ANGIOGENESIS IS A PROCESS CRITICAL TO both tumour growth and metastasis. It is a dynamic integrated process involving basement membrane degradation, endothelial cell proliferation and migration, and capillary tubule formation. Under normal circumstances, the microvasculature is maintained in a quiescent state. The acquisition of the angiogenic phenotype depends on the outcome of stimulatory and inhibitory regulation by the tumour and its microenvironment. There are markers of angiogenesis that potentially could provide prognostic information in addition to that gained from conventional clinicopathologic data, and antiangiogenic therapy for urologic cancers has potential advantages over current therapeutic strategies. Promising preclinical studies have led to the initiation of phase I studies of antiangiogenic therapy in combination with chemotherapy, which may lead to novel treatments for urologic malignant tumours and may identify new intermediate markers for the response to therapy.