PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of neuroscibullNeuroscience Bulletin
 
Neurosci Bull. 2007 July; 23(4): 236–240.
Published online 2008 February 1. doi:  10.1007/s12264-007-0035-9
PMCID: PMC5550587

Language: English | Chinese

Objective and subjective measures for sleep disorders

睡眠障碍中的主观及客观评价方法

Abstract

Subjective and objective measures of sleep structure or quality could help to characterize the chronic sleep disturbances, with relation to patients’ risk factor profiles and co-morbidities. Studies have shown that discrepancies can occur between subjective data regarding sleep disturbances and the impact of insomnia and objective assays, and surrogate markers of sleep and sleep disturbances. Both objective and subjective measures should be incorporated into clinic studies. It seems likely that sleep quality is represented by a combination of more than one subjective sleep parameter. Objective and subjective assessments of sleep quality may relate to different parameters. Future studies incorporated both subjective and objective measures could help to address the sleep disorders.

Keywords: objective measures, subjective measures, sleep disorders

摘要

睡眠的主观及客观评价方法均能评估分析睡眠的结构形式和睡眠质量, 在对睡眠障碍患者的诊断和治疗中有重要意义。 但是很多研究表明, 两种评价手段对睡眠障碍患者的评估结果并不完全一致, 可能存在偏差, 单凭主观评价或客观评价的个别参数不能确定睡眠质量的好坏, 因此在临床上需根据两种评价方法的特点, 结合使用。 本文将对目前临床常用的几种主观评价和客观评价方法进行分析和比较。

关键词: 主观评价, 客观评价, 睡眠障碍

References

[1] Leger D. Insomnia and quality of life. Insomnia. 2003;1:29–32.
[2] Keklund G., Akerstedt T. Objective components of individual differences in subjective sleep quality. J Sleep Res. 1997;6:217–220. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.1997.00217.x. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[3] Akerstedt T., Hume K., Minors D., Waterhouse J. The subjective meaning of good sleep, an intraindividual approach using the Karolinska Sleep Diary. Percep Mot Skills. 1994;79(1Pt1):287–296. [PubMed]
[4] Dalton E.J., Rotondi D., Levitan R.D., Kennedy S.H., Brown G.M. Use of slow-release melatonin in treatment-resistant depression. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2000;25:48–52. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
[5] Leentjens A.F., Marinus J., Van Hilten J.J., Lousberg R., Verhey F.R. The contribution of somatic symptoms to the diagnosis of depressive disorder in Parkinson’s disease: a discriminant analytic approach. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2003;15:74–77. [PubMed]
[6] Koren D., Arnon I., Lavie P., Klein E. Sleep complaints as early predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder: a 1-year prospective study of injured survivors of motor vehicle accidents. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:855–857. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.159.5.855. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[7] Hatoum H.T., Kong S.X., Kania C.M., Wong J.M., Mendelson W.B. Insomnia, health-related quality of life and healthcare resource consumption. A study of managed-care organization enrollees. Pharmacoeconomics. 1998;6:629–637. doi: 10.2165/00019053-199814060-00004. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[8] Leger D., Scheuermaier K., Philip P., Paillard M., Guilleminault C. SF-36: evaluation of quality of life in severe and mild insomniacs compared with good sleepers. Psychosom Med. 2001;63:49–55. [PubMed]
[9] Schubert C.R., Cruickshanks K.J., Dalton D.S., Klein B.E., Klein R., Nondahl D.M. Prevalence of sleep problems and quality of life in an older population. Sleep. 2002;25:889–893. [PubMed]
[10] Rosenthal L.D., Meixner R.M. Psychological status and levels of sleepiness-alertness among patients with insomnia. CNS Spectr. 2003;8:114–118. [PubMed]
[11] Means M.K., Lichstein K.L., Epperson M.T., Johnson C.T. Relaxation therapy for insomnia: night time and day time effects. Behav Res Ther. 2000;38:665–678. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(99)00091-1. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[12] Schwartz J.R., Feldman N.T., Fry J.M., Harsh J. Efficacy and safety of modafinil for improving daytime wakefulness in patients treated previously with psychostimulants. Sleep Med. 2003;4:43–49. doi: 10.1016/s1389-9457(02)00240-x. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[13] Ancoli-Israel S., Cole R., Alessi C., Chambers M., Moorcroft W., Pollak C.P. The role of actigraphy in the study of sleep and circadian rhythms. Sleep. 2003;26:342–392. [PubMed]
[14] Kerkhof G., van Vianen B. Circadian phase estimation of chronic insomniacs relates to their sleep characteristics. Arch Physiol Biochem. 1999;107:383–392. doi: 10.1076/apab.107.2.136.4342. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[15] Littner M., Kushida C.A., Anderson W.M., Bailey D., Berry R.B., Davila D.G., et al. Practice parameters for the role of actigraphy in the study of sleep and circadian rhythms: an update for 2002. Sleep. 2003;26:337–341. [PubMed]
[16] Nofzinger E.A., Buysse D.J., Germain A., Price J.C., Miewald J.M., Kupfer D.J. Functional neuroimaging evidence for hyperarousal in insomnia. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:2126–2128. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.11.2126. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[17] Nofzinger E.A., Nichols T.E., Meltzer C.C., Price J., Steppe D.A., Miewald J.M., et al. Changes in forebrain function from waking to REM sleep in depression: preliminary analyses of [18F] FDG PET studies. Psychiatry Res. 1999;91:59–78. doi: 10.1016/S0925-4927(99)00025-6. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[18] Lamphere J., Roehrs T., Vogel G., Koshorek G., Fortier J., Roth T. The chronic efficacy of midazolam. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1990;5:31–39. doi: 10.1097/00004850-199001000-00003. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[19] Drake C.L., Rice M.F., Roehrs T.A., Rosenthal L., Guido P., Roth T. Scoring reliability of the multiple sleep latency test in a clinical population. Sleep. 2000;23:911–913. [PubMed]
[20] Chesson A., Hartse K., Anderson W.M., Davila D., Johnson S., Littner M., et al. Practice parameters for the evaluation of chronic insomnia. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine report. Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sleep. 2000;23:237–241. [PubMed]
[21] Terzano M.G., Parrino L. Evaluation of the EEG cyclic alternating pattern during sleep in insomniacs and controls under placebo and acute treatment with zolpidem. Sleep. 1992;15:64–70. [PubMed]
[22] Terzano M.G., Parrino L., Spaggiari M.C., Palomba V., Rossi M., Smerieri A. CAP variables and arousals as sleep electroencephalogram markers for primary insomnia. Clin Neurophysiol. 2003;114:1715–1723. doi: 10.1016/S1388-2457(03)00136-6. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[23] Terzano MG. Diagnostic tools for sleep disorders: the role of polysomnography (PSG), cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) and actimetry. Insomnia. 2004;2:4–5.
[24] Stepanski E., Koshorek G., Zorick F., Glinn M., Roehrs T., Roth T. Characteristics of individuals who do or do not seek treatment for chronic insomnia. Psychosomatics. 1989;30:421–427. [PubMed]
[25] Hajak G., Rodenbeck A., Staedt J., Bandelow B., Huether G., Ruther E. Nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in patients suffering from chronic primary insomnia. J Pineal Res. 1995;19:116–122. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-079X.1995.tb00179.x. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[26] Savard J., Laroche L., Simard S., Ivers H., Morin C.M. Chronic insomnia and immune functioning. Psychosom Med. 2003;65:211–221. doi: 10.1097/01.PSY.0000033126.22740.F3. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[27] Merica H., Blois R., Gaillard J.M. Spectral characteristics of sleep EEG in chronic insomnia. Eur J Neurosci. 1998;10:1826–1834. doi: 10.1046/j.1460-9568.1998.00189.x. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[28] Nofzinger E.A., Mintun M.A., Price J., Meltzer C.C., Townsend D., Buysse D.J., et al. A method for the assessment of the functional neuroanatomy of human sleep using FDG PET. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 1998;2:191–198. doi: 10.1016/S1385-299X(97)00042-1. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[29] Kupfer D.J., Frank E., McEachran A.B., Grochocinski V.J. Delta sleep ratio. A biological correlate of early recurrence in unipolar affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990;47:1100–1105. [PubMed]
[30] Armitage R., Trivedi M., Hoffmann R., Rush A.J. Relationship between objective and subjective sleep measures in depressed patients and healthy controls. Depress Anxiety. 1997;5:97–102. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6394(1997)5:2<97::AID-DA6>3.0.CO;2-2. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[31] Schneider-Helmert D. Do we need polysomnography in insomnia? Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 2003;92:2061–2066. [PubMed]
[32] Tang N.K.Y., Harvey A.G. Correcting distorted perception of sleep in insomnia: a novel behavioural experiment? Behav Res Ther. 2004;42:27–39. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(03)00068-8. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[33] Roth T., Ancoli-Israel S. Daytime consequences and correlates of insomnia in the United States: results of the 1991 National Sleep Foundation Survey. II. Sleep. 1999;22(Suppl2):S354–S358. [PubMed]
[34] Szelenberger W., Niemcewicz S. Severity of insomnia correlates with cognitive impairment. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Warsaw) 2000;60:373. [PubMed]
[35] Stepanski E., Koshorek G., Zorick F., Glinn M., Roehrs T., Roth T. Characteristics of individuals who do or do not seek treatment for chronic insomnia. Psychosomatics. 1989;30:421–427. [PubMed]
[36] Day R., Guido P., Helmus T., Fortier J., Roth T., Koshorek G., et al. Self-reported levels of sleepiness among subjects with insomnia. Sleep Med. 2001;2:153–157. doi: 10.1016/S1389-9457(00)00040-X. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[37] Roth T. The relationship between psychiatric diseases and insomnia. Int J Clin Pract Suppl. 2001;116:3–8. [PubMed]
[38] Buysse D.J. Insomnia, depression and aging. Assessing sleep and mood interactions in older adults. Geriatrics. 2004;59:47–52. [PubMed]
[39] Perlis M.L., Smith M.T., Cacialli D.O., Nowakowski S., Orff H. On the comparability of pharmacotherapy and behavior therapy for chronic insomnia. Commentary and implications. J Psychosom Res. 2003;54:51–59. doi: 10.1016/S0022-3999(02)00547-0. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[40] Johnson E.O., Roehrs T., Roth T., Breslau N. Epidemiology of alcohol and medication as aids to sleep in early adulthood. Sleep. 1998;21:178–186. [PubMed]
[41] Hajak G., Cluydts R., Allain H., Estivill E., Parrino L., Terzano M.G., et al. The challenge of chronic insomnia: is non-nightly hypnotic treatment a feasible alternative? Eur Psychiatry. 2003;18:201–208. doi: 10.1016/S0924-9338(03)00089-0. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[42] Roehrs T., Bonahoom A., Pedrosi B., Rosenthal L., Roth T. Disturbed sleep predicts hypnotic self-administration. Sleep Med. 2002;3:61–66. doi: 10.1016/S1389-9457(01)00125-3. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[43] Argyropoulos S.V., Hicks J.A., Nash J.R., Bell C.J., Rich A.S., Nutt D.J., et al. Correlation of subjective and objective sleep measurements at different stages of the treatment of depression. Psychiatry Res. 2003;120:179–190. doi: 10.1016/S0165-1781(03)00187-2. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

Articles from Neuroscience Bulletin are provided here courtesy of Springer