Whereas B7-1/B7-2 and CD28/cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) serve as the main switches regulating the clonal composition of activated naive T cells, other B7 family members fine-tune the expansion and properties of activated T cells. Inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS)-B7h promotes T-dependent antibody isotype switching and expansion of effector cells. Effector T cells trafficking into inflamed tissues interact with antigen-presenting cells there and are regulated by PD-1 and its ligands. B7-H3 and B7x could control the interaction between effector T cells and the peripheral tissues. The different varieties of regulatory T cells could regulate both naive T cell activation and effector function through costimulatory receptor/ligands.
Keywords: antitumor immunity, autoimmunity, costimulation, inflammation, regulatory T cells