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The natural dyes separated from plants are of gaining interest as substitutes for synthetic dyes in food and cosmetics. Thespesia populnea (T. populnea) is widely grown plant and used in the treatment of various diseases. This study was aimed to separate natural dye from T. populnea bark and analysis of its dyeing property on different fabrics. In this investigation pharmacognostic study was carried out. The pharmacognostic study includes morphological study, microscopical examination, proximate analysis along with the phytochemical study. The dyeing of different fabric was done with a natural dye extracted from T. populnea bark. The fabrics like cotton, butter crep, polymer, chiken, lone, ulene and tarakasa were dye with plant extract. The various evaluation parameters were studied. It includes effect of washing with water, effect of soap, effect of sunlight, effect of alum, effect of Cupric sulphate, microscopical study of fabrics and visual analysis of dyeing by common people were studied. In results, natural dye isolated from T. populnea bark could be used for dyeing fabrics with good fastness properties. The studies reveals that, the dyeing property of fabrics after washing with water and soap, exposed to sunlight does not get affected. It was observed that cotton and tarakasa stains better as compared with other fabrics. It was concluded that the ethanolic extract having good dyeing property.
Value of the data
The crude drugs of natural origin such as plant, animal or marine source and there potent chemical constituents plays a significant role in various areas. The traditional remedies engross crude plant extracts containing large number of chemical constituents, in which specific chemical entity possesses high potency . Natural dyes obtained from herbs are of budding concern as substitutes for artificial dyes in the pharmaceutical industry, textile and food . Though several researchers reported the selection of plant as a raw materials and dyeing procedures, only minute information is available in literature.
Thespesia populnea (T. populnea) is a large tree (Family Malvaceae) found in tropical regions and coastal forests of India. The different parts of this plant are found to have useful therapeutic properties as well as used in various formulations . The experimental findings revels the T. populnea commonly used in herbal medicine for various properties such as Dermatitis , Anti-oxidant activity , Alzheimers Disease , Antidiabetic activity , Synergistic activity , Immunomodulatory activity , Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic , α-Amylase Inhibitory activity , antiulcer activity , Antioxidant and anti inflammatory  and Memory-enhancing activity .
T. populnea is added in formulation like Divya Stri Rasayan Vati, Guggul formula, Kamilari capsule, which is beneficial for digestive problems in females, It helps to give stability in mind as well as it is useful to cure the dark circles below the eyes in females. T. populnea contains Gossypol , Kaempferol, Quercetin, Kaempferol 3-glucoside, Quercetin 3-glucoside, rutin , Mansonones D, E and F , Nonacosane, lupenone, myricyl alcohol, lupeol, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside , Populneol , Thespesin , Thespesone and Thespone , The gossypol was isolated from the methanol extract of bark of T. populnea by using the mass triggered preparative HPLC .
The modern circumstance exhibit the request for plant drugs as a source of treatment for disease and cosmetics throughout the world. The extensive scientific impact and marketable prospective of traditional medicinal plants results in more and more international attention and global market demands . In the present work, the dye extracted from bark of T. populnea in the field of textile. We carry out the study to explore the dyeing properties of T. populnea dye. The different evaluation parameters were examined during study like fabrics washing with water, fabrics washing with soap, effect of sunlight on treated fabrics, effect of alum, effect of cupric sulphate, microscopical study of fabrics, visual analysis of dyeing by common people. Dyeing conditions and fastness properties were investigated.
Fresh bark of T. populnea grown-up at Dehuroad (Region of Pune), were collected on October and then dried under shade at room temperature and powder were made as shown in Fig. 1. The plant was authenticated by Botanical survey of India (BSI) with voucher specimen is preserved under reference number BSI/WRC/Tech./2013.
To study the dyeing properties of plant extract the different fabrics were procured from market at Pune. For the present study fabrics like cotton, butter crep, polymer, chiken, lone, ulene and tarakasa were selected.
The various morphological parameters like colour, odour and taste height and width of collected bark sample were evaluated. The bark is odourless with fibrous fracture and brown in colour. It does not have any characteristic taste shown in Table 1.
The thin sections of bark were taken by normal section cutting method then mount on slide and observed under microscope. The various microscopical characters were observed in detail. The bark is flat to curved pieces. Due to numerous irregular scattered lenticels an outer surface was rough, fissured with irregular scales. The individual periderm bands present to the inner linining of outer bark. The periderm at outer part consists of phellem having deep fissures and phelloderm at inner narrow zone. Medullary rays and phloem fiber were seen shown in Fig. 2.
In this various parameters like ash values, extractive values, width of fiber, length of fiber, moisture content, swelling index foreign organic matter content and preliminary phytochemical evaluation were carried out  are shown in Table 2.
Initially the bark sample was air dried then subjected to make fine bark powder. This powder was extracted by using polar solvent like ethanol using soxhlet apparatus. The ethanolic extract of plant was in powder form. The final yield of ethanolic extract was found to be 13.14%.
In preliminary phytochemical evaluation carbohydrate, protein, amino acids, phenol, flavonoids and glycosides are present. The preliminary phytochemical evaluations are shown in Table 3.
All the fabrics were cut in to 10×10 cm size uniformly and transfer that cloth in the dye bath for 1 h for dyeing then dry it at room temperature shown in Fig. 3.
The dyed fabrics were tested for fastness properties followed with standard methods, the particular tests were for colour fastness to washing with water ISO 105-E01:1989, colour fastness to washing with soap solution and colour fastness to light ISO 105-B02:1988.
The comparative effect of normal and treated cotton, butter crep, polymer, chiken, lone, ulene and tarakasa fabrics with alum were studied. The comparative effect of normal and treated cotton, butter crep, polymer, chiken, lone, ulene and tarakasa fabrics with alum were studied. Normal fabrics those are directly put staining along with ethanolic extract and alum. Treated fabrics are first treated with extract and then subjected to treatment with alum. It was observed that treated fabrics showing good staining property and upon treatment with alum. It does not have colour consistency as that of normal fabrics even after washing with water and washing with soap shown in Fig. 7, Fig. 8 respectively.
The comparative effect of normal and treated cotton, butter crep, polymer, chiken, lone, ulene and tarakasa fabrics with cupric sulphate were studied. The comparative effect of normal and treated cotton, butter crep, polymer, chiken, lone, ulene and tarakasa fabrics with Cupric sulphate were studied. Normal fabrics those are directly put staining along with ethanolic extract and Cupric sulphate. Treated fabrics are first treated with extract and then subjected to treatment with Cupric sulphate. It was observed that treated fabrics showing good staining property and upon treatment with Cupric sulphate. it slightly affect colour consistency but better than that of normal fabrics shown in Fig. 9, Fig. 10.
The cotton, butter crep, polymer, chiken, lone, ulene and tarakasa sample of fabrics were observed under microscope. All these fabrics were observed under microscope i.e. cotton, butter crep, polymer, chiken, lone, ulene and tarakasa shown in Fig. 11.
The cotton, butter crep, polymer, chiken, lone, ulene and tarakasa fabrics analyzed out by common people result are shown in Fig. 12.
Natural dye isolated from T. populnea bark could be used for dyeing fabrics with good fastness properties. It was found that the dyeing property of fabrics washing with water and soap, exposed to sunlight does not get much affected. When dyeing fabrics treated alum and Cupric sulphate colour is slightly changes with Cupric sulphate. So, it is concluded that alum will be the best mordent can be used.
Authors are indebted to Dr. Pravin. D. Chaudhari Principal, Modern college of Pharmacy, Pune for their constant guidance, motivation and being supportive during this course of investigation.
Transparency documentTransparency data associated with this article can be found in the online version at doi:10.1016/j.dib.2017.11.063.