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Zookeys. 2017; (672): 35–48.
Published online 2017 May 3. doi:  10.3897/zookeys.672.12488
PMCID: PMC5527340

First Canadian records of genera Apimela Mulsant & Rey and Gyronycha Casey from New Brunswick: description of two new species and new provincial distribution records (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

Abstract

Two genera, Apimela Mulsant & Rey and Gyronycha Casey (both Aleocharinae: Oxypodini: Meoticina), are recorded from New Brunswick and Canada for the first time. The following species are newly recorded or described as new in New Brunswick and Canada: Apimela fusciceps (Casey); A. canadensis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n.; and Gyronycha pseudoobscura Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n. The genera are defined and the key for species identification is provided. Color habitus images and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, spermatheca, tergite, and sternite VIII are provided for all species occurring in Canada, and Apimela macella (Erichson), the type species of genus Apimela, and G. valens Casey, the type species of Gyronycha. New or additional habitat data are provided for the species treated in this contribution. The following new synonym is established: Gyronycha lepida Casey, 1911 (NC), is a synonym of G. fusciceps Casey, 1894 (NC).

Keywords: Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae, Apimela, Gyronycha, taxonomy, new species, Canada

Introduction

The genus Gyronycha was described by Casey (1894) to accommodate his seven new species distributed in the USA (CA, NC, NJ, NY, NV, TX). Later, Casey (1911) added two Gyronycha species from North Carolina and New York. Casey (1885) described Calodera attenuata from California, which was transferred by Seevers (1978) to Apimela Mulsant & Rey. The species of Gyronycha described by Casey represent a mixed group and most of them belong to the genus Apimela, for details see the checklist of Apimela and Gyronycha further in the text. Moore and Legner (1975) reported three valid Nearctic species of Apimela: A. attenuata (Casey, 1885) [with G. lineata Casey, 1894, as its synonym], A. fenyesi (Bernhauer, 1906), and A. longipennis (Casey, 1911), all from California. Seevers (1978) redefined the two genera and distinguished Apimela from Gyronycha by smaller and more slender body, transverse pronotum [both genera have distinctly or slightly transverse pronotum], transverse antennomeres IV-X, presence of a tubercle arising from the margin of first and fifth visible male tergites, and the distinctive form of the spermatheca (Fig. 25E, spermatheca of A. attenuata (Casey) in Seevers 1978). Seevers (1978) designated G. valens Casey as a type species of Gyronycha, because Casey (1894) did not designate specifically one species as the types of the genus. Seevers (1978) synonymized genus Gyronychina Casey, 1911, described from one California species (G. longipennis Casey), with the genus Apimela. The generic type of Apimela is the Palaearctic species A. macella (Erichson, 1839) [Figs 27–29; male median lobe of aedeagus in lateral view, illustrated by Seevers 1978, Fig. 5f, g]. We have modified Seevers’s (1978) diagnosis in separating Apimela from Gyronycha when making generic assignment of the new species discovered in New Brunswick (NB). Our modified diagnoses of the two genera are included in the key to species. For all Nearctic species of Apimela and Gyronycha see below the checklist in this paper.

Figures 27 29.
Apimela macella (Erichson) (type species of the genus from Europe): 27 habitus in dorsal view 28 median lobe of aedeagus in lateral view 29 spermatheca. Scale bars: 1 mm for habitus; 0.2 mm for remaining structures.

Materials and methods

All specimens in this study were dissected to examine the genital structures. Extracted genital structures were dehydrated in absolute alcohol, mounted in Canada balsam on celluloid micro-slides, and pinned with the specimen from which they originated. Images of the entire body and the genital structures were taken using an image processing system (Nikon SMZ 1500 stereoscopic microscope; Nikon Digital Camera DXM 1200F, and Adobe Photoshop software).

Morphological terminology mainly follows that used by Seevers (1978). The ventral side of the median lobe of the aedeagus is considered to be the side of the bulbus containing the foramen mediale, the entrance of the ductus ejaculatorius, and the adjacent ventral side of the tubus of the median lobe with the internal sac and its structures (this part is referred to as the parameral side in some recent publications); the opposite side is referred to as the dorsal part. In the species descriptions, microsculpture refers to the surface of the upper forebody (head, pronotum and elytra).

Species within genera are arranged alphabetically in the text and in the table.

Depository/institutional abbreviations

CNC Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

FMNH Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, USA.

LFC Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, R. Martineau Insectarium, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

RWC R. Webster collection, Fredercton, New Brunswick, Canada.

USNM United States National Museum, Washington, D.C, USA.

USA state abbreviations follow those of the US Postal Service.

Discussion. We have discovered that the spermathecal capsule in Apimela and Gyronycha has an apical or apico-lateral, narrow, tubular projection, which may be indicative of close phylogenetic relationship between both genera. Known males of Gyronycha species, have carniform tubercules on the first and fifth visible tergites (Figs (Figs16,16, ,21,21, ,22),22), and females are lacking these structures. These tubercles are absent in Apimela. Seevers (1978) pointed out that Apimela and Meotica Mulsant & Rey are similar in having small, slender and compressed body but considered Apimela to be closely related to Gyronycha due to elongate elytra and mesoventrite, and the distinctive form of spermatheca. Externally, species of Apimela are very similar to those of Alisalia Casey, which live in very similar habitats, but the latter have shorter elytra and mesoventrite and have different type of genitalia (Klimaszewski et al. 2009). Casey (1894) considered Gyronycha as allied to Central American Bamona Sharp but his hypothesis needs further studies to be confirmed.

Figures 16 22.
Gyronycha valens Casey (type species of the genus): 16 habitus in dorsal view 17 median lobe of aedeagus in lateral view 18 Paramere 19 male tergite VIII 20 male sternite VIII 21 dorsal projection on first visible male tergite; and 22 on fourth visible ...

Key to Canadian species of Apimela and Gyronycha

1Antennomeres VII-X slightly to strongly transverse (Figs (Figs1,1, ,9,9, ,27);27); tarsal claws small (Figs (Figs1,1, ,9);9); males without tubercles on first and fifth visible tergites; spermatheca with sinuate stem, coils partial and not overlapping (Figs (Figs8,8, ,15,15, ,29)29) (Apimela) 2
Antennomeres VII-X moderately to strongly elongate (Figs (Figs16,16, ,23);23); tarsal claws large (Fig. (Fig.16);16); males with strong tubercles on first and fifth visible tergites (Figs (Figs21,21, ,22);22); spermatheca with broadly and irregularly coiled stem, coils overlapping (Fig. (Fig.26)26) (Gyronycha) Gyronycha pseudoobscura Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n. [male unknown]
2Antennomeres VI-X strongly transverse (Fig. (Fig.9);9); elytra slightly broader than maximum width of pronotum (Fig. (Fig.9);9); eyes moderately large (Fig. (Fig.9);9); spermatheca with spherical apical part of capsule bearing elongate and multiply micro-coiled projection (Fig. (Fig.1515) Apimela canadensis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n.
Antennomeres VI-X slightly transverse (Fig. (Fig.1);1); elytra distinctly broader than maximum width of pronotum (Fig. (Fig.1);1); eyes large (Fig. (Fig.1);1); spermatheca with tubular apical part of capsule and with short and few microcoiled projection Gyronycha (Fig. (Fig.88) Apimela fusciceps (Casey)

Taxonomy

Apimela

Keywords: Animalia, Coleoptera, Staphylinidae

Mulsant & Rey, 1874

Figs 1–8 , 9–15 , 27–29

Figures 1 8.
Apimela fusciceps (Casey): 1 habitus in dorsal view 2–3 median lobe of aedeagus in lateral view 4 male tergite VIII 5 male sternite VIII 8 spermatheca 6 female tergite VIII 7 female sternite VIII. Scale bars: 1 mm for habitus; 0.2 mm for remaining ...
Figures 9 15.
Apimela canadensis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n.: 9 habitus in dorsal view 10 median lobe of aedeagus in lateral view; 11, male tergite VIII 12 male sternite VIII 13 female tergite VIII 14 female sternite VIII 15 spermatheca. Scale bars: 1 mm ...

Type species.

Homalota macella Erichson, 1839

Diagnosis.

Body yellowish brown, narrow and linear, length 2.0-3.0 mm; forebody densely and finely pubescent; head subquadrate as large as or slightly larger than pronotum, eyes moderately large, usually shorter than postocular area of head and visible from above, posterior angles of head angular, basal carina vestigial and visible only basally; antennomeres V-X slightly to strongly transverse; last palpomere needle-shaped; pronotum slightly transverse, widest in apical third, as long as head, densely pubescent, pubescence on midline of disc directed anteriad except posteriad basally, on sides anteriad and laterad, forming arcuate lines; elytra strongly elongate, one six/seventh broader than pronotum, at suture longer than pronotum, pubescence directed obliquely postriad; mesoventrite long, mesocoxae close; abdomen parallel sided, first four visible tergites with deep arcuate impressions, males without tubercles on first and fifth visible tergites; basal metatarsus as long as two following combined, tarsi small; median lobe of aedeagus with sinuate venter of tubus in lateral view, crista apicalis of bulbus from moderately-sized to large, internal sac with complex sclerites; spermatheca with sinuate stem, coils partial and not overlapping. Species of this genus occur in riparian habitats.

Apimela fusciceps

Keywords: Animalia, Coleoptera, Staphylinidae

(Casey) comb. n.

Figs 1–8

  • Gyronycha fusciceps Casey, 1894: 376. Lectotype (female). USA: N.Y. [New York];fusciceps Casey; TYPE USNM 38789; Casey bequest 1925; our lectotype designation label (USNM). There is an unpublished Gusarov’s lectotype designation label. The genitalia were probably treated by KOH as they are barely recognizable and the spermatheca is missing. Lectotype - present designation. PARALECTOTYPE: USA: N.Y. [New York]; fusciceps Casey; TYPE USNM 38789, fusciceps-2; Casey bequest 1925; our paralectotype designation label (USNM) 1 male. There is an unpublished Gusarov’s paralectotype label. The genitalia were probably treated by KOH as they are barely recognizable.
  • Gyronycha lepida Casey, 1911: 217, syn. n. Lectotype (male). USA: N.C. [North Carolina]; lepida Casey; TYPE USNM 38790; Casey bequest 1925; our lectotype designation label (USNM). There is an unpublished Gusarov’s lectotype designation label. Lectotype - present designation. PARALECTOTYPES: N.C. [North Carolina]; lepida Casey; TYPE USNM 38790, lepida-2; Casey bequest 1925; our paralectotype designation label (USNM) 1 female [there is an unpublished Gusarov’s paralectotype designation label]; N.C. [North Carolina]; TYPE USNM 38790, lepida-3 Casey; Casey bequest 1925; our paralectotype designation label (USNM)1 female [there is an unpublished Gusarov’s paralectotype designation label].

Material examined.

Canada, New Brunswick, Carleton Co., Belleville, Meduxnekeag Valley Nature Preserve, 46.1944°N, 67.6832°W, 2.VI.2008, R.P. Webster, coll.// River margin, under cobblestones in sand/gravel, among scattered grasses (RWC, LFC) 2 females; Belleville, Meduxnekeag Valley Nature Preserve, 46.1942°N, 67.6832°W, 9.VI.2008, R.P. Webster, coll. // River margin, under cobblestones among grasses away from water’s edge (RWC) 2 females; Belleville, Meduxnekeag Valley Nature Preserve, 46.1921°N, 67.6815°W, 11.VI.2010, R.P. Webster, coll. // River margin, under cobblestones set in sand (RWC) 1 female; Belleville, Meduxnekeag Valley Nature Preserve, 46.1941°N, 67.6830°W, 31.V.2013, R.P. Webster, coll. // River margin, under small rock (RWC) 1 male.

Diagnosis.

Body length 3.0–3.4 mm, subparallel, yellowish brown, head and scutellar region of elytra dark brown, strongly glossy, forebody with fine and moderately dense pubescence, punctation fine; head subquadrate, eyes large and about as long as postocular region of head, posterior angles rounded, pubescence directed straight and obliquely anteriad; antennomeres V-X slightly to strongly transverse, head broader than pronotum; pronotum slightly transverse, posterior angles angular; elytra elongate, at suture longer than pronotum, and about one fourth wider than pronotum, abdomen subparallel, with first visible four tergites deeply impressed basally, males lacking tubercles on first and fifth visible tergites. MALE. Median lobe of aedeagus with tubus strongly produced ventrally, in lateral view its venter sinuate with two more or less visible minute teeth in apical third, internal sac with complex structures as illustrated (Figs (Figs22 [NB], 3 [holotype]); tergite VIII truncate apically (Fig. (Fig.4);4); sternite VIII produced apically and sharply pointed (Fig. (Fig.5).5). FEMALE. Spermatheca S-shaped, capsule tubular, slightly arched and with apical narrow, tubular projection coiled apically, stem sinuate and twisted (Fig. (Fig.8);8); tergite VIII truncate apically (Fig. (Fig.6);6); sternite VIII rounded apically (Fig. (Fig.77).

Distribution.

Formerly known from New York and North Carolina in the United States (Casey 1894, 1911). Here, reported in New Brunswick, Canada, for the first time.

Collection and habitat data.

In New Brunswick, this species was found along a river margin under cobblestones set in sand/gravel, often in areas with scattered grasses, sometimes away from water’s edge. Adults were collected in late May and June.

Comments.

This species belongs to a distinct species group and has spermatheca type similar to that of A. attenuata (Casey).

Apimela canadensis

Keywords: Animalia, Coleoptera, Staphylinidae

Klimaszewski & Webster sp. n.

http://zoobank.org/2CAD6FD2-6B89-45A8-93E1-4DE94B359B60

Figs 9–15

Holotype

(male). CANADA, New Brunswick, Restigouche Co., Jacquet River Gorge PNA, 47.8257°N, 66.0779°W, 14.V.2010, R.P. Webster, coll. // Partially shaded cobblestone bar near outflow of brook at Jacquet River, under cobblestones and gravel on sand (LFC). PARATYPES: New Brunswick, Restigouche Co., Jacquet River Gorge PNA, 47.8257°N, 66.0779°W, 14.V.2010, R.P. Webster coll. // Partially shaded cobblestone bar near outflow of brook at Jacquet River, under cobblestones & gravel on sand (RWC) 2 males, 1 female; Carleton Co., Belleville, Meduxnekeag Valley Nature Preserve, 46.1942°N, 67.6832°W, 9.VI.2008, R.P. Webster coll. // River margin, under cobblestones among grasses away from water’s edge (RWC) 1 female.

Etymology.

Named after Canada, the country of origin, and to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Canada.

Description.

Body length 2.0–3.0 mm, subparallel, yellowish brown with slightly darker head, moderately glossy, forebody with fine and dense pubescence, punctation fine; head subquadrate, eyes moderately large and shorter than postocular region of head, posterior angles rounded and slightly angular, pubescence directed straight and obliquely anteriad; antennomeres V-X strongly transverse, head slightly broader than pronotum; pronotum slightly transverse, posterior angles angular; elytra elongate, at suture longer than pronotum, and about one sixth wider than pronotum, abdomen subparallel, with first four visible tergites deeply impressed basally, males lacking tubercles on first and fifth visible tergites. MALE. Median lobe of aedeagus with tubus strongly produced ventrally, its venter sinuate with apex turned slightly upward, internal sac with complex structures as illustrated (Fig. (Fig.10);10); tergite VIII truncate apically (Fig. (Fig.11);11); sternite VIII truncate and broadly arcuate apically (Fig. (Fig.12).12). FEMALE. Spermatheca S-shaped, capsule spherical, slightly arched with a narrow apical tubular multiple micro-coiled projection, stem sinuate, S-shaped (Fig. (Fig.15);15); tergite VIII truncate apically (Fig. (Fig.13);13); sternite VIII rounded apically (Fig. (Fig.1414).

Distribution.

Known only from New Brunswick, Canada.

Collection and habitat data.

The holotype and three paratypes were captured on a partially shaded cobblestone bar near the outflow of brook along the Jacquet River. The adults were found under cobblestones and gravel in sand. One paratype was found along a river margin under a cobblestone among grasses away from the water’s edge. Adults were collected in May and June.

Comments.

This species clearly belongs to a different species group than A. fusciceps, which has capsule of spermatheca entirely tubular.

Gyronycha

Keywords: Animalia, Coleoptera, Staphylinidae

Casey, 1894

Figs 16–22 , 23–26

Figures 23 26.
Gyronycha pseudoobscura Klimaszewski & Webster (female): 23 habitus in dorsal view 24 tergite VIII 25 sternite VIII 26 spermatheca. Scale bars: 1 mm for habitus; 0.2 mm for remaining structures.

Type species.

Gyronycha valens Casey, 1894.

Diagnosis.

Body yellowish brown, narrow and linear, length 2.5–4.2 mm; forebody densely and finely pubescent; head round, as large as pronotum, eyes large, about as long as postocular area of head visible from above, posterior angles of head rounded, basal carina vestigial and visible only basally; antennomeres V-X slightly to strongly elongate; last palpomere needle-shaped; pronotum slightly transverse, widest in apical third, as long as head, densely pubescent, pubescence on midline of disc directed anteriad except posteriad basally, on sides anteriad and laterad, forming arcuate lines; elytra strongly elongate, one fifth broader than pronotum, at suture longer than pronotum, pubescence directed obliquely postriad; mesoventrite long, mesocoxae close; abdomen parallelsided, first four visible tergites with deep arcuate impressions, males with tubercles on first and fifth visible tergites; basal metatarsus as long as the following two combined, tarsi large; median lobe of aedeagus with strongly sinuate venter of tubus in lateral view, crista apicalis of bulbus moderately large, internal sac with complex sclerites; spermatheca with broadly and irregularly coiled stem, coils overlapping. New Brunswick specimens of this genus were found in gravel in a riparian habitat.

Gyronycha pseudoobscura

Keywords: Animalia, Coleoptera, Staphylinidae

Klimaszewski & Webster sp. n.

http://zoobank.org/484B63FF-BE0A-4BBF-A0E1-8E71F0D71C49

Figs 23–26

Holotype

(female). CANADA, New Brunswick, Restigouche Co., Jacquet River Gorge PNA, 47.8257°N, 66.0779°W, 24.V.2010, R.P. Webster coll. // partially shaded cobblestone bar near outflow of brook at Jacquet River, under cobblestones and gravel on sand (LFC). PARATYPE: New Brunswick, Queens Co., Bayard at Nerepis River, 45.4426°N, 66.3280°W, 24.V.2008, R.P. Webster coll. // River margin, in gravel (RWC) 1 female.

Etymology.

The name of this new species, pseudoobscura, derives from a similar species of Gyronycha obscura Casey described from California, USA.

Description.

Body length 3.9–4.0 mm, subparallel, yellowish brown with head and pronotum and antennae dark brown, moderately glossy, forebody with fine and dense pubescence, punctation fine; head round, eyes moderately large and shorter than postocular region of head, posterior angles rounded, pubescence directed straight and obliquely anteriad; antennomeres V-X slightly elongate, head about as broad as pronotum; pronotum slightly transverse, posterior angles slightly angular; elytra elongate, at suture longer than pronotum, and about one fifth wider than pronotum, abdomen subparallel, with first visible four tergites deeply impressed basally. MALE. Unknown. FEMALE. Spermatheca with subspherical capsule, and with apical narrow, tubular and coiled apically projection, stem sinuate, with large, overlapping coils (Fig. (Fig.26);26); tergite VIII truncate apically (Fig. (Fig.24);24); sternite VIII rounded apically (Fig. (Fig.2525).

Collection and habitat data.

The holotype was captured under cobblestones and gravel on sand on a partially shaded cobblestone bar near the outflow of a brook flowing into the Jacquet River. The paratype was captured in gravel along a river margin.

Comments.

This species is similar externally and has similar shape of spermatheca and female tergite and sternite VIII to those of G. obscura Casey. Gyronycha pseudoobscura may be distinguished from G. obscura by narrower body, dark brown color of head and pronotum (light brown in G. obscura), and the differently shaped pronotum with anterior angles rounded and strongly converging apically in apical part of the disc, while the pronotal angles are rectangular and moderately converging apically in G. obscura. The two species have allopatric distribution, and are known from remote and disjunctive localities in New Brunswick, Canada, and California, United States of America.

Checklist of Apimela and Gyronycha species in Canada and USA, valid species and new records are in bold

Table thumbnail

Supplementary Material

XML Treatment for Apimela :
XML Treatment for Apimela fusciceps :
XML Treatment for Apimela canadensis :
XML Treatment for Gyronycha :
XML Treatment for Gyronycha pseudoobscura :

Acknowledgements

We thank Floyd Shockley for loan of types form USNM, and Crystal A. Maier for loan of type of A. fenyesi from FMNH. I. Lamarre (LFC) is thanked for editing and D. Paquet (LFC) for formatting this manuscript. We are obliged to R. Pace (Verona, Italy) for some useful comments on the genus Apimela. The New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources (Fish & Wildlife Branch) is thanked for issuing a permit for sampling in the Jacquet River Gorge Protected Natural Area and the Meduxnekeag River Association is thanked for permission to sample beetles at the Meduxnekeag Valley Nature Preserve. This research was supported by Natural Resources Canada.

Notes

Citation

Klimaszewski J, Webster RP, Zanetti A, Bourdon C (2017) First Canadian records of genera Apimela Mulsant & Rey and Gyronycha Casey from New Brunswick: description of two new species and new provincial distribution records (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae). ZooKeys 672: 35–48. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.672.12488

References

  • Bernhauer M. (1906) Neue Aleocharinen aus Nord-Amerika. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift [1907]: 337–348.
  • Casey TL. (1885) New genera and species of Californian Coleoptera. California Academy of Sciences 1: 283–336. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.8839
  • Casey TL. (1894) Coleopterological notices. V. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 7(6/12): 281–606, pl. 1. [the actual year of publication was 1894 but it is cited often as 1893]
  • Casey TL. (1911) New American species of Aleocharinae and Myllaeninae. Memoirs on the Coleoptera 2. The New Era Printing Co. , Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 245 pp.
  • Erichson WF. (1839) Erster Band. In: Morrin FH. (Ed.) Genera et species Staphylinorum insectorum coleopterorum familiae. Berlin, 400 pp.
  • Klimaszewski J, Webster RP, Savard K, Couture J. (2009) First record of the genus Alisalia Casey from Canada, description of two new species, and a key to all Nearctic species of the genus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae). Zookeys 25: 1–18. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.25.280
  • Moore I, Legner EF. (1975) A catalogue of the Staphylinidae of America north of Mexico (Coleoptera). University of California, Division of Agricultural Science, Special Publication No. 3015: 1–514.
  • Mulsant E, Rey C. (1874) Tribu des brévipennes: Famille des aléochariéns: Septième branche: Myrmédoniares. Annales de la Société d’Agriculture Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (4) 6[1873]: 33–727.
  • Seevers CH. (1978) A generic and tribal revision of the North American Aleocharinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) [with additions and annotations by Lee H. Herman]. Fieldiana: Zoology 71: 1–289.

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