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Data Brief. 2017 December; 15: 348–369.
Published online 2017 September 22. doi:  10.1016/j.dib.2017.09.046
PMCID: PMC5712053

Data on introduced plants in Zimbabwe: Floristic changes and patterns of collection based on historical herbarium records

Abstract

National herbaria with significant historical plant collections are critical to tracking floristic changes and patterns, which include the introduction and spread of non-native plant species. To explore the importance of herbarium specimen data in understanding floristic changes in Zimbabwe, the plant collections housed by the National Herbarium (SRGH) in Harare, Zimbabwe were utilized with historical specimens dating back to 1870. A list of naturalised plant taxa and collection data were compiled. A total of 2916 plant specimens were recorded, comprising of 401 taxa, 237 genera and 76 plant families. Twenty eight specimens (1.0%) were collected between 1870 and 1908, prior to the establishment of the National Herbarium in 1909 and 123 specimens (4.2%) were collected in the first 25 years of the establishment of the institute (1909–1934). Intensive collection of herbarium specimens of casual, naturalised and invasive alien plant species occurred between 1950 and 1970. This data demonstrates the utility of plant species data housed in the National Herbaria and how such data can be used to map floristic changes and patterns.

Keywords: Casual, Floristic changes, Invasive, Naturalised, National herbarium, Zimbabwe

Specifications Table

Table thumbnail

Value of the data

  • • The data are critical in tracking floristic changes and patterns of spread of exotic plant species.
  • • This data are important for monitoring purposes and also to fill the gaps in plant distributional ranges.
  • • This data will contribute to better understanding of the ecological impacts of exotic plant species.
  • • List of herbarium specimens of exotic plant species will help in future research on this category of plant species.

1. Data

Many non-native plants in Zimbabwe were introduced decades ago through agriculture and horticulture. A number these exotics now occupy large stretches of land and form characteristic features of the Zimbabwean flora. The number of plant exotics increase with time, 1449 exotic taxa have been recorded in Zimbabwe, a country comprising about 6000 plant species [1]. But only a handful of exotic plant species are represented in local herbaria, although most of these species are known to be widely distributed than indicated in herbaria. This development is unfortunate as herbaria must provide quality specimens and data that represent an overview of floristic changes over time. Herbarium specimens can also be used to document plant distributional changes such as exotic species expansions. Periodic plant collecting expeditions are important for monitoring purposes and also to fill the gaps in plant distributional ranges. Collection of herbarium specimens helps in the identification of invasive exotics and detection of new introductions.

The herbarium specimens usually contain important historical information about plant species which is critical for scientific studies. Such information on herbarium labels includes the identity of the species and other details such as family, habit, plant height, leaf arrangement, shape, size, flower colour, shape and size. Other important information usually included on the herbarium label include details about the collector, his or her name, collector’s number, the locality, year of collection of the plant species, description of the habitat and notes on uses of the plant species if any and also size of the population. For exotic species, experienced collectors usually include information such as life history traits, such as habit, population size and perceived invasion status, whether casual, naturalised or invasive. Pyšek et al. [2] defined a casual alien as a plant species that reproduces occasionally outside cultivation and it does not form self-sustaining populations and relying on repeated introductions for its persistence. According to Pyšek et al. [2], a naturalised species is defined as an alien species that reproduces consistently without direct human intervention, and invasive alien species as a naturalised species that produces offspring in large numbers and at considerable distances from the parent plants with the potential to spread over a large area. Studies of the distributional history of non-native plant species can provide us with the knowledge of their earliest locations, patterns of colonization and rates of spread. A better understanding of their establishment and distributional changes over time is vital for making informed decisions in managing existing introductions and in predicting future invasions. To explore the importance of herbarium specimen data for understanding floristic changes and patterns in Zimbabwe with regards to non-native plants, herbarium specimens collected in the country that are housed in the National Herbarium of Zimbabwe, Harare were inventoried. The first herbarium records and subsequent temporal collection of each taxa were identified and recorded.

2. Experimental design, materials and methods

Included in this data are those plant species considered to be naturalized in Zimbabwe [1], [3], [4]. Therefore, a database of casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora [2], occurring in Zimbabwe was compiled based on herbarium records. All alien plant species ever recorded in Zimbabwe as escapes from cultivation or naturalised at least once in the wild, and housed by the National Herbarium, Harare, Zimbabwe (SRGH, acronym adhere to Index Herbariorum) [5], were included in the database. Plant species introduced in Zimbabwe or cultivated without any evidence of having escaped were not considered. Information on herbarium labels, including locality and year of collection of the plant species, was examined and recorded. For each taxon, information on year when the plant species was first collected, mode or purpose of introduction, its invasion status in Zimbabwe and subsequent temporal collection data were extracted from the herbarium records. The mode or purpose of introduction was included, and also whether the introduction was accidental or intentional. The correct identities and names of all the taxa listed were checked and, where names have changed, the currently accepted name was applied. Therefore, plant taxa name, families and plant authorities were verified using taxonomical floras, journal articles and internet sources such as the International Plant Name Index (www.ipni.org), the Missouri Botanical Garden's Tropicos Nomenclatural database (www.tropicos.org) and the Royal Botanic Garden and Missouri Botanic Garden plant name database (www.theplantlist.org).

A total of 2916 plant specimens were recorded, comprising of 401 taxa, 237 genera and 76 plant families (Table 1). Appendix A provides an alphabetical listing of plants taxa. Close to three quarters of these taxa (77.6%) belong to 19 families given in Table 2. Pant families Asteraceae, Poaceae and Solanaceae accounted for the highest number of species (Table 2). A significant proportion of the exotics (61.6%) are represented in the National Herbarium by between one to five specimens (Table 3). Twenty eight specimens (1.0%) were collected between 1870 and 1908, prior to the establishment of the National Herbarium in 1909 and 123 specimens (4.2%) were collected in the first 25 years of the establishment of the institute (1909–1934) (Fig. 1). Most of the herbarium specimens were collected between 1930 and 1980 (Fig. 1). Intensive collection of herbarium specimens of casual, naturalised and invasive alien plant species occurred between 1950 and 1970 with reduced collecting activity in the 1990s and 2010 (Fig. 1). A total of 1184 herbarium specimens representing 231 taxa (57.6%) of the exotic species pre-date 1950. By 1970, 2500 herbarium specimens representing 358 taxa (89.3%) had been collected (Appendix A). Results of the present study are important in understanding distributional changes of introduced plant species in Zimbabwe.

Fig. 1
The number of herbarium specimens of exotic plant species collected in each decade of the National Herbarium’s history.
Table 1
Total number of casual, naturalised and invasive taxa, genera and plant families in Zimbabwe.
Table 2
Families with five or more casual, naturalised and invasive taxa in Zimbabwe.
Table 3
Proportion of plant exotics represented by between one to five specimens in the National Herbarium.

Acknowledgements

The author would like to express his gratitude to the National Research Foundation (T398) and Govan Mbeki Research and Development Centre, University of Fort Hare (C169) for financial support to conduct this research.

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest in publishing this research paper.

Footnotes

Transparency documentSupplementary data associated with this article can be found in the online version at doi:10.1016/j.dib.2017.09.046.

Appendix A. Casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora of Zimbabwe. Taxa are listed alphabetically

SpeciesFamilyReasons for introductionCurrent statusEarliest herbarium record<19341935-19601961-19861987>Total herbarium specimens
Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) MoenchMalvaceaeFood, FibreCasual1933134
Acacia baileyana F.Muell.FabaceaeOrnamentalCasual1941112
Acacia dealbata LinkFabaceaeOrnamental, tanbarkNaturalised1902145
Acacia decurrens Willd.FabaceaeOrnamental, tanbarkNaturalised1903134
Acacia elata Benth.FabaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1944112
Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Willd.FabaceaeOrnamental, timberCasual1932123
Acacia mearnsii De Wild.FabaceaeOrnamental, tanbark, timberInvasive193123813
Acacia melanoxylon R.Br.FabaceaeOrnamental, timberInvasive1903167
Acacia podalyriifolia G.DonFabaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised197111
Acacia salicina Lindl.FabaceaeOrnamentalCasual199311
Acalypha amentacea subsp. wilkesiana (Müll.Arg.) Fosberg.EuphorbiaceaeOrnamentalCasual197444
Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) KuntzeAsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive19313118123
Acanthospermum glabratum (DC.) WildAsteraceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1951257
Acanthospermum hispidum DC.AsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive19171151127
Achillea millefolium L.AsteraceaeMedicinalCasual1942123
Achyranthes aspera L. var. pubescens (Moq.) C.C. TownsAmaranthaceaeUnintentionalInvasive1906101316342
Achyranthes aspera L. var. sicula L.AmaranthaceaeUnintentionalInvasive1941426
Adiantum raddianum C. PreslPteridaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1905210418
Agave americana L.AsparagaceaeFibre, ornamentalNaturalisedNA
Agave sisalana PerrineAsparagaceaeFibre, ornamentalNaturalisedNA
Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & H. Rob.AsteraceaeOrnamentalInvasive19451113
Ageratum conyzoides L.AsteraceaeOrnamentalInvasive1943111214
Ageratum houstonianum Mill.AsteraceaeOrnamentalNaturalised195511
Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.FabaceaeOrnamentalCasual1929134
Alisma plantago-aquatica L.AlismataceaeOrnamentalNaturalised197211
Alternanthera caracasana KunthAmaranthaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised19312237
Alternanthera nodiflora R.Br.AmaranthaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised19211202647
Alternanthera pungens KunthAmaranthaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised19312617126
Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC.AmaranthaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1946420226
Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.AmaranthaceaeUnintentionalCasual1960112
Amaranthus hybridus L. ssp. cruentus (L.) Thell.AmaranthaceaeFoodNaturalised19522114
Amaranthus hybridus subsp. hybridusAmaranthaceaeFoodNaturalised19186813128
Amaranthus spinosus L.AmaranthaceaeFoodInvasive19311917128
Amaranthus viridis L.AmaranthaceaeFoodInvasive1942145
Ambrosia maritima L.AsteraceaeUnintentionalNaturalised194633
Amsinckia menziesii (Lehm.) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr.BoraginaceaeUnintentionalCasual198011
Anagallis arvensis L. ssp. arvensisPrimulaceaeUnintentionalCasual1953112
Apium leptophyllum (DC.) F.Muell.ApiaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1923112417
Arachis hypogea L., 1753FabaceaeFoodCasual195211
Argemone mexicana L.PapaveraceaeUnintentionalInvasive1918481830
Aristolochia littoralis D. ParodiAristolochiaceaeOrnamentalCasual196811
Arundo donax L.PoaceaeOrnamentalInvasive195811
Asclepias curassavica L.ApocynaceaeOrnamentalCasual196522
Avena fatua L.PoaceaeFodderCasual1958257
Avena sativa L.PoaceaeFoodCasual197544
Avena sterilis subsp. ludovicianaPoaceaeFodderCasual196955
Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P.Beauv.PoaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised197611
Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm.PoaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised19432215
Azolla filiculoides Lam.AzollaceaeOrnamentalInvasive1983112
Bambusa vulgaris Schrad.PoaceaeOrnamentalCasual196111
Bauhinia variegata L. var. candida VoigtFabaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised192348113
Bidens bipinnata L.AsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive196911
Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & SherffAsteraceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1920115622
Bidens pilosa L.AsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive190661312132
Boerhavia coccinea Mill.NyctagineceaeUnintentionalCasual1933191232
Boerhavia diffusa L.NyctagineceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1906581124
Boerhavia erecta L.NyctagineceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1977112
Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) StapfPoaceaeOrnamentalCasual1957112
Brachiaria ramosa (L.) StapfPoaceaeFodderCasual197622
Brachiaria umbellata (Trin.) ClaytonPoaceaeOrnamentalCasual196211
Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.BrassicaceaeFoodCasual191218211
Brassica rapa L.BrassicaceaeFoodCasual194122
Briza maxima L.PoaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised19251157
Briza minor L.PoaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1931213
Bromus catharticus VahlPoaceaeFodderNaturalised19226711125
Bromus diandrus RothPoaceaeOrnamentalCasual197711
Bromus hordeaceus L. ssp. ferronii (Mabille) P.M. Sm.PoaceaeFodderCasual196911
Bromus leptocladus NeesPoaceaeFodderCasual1931163111
Browallia americana L.SolanaceaeOrnamentalInvasive1954123
Bryophyllum proliferum Bowie ex Hook.CrassulaceaeOrnamentalCasual19311214
Bryophyllum tubiflorum Harv.CrassulaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised194711
Buddleja davidii Franch.ScrophulariaceaeOrnamentalCasual194911
Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) AlstonFabaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised192525512
Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.FabaceaeFoodCasual1959123
Calceolaria tripartita Ruiz & Pav.CalceolariaceaeOrnamentalCasual1949112
Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertn.) G.DonMyrtaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised195611
Callitris calcarata F.Muell.CupressaceaeOrnamental, TimberNaturalised1908123
Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. AitonApocynaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised19511113
Canna indica L.CannaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised19291315
Cannabis sativa L.CannabaceaeUnintentionalCasual19121449
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.BrassicaceaeFoodNaturalised1942527
Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum (Dunal) Heiser & PickersgillSolanaceaeFoodCasual1948325
Cardamine flexuosa With.BrassicaceaeFoodNaturalised1944235
Cardamine hirsuta L.BrassicaceaeUnintentionalCasual195211
Cardiospermum grandiflorum Sw.SapindiaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised194711
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. DonApocynaceaeOrnamentalCasual193216310
Centaurea melitensis L.AsteraceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1953112
Centratherum punctatum Cass. ssp. punctatumAsteraceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1958112
Centrosema pubescens Benth.FabaceaeUnintentionalCasual191216613
Cerastium glomeratum Thuill.CaryophyllaceaeUnintentionalCasual195533
Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl.SolanaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised195911
Chamaecrista rotundifolia (Pers.) GreeneFabaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1955112
Chenopodium album L.ChenopodiaceaeFoodInvasive1922362112
Chenopodium giganteum D. DonChenopodiaceaeUnintentionalCasual1936325
Chenopodium hederiforme (Murray) AellenChenopodiaceaeUnintentionalCasual1956213
Chenopodium murale L.ChenopodiaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised193128313
Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W. D. J. Koch & ZizChenopodiaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised19312136
Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob.AsteraceaeOrnamentalCasual196711
Cichorium intybus L.AsteraceaeFood, medicinal, ornamentalCasual1944224
Citrus aurantium L.RutaceaeFoodCasual1947112
Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.RutaceaeFoodCasual19162327
Cobaea scandens Cav.CobaeaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1957123
Coffea arabica L.RubiaceaeFoodNaturalised19272237
Colocasia esculenta (L.) SchottAraceaeFoodNaturalised196288
Conium maculatum L.ApiaceaeFoodCasual197411
Coreopsis lanceolata L.AsteraceaeOrnamentalInvasive197533
Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K.D.Hill & L.A.S.JohnsonMyrtaceaeTimberNaturalised1904112
Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.AsteraceaeOrnamentalNaturalised19311214
Cosmos sulphureus Cav.AsteraceaeOrnamentalCasual193214510
Cotoneaster pannosus Franch.RosaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised196511
Crotalaria distans Benth. ssp. macrotropis (Baker f.) PolhillFabaceaeGreen ManureCasual1920112
Crotalaria juncea L.FabaceaeFibreNaturalised1945112
Crotalaria pallida Aiton var. pallidaFabaceaeGreen ManureNaturalised1936718
Cucumis anguria L. var. anguriaCucurbitaceaeFoodNaturalised19321113
Cucumis melo L.CurcurbitaceaeFoodCasual195311
Cupressus lusitanica Mill.CupressaceaeOrnamental, TimberInvasive19001214
Cupressus torulosa D.DonCupressaceaeOrnamental, TimberCasual1895112
Cuscuta campestris Yunck.ConvolvulaceaeUnintentionalInvasive1948710118
Cuscuta suaveolens Ser.ConvolvulaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1936112
Cylindropuntia fulgida (Engelm.) F.M.KnuthCactaceaeOrnamentalInvasive197311
Cynodon aethiopicus Clayton & HarlanPoaceaeFodderCasual1931121316
Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfuensisPoaceaeFodderCasual19176417128
Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. robustus Clayton & HarlanPoaceaeFodderCasual1922344
Cyperus rotundus L.CyperaceaeUnintentionalCasual197111
Dactylis glomerata L.PoaceaeFodderCasual196544
Dahlia pinnata Cav.AsteraceaeOrnamentalCasual197011
Dalbergia sissoo DC.FabaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised191054817
Datura inoxia P. Mill.SolanaceaeOrnamentalInvasive19573317
Datura quercifolia KunthSolanaceaeOrnamentalInvasive194199
Datura stramonium L.SolanaceaeOrnamentalInvasive190627110
Desmodium tortuosum (Sw.) DC.FabaceaeGreen ManureNaturalised191934714
Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC.FabaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1935112
Desmodium uncinatum (Jacq.) DC.FabaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised196755
Dichanthium aristatum (Poir.) C.E.Hubb.PoaceaeFodderCasual192022
Dichondra micrantha Urb.ConvolvulaceaeUnintentionalInvasive1945123
Digitalis purpurea L.PlantaginaceaeOrnamentalCasual196911
Dolichandra unguis-cati (L.) L.G. LohmannBignoniaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1958112
Dolichandra unguis-cati (L.) L.G. LohmannBignoniaceaeOrnamentalCasual196711
Duranta erecta L.VerbenaceaeOrnamentalInvasive19055161839
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & ClemantsChenopodiaceaeUnintentionalInvasive190651620142
Dysphania carinata (R. Br.) Mosyakin & ClemantsChenopodiaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1939134
Dysphania schraderiana (Schult.) Mosyakin & ClemantsChenopodiaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised192037212
Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.PoaceaeUnintentionalCasual197022
Echinochloa frumentacea LinkPoaceaeOrnamentalCasual1944538
Echium plantagineum L.BoraginaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1918325
Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.AsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive1931112
Egeria densa Planch.HydrocharitaceaeOrnamentalCasual1950112
Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) SolmsPontederiaceaeOrnamentalInvasive1944459
Emex australis Steinh.PolygonaceaeUnintentionalCasual1922123
Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) TrotterPoaceaeFoodCasual191272413
Erigeron canadensis L.AsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive190314611
Erigeron floribundus (Kunth) Sch. Bip.AsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive1931381223
Erigeron karvinskianus DC.AsteraceaeOrnamentalInvasive196744
Erigeron primulifolius (Lam.) GreuterAsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive1932171119
Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa (Mill.) Thell.BrassicaceaeFoodCasual1956123
Erucastrum arabicum Fisch. & C.A. Mey. var. arabicumBrassicaceaeUnintentionalCasual1912112
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.MyrtaceaeTimberNaturalised189712317
Eucalyptus globulus Labill.MyrtaceaeTimberInvasive197111
Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex MaidenMyrtaceaeTimberNaturalised195733
Eucalyptus robusta Sm.MyrtaceaeTimberNaturalised196911
Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm.MyrtaceaeTimberNaturalised1908112
Euphorbia cyathophora MurrayEuphorbiaceaeOrnamentalInvasive1924112
Euphorbia heterophylla L.EuphorbiaceaeUnintentionalInvasive1956112
Euphorbia hirta L.EuphorbiaceaeUnintentionalInvasive19175101126
Euphorbia indica Lam.EuphorbiaceaeUnintentionalInvasive1948112
Euphorbia peplus L.EuphorbiaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1953112
Euphorbia prostrata AitonEuphorbiaceaeUnintentionalInvasive193128717
Euphorbia serpens KunthEuphorbiaceaeUnintentionalInvasive1922333311
Euphorbia tirucalli L.EuphorbiaceaeOrnamentalInvasive19311214
Euryops chrysanthemoides (DC.) B. Nord.AsteraceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1942112
Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.PolygonaceaeUnintentionalCasual19192338
Flaveria bidentis (L.) KuntzeAsteraceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1949123
Flaveria trinervia (Spreng.) C. MohrAsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive1931382031
Foeniculum vulgare Mill.ApiaceaeFoodCasual195811
Fumaria muralis W.D.J.KochPapaveraceaeOrnamentalNaturalised195611
Galinsoga parviflora Cav.AsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive192641211229
Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.AsteraceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1934112
Gnaphalium purpureum L.AsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive19507613
Gomphocarpus physocarpus E. Mey.ApocynaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1942112
Gomphrena celosioides Mart.AmaranthaceaeUnintentionalInvasive19172101224
Gomphrena globosa L.AmaranthaceaeUnintentionalCasual1955112
Gossypium hirsutum L.MalvaceaeFibreCasual1927112
Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br.ProteaceaeOrnamental, TimberInvasive197611
Guilleminea densa (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Schult.) Moq.AmaranthaceaeUnintentionalInvasive19591910
Harpachne schimperi A. Rich.PoaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised199111
Hedychium gardnerianum Sheppard ex Ker Gawl.ZingiberaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised196811
Heliotropium amplexicaule VahlBoraginaceaeUnintentionalCasual1942112
Heliotropium indicum L.BoraginaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1953369
Holcus lanatus L.PoaceaeUnintentionalCasual195011
Homalanthus populifolius GrahamEuphorbiaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1943336
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.ApiaceaeUnintentionalCasual196411
Hypochaeris radicata L.AsteraceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1952145
Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.LamiaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised196311
Hyptis spicigera Lam.LamiaceaeUnintentionalCasual1955112
Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.LamiaceaeUnintentionalCasual1945112
Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.PoaceaeUnintentionalCasual197311
Indigofera microcarpa Desv.FabaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised193017614
Ipomoea alba L.ConvolvulaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1947112
Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.ConvolvulaceaeFoodCasual19181113
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Mart. ex Choisy) D.F. AustinConvolvulaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1947112
Ipomoea hederifolia L.ConvolvulaceaeOrnamentalCasual197811
Ipomoea indica (Burm.) Merr. var. acuminata (Vahl) FosbergConvolvulaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised195911
Ipomoea nil (L.) RothConvolvulaceaeUnintentionalCasual19071113
Ipomoea purpurea (L.) RothConvolvulaceaeOrnamentalInvasive1917112
Ipomoea tricolor Cav.ConvolvulaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1976112
Ipomoea turbinata Lag.ConvolvulaceaeUnintentionalCasual1952112
Jacaranda mimosifolia D. DonBignoniaceaeOrnamentalInvasive1922145
Jatropha curcas L.EuphorbiaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised193316613
Jatropha gossypiifolia L. var. elegans (Pohl) Müll-Arg.EuphorbiaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1955112
Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers.CrassulaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1938112
Lactuca serriola L.AsteraceaeUnintentionalNaturalised197722
Lantana camara L.VerbenaceaeOrnamentalInvasive19371214430
Lantana trifolia L.VerbenaceaeOrnamentalCasual190525714
Laphangium luteoalbum (L.) TzvelevAsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive1928123
Leontodon saxatilis Lam.AsteraceaeUnintentionalCasual195111
Lepidium bonariense L.BrassicaceaeFoodCasual19533811
Lepidium didymum L.BrassicaceaeFoodNaturalised1953358
Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de WitFabaceaeFodderCasual194911
Ligustrum lucidum W.T. AitonOleaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised19331247
Ligustrum spp.OleaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised196211
Lilium formosanum WallaceLiliaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised196155
Linum usitatissimum L.LinaceaeUnintentionalCasual194911
Lolium multiflorum × perennePoaceaeFodderCasual1948213
Lolium multiflorum Lam.PoaceaeFodderCasual196722
Lolium perenne L.PoaceaeFodderCasual1957255
Lolium temulentum L.PoaceaeFodderCasual1921415
Lupinus mexicanus Cerv.FabaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised196322
Macroptilium atropurpureum (DC.) Urb.FabaceaeFodderNaturalised196166
Malva neglecta Wallr.MalvaceaeUnintentionalCasual195911
Malva parviflora L. var. parvifloraMalvaceaeUnintentionalCasual1921145
Malva sylvestris L.MalvaceaeUnintentionalCasual1955134
Malva verticillata L.MalvaceaeUnintentionalCasual1940145
Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) GarckeMalvaceaeUnintentionalInvasive1945347
Mangifera indica L.AnacardiaceaeFoodCasual195922
Medicago orbicularis (L.) Bartal.FabaceaeFodderCasual196211
Medicago polymorpha L. var. brevispica (Benth.) HeynFabaceaeFodderCasual191072110
Medicago polymorpha L. var. polymorphaFabaceaeFodderCasual1957112
Melia azedarach L.MeliaceaeOrnamental, TimberInvasive190345414
Melilotus albus Medik.FabaceaeFodderNaturalised19311124
Melilotus indicus (L.) All.FabaceaeFodderCasual1926426
Microlepia strigosa (Thunb.) K. PreslDennstaedtiaceaeOrnamentalCasual195111
Microsorum scandens (G.Forst.) TindalePolypodiaceaeOrnamentalCasual195411
Mimosa pudica L.FabaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1918213
Mina lobata Cerv.ConvolvulaceaeUnintentionalCasual19191113
Mirabilis jalapa L.NyctaginaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised19331438
Montanoa hibiscifolia (Benth.) Standl.AsteraceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1946314
Moringa oleifera Lam.MoringaceaeFoodCasual194384113
Morus australis Poir.MoraceaeFood, ornamentalNaturalised19262259
Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc.HaloragaceaeOrnamentalInvasive19701010
Myriophyllum spicatum L.HaloragaceaeOrnamentalCasual194911
Nasturtium officinale W.T. AitonBrassicaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised19341113
Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn.SolanaceaeOrnamentalInvasive19179912131
Nicotiana glauca GrahamSolanaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1944137121
Nicotiana rustica L.SolanaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1950112
Nicotiana tabacum L.SolanaceaeCrop, medicinal, ornamentalNaturalised1870112
Nierembergia hippomanica Miers var. violacea MillánSolanaceaeOrnamentalCasual197311
Oenothera indecora Cambess.OnagraceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1953279
Oenothera laciniata HillOnagraceaeOrnamentalCasual193511
Oenothera rosea L'Hér. ex AitonOnagraceaeOrnamentalInvasive1919111921
Oenothera stricta Ledeb. ex LinkOnagraceaeOrnamentalNaturalised19191337
Oenothera tetraptera Cav.OnagraceaeOrnamentalNaturalised19496410
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) P. Mill.CactaceaeFood, OrnamentalInvasive1959213
Oryza sativa L.PoaceaeFoodCasual196622
Oxalis corniculata L.OxalidaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised197211
Oxalis latifolia KunthOxalidaceaeUnintentionalInvasive1937639
Panicum trichoides Sw.PoaceaeFodderCasual197211
Parkinsonia aculeata L.FabaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1950134
Parthenium hysterophorus L.AsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive198222
Paspalum dilatatum Poir.PoaceaeFodderCasual191932914
Paspalum distichum L.PoaceaeFodderCasual19601416
Paspalum notatum FlüggéPoaceaeFodderNaturalised196511
Paspalum urvillei Steud.PoaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1919221317
Passiflora edulis SimsPassifloraceaeFoodInvasive1944213
Passiflora ligularis Juss.PassifloraceaeUnintentionalCasual194755
Passiflora subpeltata OrtegaPassifloraceaeOrnamentalNaturalised197133
Passiflora tarminiana Coppens & V.E. BarneyPassifloraceaeOrnamentalCasual197611
Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima (Kunth) Holm-Niels. & P.M. Jørg.PassifloraceaeFoodNaturalised192011215
Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov.PoaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised19211247
Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.PoaceaeFoodCasual19203159
Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov.PoaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised19601517
Pereskia aculeata P. Mill.CactaceaeOrnamentalCasual1942527
Persicaria capitata (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) H. GrossPolygonaceaeOrnamentalInvasive1959145
Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) GrayPolygonaceaeUnintentionalInvasive19191141429
Persicaria limbata (Meisn.) H. HaraPolygonaceaeUnintentionalInvasive1931382738
Phalaris arundinacea L.PoaceaeFodderCasual1955123
Phalaris minor Retz.PoaceaeUnintentionalCasual192514510
Phyllanthus fraternus G.L.WebsterPhyllanthaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised196411
Physalis angulata L.SolanaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1947145
Physalis lagascae Roemer & J.A. SchultesSolanaceaeUnintentionalCasual1958224
Physalis peruviana L.SolanaceaeFoodNaturalised19062237
Physalis philadelphica Lam.SolanaceaeFoodCasual194233
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculata Waterf.SolanaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised19223429
Phytolacca octandra L.PhytolocaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised195611
Pinus elliottii Engelm.PinaceaeOrnamental, timberCasual19232428
Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham.PinaceaeOrnamental, timberInvasive190216411
Pinus roxburghii Sarg.PinaceaeOrnamental, timberInvasiv1902112
Pistia stratiotes L.AraceaeOrnamentalInvasive19484711
Plantago lanceolata L.PlantaginaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised19211416
Plantago major L.PlantaginaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1942235
Plantago palmata Hook. F.PlantaginaceaeUnintentionalCasual1920123
Plectranthus comosus AndrewsLamiaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised196622
Poa annua L.PoaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1934151016
Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L.) L.CaryophyllaceaeUnintentionalCasual196211
Polygonum aviculare L.PolygonaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised19191225
Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.PoaceaeFodderCasual196811
Polypogon viridis (Gouan) Breistr.PoaceaeFodderCasual194811
Pontederia cordata L. var. lanceolata (Nutt.) Griseb.PontederiaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised197511
Populus x canescens (Ait.) SmithSalicaceaeUnintentionalInvasive1947134
Portulaca oleracea L.PortulacaceaeFoodNaturalised197511
Primula malacoides Hort.PrimulaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised197222
Prosopis spp.FabaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised197411
Prunus cerasoides D. DonRosaceaeOrnamentalInvasive1950167
Prunus serotina Ehrh. var. salicifolia (Kunth.) KoeneRosaceaeOrnamentalCasual1944325
Psidium cattleianum Afzel. ex SabineMyrtaceaeFood, ornamentalCasual196111
Psidium guajava L.MyrtaceaeFood, ornamentalInvasive19514610
Punica granatum L.LythraceaeOrnamentalCasual193111
Ranunclulus sceleratus L.RanunculaceaeUnintentionalCasual196533
Raphanus raphanistrum L.BrassicaceaeFoodCasual1919112
Raphanus sativus L.BrassicaceaeFoodCasual19181113
Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All.BrassicaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised195811
Reseda odorata L.ResedaceaeOrnamentalCasual1957112
Richardia brasiliensis GomesRubiaceaeUnintentionalInvasive1919511723
Richardia scabra L.RubiaceaeUnintentionalInvasive19444913
Ricinus communis L.EuphorbiaceaeOrnamentalInvasive19443519
Rivina humilis L.PhytolaccaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised196211
Rubus niveus Thunb.RosaceaeUnintentionalInvasive196166
Rumex acetosella L.PolygonaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised19359312
Rumex crispus L.PolygonaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised19311449
Rumex pulcher L. subsp. pulcherPolygonaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1973111
Sacciolepis interrupta (Willd.) StapfPoaceaeUnintentionalCasual196966
Sagina apetala Ard.CaryophyllaceaeUnintentionalCasual1959134
Salix babylonica L.SalicaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised196522
Salvia coccinea Buc'hoz ex Etl.LamiaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised191724612
Salvia nilotica Juss. ex Jacq.LamiaceaeUnintentionalCasual191759721
Salvia reflexa Hornem.LamiaceaeUnintentionalCasual1955112
Salvinia molesta MitchellSalviniaceaeOrnamentalInvasive1952104317
Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L.) R. BolliAdoxaceaeOrnamentalCasual196511
Santolina chamaecyparissus L.AsteraceaeOrnamentalCasual1955123
Schizolobium parahyba (Vell.) S.F.BlakeFabaceaeOrnamentalCasual196533
Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.AsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive191831513334
Senecio vulgaris L.AsteraceaeUnintentionalNaturalised197011
Senna bicapsularis (L.) Roxb.FabaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised19591517
Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H.S.Irwin & BarnebyFabaceaeOrnamentalInvasive192138617
Senna hirsuta (L.) H.S.Irwin & BarnebyFabaceaeOrnamentalCasual196211
Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S.Irwin & BarnebyFabaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised193221415233
Senna occidentalis (L.) LinkFabaceaeOrnamentalInvasive19124121329
Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H.S.Irwin & BarnebyFabaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1906410923
Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S.Irwin & BarnebyFabaceaeOrnamentalCasual197111
Sesbania punicea (Cav.) Benth.FabaceaeFodderNaturalised190861914140
Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv.PoaceaeFoodCasual19121315
Sherardia arvensis L.RubiaceaeUnintentionalCasual196411
Sida cordifolia subsp. maculata (Cav.) MaraisMalvaceaeFibreInvasive1904523937
Silene armeria L.CaryophyllaceaeOrnamentalCasual195711
Silene gallica L.CaryophyllaceaeUnintentionalCasual19104217
Sinapis arvensis L.BrassicaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised19151113
Sisymbrium orientale L.BrassicaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1956112
Solanum americanum Mill.SolanaceaeUnintentionalCasual195511
Solanum betaceum Cav.SolanaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised197611
Solanum lycopersicum L.SolanaceaeFoodCasual1958112
Solanum mauritianum Scop.SolanaceaeUnintentionalInvasive197611
Solanum seaforthianum AndrewsSolanaceaeOrnamentalInvasive1918151016
Sonchus asper (L.) HillAsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive19178101937
Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. drummondii (Steud.) deWetPoaceaeFoodCasual192037313
Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.PoaceaeFoodCasual1920141015
Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv.BignoniaceaeOrnamentalCasual1977112
Spergula arvensis L.CaryophyllaceaeUnintentionalCasual1944123
Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) PruskiAsteraceaeUnintentionalNaturalised197622
Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) VahlVerbenaceaeOrnamentalCasual197711
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.CaryophyllaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised191915511
Symphyotrichum subulatum (Michx.) G.L.Nesom var. squamatum (Spreng.) S.D.Sundb.AsteraceaeNACasual1958415
Syzygium cumini (L.) SkeelsMyrtaceaeFoodCasual1949347
Syzygium jambos (L.) AlstonMyrtaceaeFoodNaturalised1953134
Tagetes erecta L.AsteraceaeOrnamentalNaturalised196911
Tagetes minuta L.AsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive19172916128
Taraxacum croceum Dahlst.AsteraceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1943178
Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex KunthBignoniaceaeOrnamentalCasual198111
Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f.FabaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised191927413
Tipuana tipu (Benth.) KuntzeFabaceaeOrnamentalCasual196711
Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. GrayAsteraceaeOrnamentalNaturalised1944426
Tithonia rotundifolia (Mill.) S.F. BlakeAsteraceaeOrnamentalInvasive19443710
Toona ciliata M. Roem.MeliaceaeOrnamental, timberInvasive190343310
Tridax procumbens L.AsteraceaeUnintentionalNaturalised194851217
Trifolium campestre Schreb.FabaceaeUnintentionalCasual1959112
Trifolium dubium Sibth.FabaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised19312114
Trifolium repens L.FabaceaeUnintentionalNaturalised193141510
Verbena bonariensis L.VerbenaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised192411215
Verbena brasiliensis Vell.VerbenaceaeUnintentionalCasual19312141430
Verbena litoralis KunthVerbenaceaeUnintentionalCasual1958112
Verbena rigida Spreng.VerbenaceaeUnintentionalCasual197433
Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) A. GrayAsteraceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1959213
Vernonanthura polyanthes (Spreng.) A.J. Vega & Dematt.AsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive201666
Veronica persica Poir.PlantaginaceaeUnintentionalCasual195911
Vicia sativa L. var. angustifolia L.FabaceaeFodderNaturalised192626311
Vicia villosa subsp. villosaFabaceaeUnintentionalCasual1955617
Wigandia urens (Ruiz & Pavon) Kunth var. caracasana (Kunth) D. N. GibsonHydrocharitaceaeOrnamentalNaturalised19281427
Wigandia urens var. caracasana (Kunth) D. GibsonBoraginaceaeOrnamentalCasual196511
Xanthium spinosum L.AsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive190634310
Xanthium strumarium L.AsteraceaeUnintentionalInvasive19427613
Zephyranthes minuta (Kunth) D.Dietr.AmaryllidaceaeOrnamentalCasual1933145
Zinnia peruviana (L.) L.AsteraceaeUnintentionalNaturalised1943279
Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.RhamnaceaeFoodNaturalised1950224

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Supplementary material

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References

1. Maroyi A. A preliminary checklist of naturalized and introduced plants in Zimbabwe. Kirkia. 2006;18:177–247.
2. Pyšek P., Richardson D.M., Rejmanek M., Webster G.L., Williamson M., Kirschner J. Alien plants in checklists and flora: towards better communication between taxonomists and ecologists. Taxon. 2004;53:131–143.
3. Maroyi A. The casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora of Zimbabwe based on herbarium and literature records. Koedoe. 2012
4. Maroyi A. Exotic Acacia species in Zimbabwe: a historical and ecological perspective. Stud. Ethno-Med. 2015;9:391–399.
5. B. Thiers, Index Herbariorum: A Global Directory Of Public Herbaria And Associated Staff. left angle brackethttp://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/right angle bracket (Accessed 9 August 2017.

Articles from Data in Brief are provided here courtesy of Elsevier