was prepared with different levels of Peppermint Extract (PE) (220–660 μg/g cheese), starter (1.3–2.7 g/100 Kg retentate), rennet (1.3–2.5 g/100 Kg retentate), and Ripening Time (RT) (10–50 days). Simultaneous effects of the considered variables were also investigated on Water-soluble Phenolic Content (WSPC), Antioxidant Activity (AOA), and Sensory Score (SS) by means of Response surface methodology. The results showed that although rennet concentration had a little positive effect on WSPC, its effect on AOA was significantly negative. It was determined that PE had a crucial role in acceptance of cheese samples and showed a negative effect on SS. More maturation of produced cheese samples effectively increased AOA. It was found that for producing cheese with maximum SS and AOA, the optimum values of variables should be applied as follows: PE, 227 μg/g cheese; starter, 2.7 g/100 Kg retentate; rennet, 1.3 g/100 Kg retentate; RT, 41.7 days.
PMCID: PMC4325070  PMID: 25694705
Antioxidant activity; UF-Feta cheese; Peppermint extract; Response surface methodology
20.  Effect of Packaging Method and Storage Time on Physicochemical Characteristics of Dry-Cured Pork Neck Products at 10°C 
Dry-cured pork neck samples were stored at 10°C for 90 days under vacuum packaging (VP) or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 25% CO2+75% N2) conditions. The pH, moisture, water activity, total aerobic bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae counts of dry-cured pork neck products with MAP were significantly lower than those with VP (p<0.05) after 90 days of storage. However, CIE b* and 2-thiobarbituric acid reacted substance (TBARS) values of the pork product with MAP were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those with VP. Total aerobic bacterial counts and Enterobacteriaceae counts of samples with MAP were lower than those with VP after 30 days of storage. Sensory results indicated that aroma, flavor and tenderness scores of the samples with both VP and MAP decreased during storage and the scores after >60 days of storage were lower than those at Day 1. In conclusion, despite presenting higher lipid oxidation, the samples stored in packages containing 25% CO2 for 90 days at 10°C have lower bacterial counts than vacuum-packed samples. Therefore, further studies should be performed on the packaging of dry-cured meat at adjusted concentrations of CO2.
PMCID: PMC4213708  PMID: 25358323
Color; Dry-Cured Pork Neck; Modified Atmosphere Packaging; Sensory Analysis; Thiobarbituric Acid Reacted Substance
21.  Assessment of frozen storage duration effect on quality characteristics of various horse muscles 
The study aimed at assessing the effects of frozen storage duration on quality characteristics, lipid oxidation and sensory quality of various horse muscles.
Five representative muscles: longissimus dorsi (LD), gluteus medius (GM), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF), and triceps brachii (TB) at 24 h post-mortem obtained from 28-mo-old Jeju female breed horses (n = 8) were used in the present investigation. The muscles were vacuum-packaged and frozen at −20°C for 120, 240, and 360 days. All the samples were analyzed for thawing and cooking losses, pH, Warner–Bratzler shear forces (WBSF), color traits, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory traits. The muscle samples analyzed on day 0 of frozen storage (fresh, non-frozen) were used for comparison.
Results revealed that thawing and cooking losses significantly (p<0.05) increased in all the muscles after 120 days and then remained unchanged up to 360 days of frozen storage. The TBARS and TVBN contents significantly increased as increasing frozen storage time up to 360 days (p<0.05). While, significant decreases in WBSF values were observed for all the muscles with increased frozen storage time (p<0.05). Frozen storage variously affected the color traits of the muscles for instance; the redness of LD, GM, and BF muscles showed a decreasing tendency during frozen storage while it was not changed in TB and SM muscles. Furthermore, the frozen storage did not produce detrimental effects on sensory quality as it did not cause flavor and juiciness defects whereas it partially improved the tenderness of all the muscles studied.
Based on the results obtained from our work, it is concluded that frozen storage could be applied to increase the long-term shelf life of horsemeat while still retaining its sensory quality.
PMCID: PMC5666180  PMID: 28728368
Horsemeat; Muscle; Frozen Storage; Lipid Oxidation; Sensory Quality
22.  Incorporation of Lactobacillus adjuncts culture to improve the quality of Feta-type cheese made using buffalo milk 
Feta-type cheese was made from buffalo milk using commercial adjunct culture of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus casei along with standard mesophillic cheese cultures. The sensory, biochemical and texture characteristics of the experimental cheeses were studied during ripening. Expert panellists observed, significant differences (P < 0.01) between the control and the experimental cheeses. The pH, titratable acidity, soluble protein and free fatty acid content of the experimental cheeses were found to be significantly (P < 0.01) higher than those of the control. The texture parameter values of the experimental cheeses were found to be significantly (P < 0.01) lower than values of the control.
PMCID: PMC4519472  PMID: 26243922
Buffalo milk; Feta-type cheese; Starter adjunct; Sensory characteristics; Textural characteristics
23.  Chemical composition and rheology of low-fat Iranian white cheese incorporated with guar gum and gum arabic as fat replacers 
Journal of Food Science and Technology  2012;51(10):2584-2591.
The effects of incorporating guar gum (GG) and gum arabic (GA) in cheese-making milk with various fat contents (0.4, 0.9, and 1.4 %) on chemical and rheological properties of Iranian white cheese were evaluated by response surface method (RSM). As GG concentration increased, dry matter content of cheese samples decreased due to the high water binding capacity of this gum. A similar trend was also observed for GA at concentrations less than 150 ppm. The higher the GG concentration, the higher was the free fatty acid content of cheese samples. GA at concentrations more than 150 ppm, increased the storage modulus (G′), causing an undesirable hard texture for the product. The G′ and stress at fracture (бf) of samples decreased by the increasing concentration of GG incorporated into the cheese-making milk. Response surface minimization of rheological indices for Iranian white cheese showed that combination of two hydrocolloids (GG in the concentration range 75–170 ppm and GA at concentrations <75 ppm) would provide the softest texture.
PMCID: PMC4190218  PMID: 25328199
Iranian white brined cheese; Low fat cheese; Fat replacer; Hydrocolloid; Rheology
24.  Shelf Life of Anchovy Products (Engraulis Encrasicolus): Evaluation of Sensory, Microbiological and Chemical Properties 
Fishery products have always been an important food in Italy. In the past, increased consumption was mainly due to the good quality of the products, easiness of use and their beneficial effects on health. Recently, owing to the national financial crisis, there has been a decline in the consumption of fish. In fact, in 2013, according to data from ISMEA, the consumption of fresh fish suffered a sharp contraction (-5%). This decline also concerns anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus). This species, partly because of its low price, is a mainstay of traditional Italian food. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensorial, chemical and microbiological properties of anchovy-based (Engraulis encrasicolus) products during storage at 4 and -20°C. Fresh anchovies, obtained from the wholesale fish market of Pozzuoli (Southern Italy) were cut into small pieces and hand-prepared using bread, eggs, cheese and lemon juice. Samples were analysed after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days of storage at 4°C. An aliquot was quickly frozen and analysed after 34 days at -20°C. Sensory assessment, microbiological (specific spoilage organisms, Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp.) and chemical (histamine, total volatile basic nitrogen, trimethylamine, thiobarbituric acid, pH and aw) analyses were performed. Results showed that the shelf life of anchovy products was less than 5 days for the samples stored at 4°C. At -20°C, all anchovies preparations showed good sensory, microbiological and chemical properties for 34 days.
PMCID: PMC5076665  PMID: 27800315
Engraulis encrasicolus; Fish preparations; Shelf life; SSOs; Histamine
25.  Effect of Quality Grade and Storage Time on the Palatability, Physicochemical and Microbial Quality of Hanwoo Striploin Beef 
The effects of quality grade and storage time on physicochemical, sensory properties and microbial population of Hanwoo striploin beef were investigated. After a total of 30 Hanwoo beef were slaughtered, the cold carcasses were graded by official meat grader at 24 h postmortem. The carcasses were categorized into five groups (quality grade 1++, 1+, 1, 2, and 3) and were vacuum-packaged and stored. The samples were kept for 1, 4, 6, 8, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22 and 25 d for analyses. As the quality grade was increased, moisture, protein and ash contents decreased (p<0.05). Higher quality grade corresponded with higher fat contents. The shear force values decreased with increasing quality grade and showed decreases sharply during the first 4 d (p<0.05). pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, and volatile basic nitrogen for grade 1++ groups were lower than for grade 3 (p<0.05). CIE L* and b* values increased as increased quality grade (p<0.05). Meat color decreased until 13 d and fluctuated after 15 d of storage (p<0.05). Regarding the sensory scores, higher quality grade corresponded with higher juiciness, tenderness, flavor, fatty and palatability scores (p<0.05). Generally, increased storage time for 15 d improved sensory scores attributes. Results indicate that a high quality grade could positively influence physicochemical and sensory properties.
PMCID: PMC4662126  PMID: 26761865
quality grade; Hanwoo; physicochemical trait; sensory scores; microbial population

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