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With regard to the relationship between object and background perception in the natural scene images, functional isolation hypothesis and interactive hypothesis were proposed. Based on previous studies, the present study investigated the role of spatial frequency in the relationship between object and background perception in the natural scene images. In three experiments, participants reported the object, background, or both after seeing each picture for 500 ms followed by a mask. The authors found that (a) backgrounds were identified more accurately when they contained a consistent rather than an inconsistent object, independently of spatial frequency; (b) objects were identified more accurately in a consistent than an inconsistent background under the condition of low spatial frequencies but not high spatial frequencies; (c) spatial frequency modulation remained when both objects and backgrounds were reported simultaneously. The authors conclude that object/background interaction is partially dependent on spatial frequency.