PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of genannJournal InfoAuthorsPermissionsJournals.ASM.orggenomeA ArticleGenome Announcements
 
Genome Announc. 2017 April; 5(14): e00117-17.
Published online 2017 April 6. doi:  10.1128/genomeA.00117-17
PMCID: PMC5383890

Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Ensifer sp. Strain LCM 4579, a Salt-Tolerant, Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium Isolated from Senegalese Soil

ABSTRACT

The genus Ensifer (formerly Sinorhizobium) contains many species able to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on plants of the legume family. Here, we report the 6.1-Mb draft genome sequence of Ensifer sp. strain LCM 4579, with a G+C content of 62.4% and 5,613 candidate protein-encoding genes.

GENOME ANNOUNCEMENT

Rhizobia are symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria able to convert N2 atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compounds in specialized structures on plant roots called nodules (1). In exchange, rhizobia take advantage of carbon substrates derived from plant photosynthesis for their activities (2). The host plants of these nitrogen-fixing bacteria are included in the family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. The Leguminosae family comprises three subfamilies: Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae, and Papilionoideae (3,6); each contains genera able to form root nodules. The morphology, habitat, and ecology of legumes are very diverse, ranging from Arctic annuals to tropical trees (7). They are important crop plants that can enrich soil nitrogen and they have protein-rich seeds that are important in human and animal nutrition. In addition to producing valuable food and animal feed, legumes are beneficial as rotational crops, green manure, cover crops, forage, and fuelwood.

Among the rhizobia is the genus Ensifer [formerly Sinorhizobium (8, 9)], which includes species with high geographical dispersion. These bacteria are able to nodulate a wide variety of legumes. Some Ensifer strains are able to develop in soil under different environmental stresses, including salinity (10). One of these bacteria, Ensifer sp. strain LCM 4579, was isolated from the rhizosphere of soil around Prosopis juliflora under saline conditions (11). Under in vitro culture conditions, this strain is able to tolerate up to 600 mM NaCl. The isolate will also form root nodules on P. juliflora and Acacia seyal plants that actively fix nitrogen. Because of these properties, this strain could be potentially used in association with leguminous plants for the reforestation of saline lands. The Ensifer sp. strain LCM 4579 genome was sequenced to provide information on its physiology and ecology, and to identify molecular markers that are involved in its tolerance to salinity.

Sequencing of the draft genome of Ensifer sp. strain LCM 4579 was performed at the Hubbard Center for Genome Studies (University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA) using Illumina technology techniques (12). A standard Illumina shotgun library was constructed and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2500 platform, which generated 21,371,196 reads (260-bp insert size) totaling 5,129 Mb. The Illumina sequence data were trimmed by Trimmonatic version 0.32 (13) and assembled using Spades version 3.5 (14) and ALLPaths-LG version r52488 (15). The final draft assembly for Ensifer sp. strain LCM 4579 consisted of 61 contigs with an N50 contig size of 247.7 kb and 63.8× coverage of the genome. The final assembled genome contained a total sequence length of 6,137,409 bp with a G+C content of 62.4%.

The assembled Ensifer sp. strain LCM 4579 genome was annotated via the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP) and resulted in 5,613 candidate protein-encoding genes, 47 tRNAs, and four rRNAs. Annotation of the genome revealed the presence of the nif and common nod operons involved in nitrogen fixation and host plant nodulation, respectively.

Accession number(s).

This whole-genome shotgun sequence has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number MDDV00000000. The version described in this paper is the first version, MDDV01000000.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Partial funding was provided by the New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station. This is Scientific Contribution Number 2706. This work was supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture Hatch 022821 (L.S.T.), USDA Foreign Agricultural Services Borlaug Fellowship Program BF-CR-16-004 (N.D.), and the College of Life Science and Agriculture at the University of New Hampshire–Durham. Sequencing was performed on an Illumina HiSeq2500 purchased with NSF MRI grant DBI-1229361 (W.K.T.).

Footnotes

Citation Diagne N, Swanson E, Pesce C, Fall F, Diouf F, Bakhoum N, Fall D, Ndigue Faye M, Oshone R, Simpson S, Morris K, Thomas WK, Moulin L, Diouf D, Tisa LS. 2017. Permanent draft genome sequence of Ensifer sp. strain LCM 4579, a salt-tolerant, nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from Senegalese soil. Genome Announc 5:e00117-17. https://doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00117-17.

REFERENCES

1. Long SR. 2001. Genes and signals in the rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Plant Physiol 125:69–72. doi:.10.1104/pp.125.1.69 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
2. Laranjo M, Alexandre A, Oliveira S 2014. Legume growth-promoting rhizobia: an overview on the Mesorhizobium genus. Microbiol Res 169:2–17. doi:.10.1016/j.micres.2013.09.012 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
3. Defaria SM, Franco AA, Dejesus RM, Menandro MD, Baitello JB, Mucci ESF, Dobereiner J, Sprent JI 1984. New nodulating legume trees from Southeast Brazil. New Phytol 98:317–328. doi:.10.1111/j.1469-8137.1984.tb02742.x [Cross Ref]
4. Young JPW, Johnston AWB 1989. The evolution of specificity in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis. Trends Ecol Evol 4:341–349. doi:.10.1016/0169-5347(89)90089-X [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
5. Käss E, Wink M 1997. Phylogenetic relationships in the Papilionoideae (family Leguminosae) based on nucleotide sequences of cpDNA (rbcL) and ncDNA (ITS 1 and 2). Mol Phylogenet Evol 8:65–88. doi:.10.1006/mpev.1997.0410 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
6. Doyle JJ. 2011. Phylogenetic perspectives on the origins of nodulation. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 24:1289–1295. doi:.10.1094/MPMI-05-11-0114 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
7. Defaria SM, Lewis GP, Sprent JI, Sutherland JM 1989. Occurrence of nodulation in the Leguminosae. New Phytol 111:607–619. doi:.10.1111/j.1469-8137.1989.tb02354.x [Cross Ref]
8. Young JM. 2003. The genus name Ensifer Casida 1982 takes priority over Sinorhizobium Chen et al. 1988, and Sinorhizobium morelense Wang et al. 2002 is a later synonym of Ensfer adhaerens Casida 1982. Is the combination ‘Sinorhizobium adhaerens’ (Casida 1982) Willems et al. 2003 legitimate? Request for an opinion. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:2107–2110. doi:.10.1099/ijs.0.02665-0 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
9. Chen WX, Yan GH, Li JL 1988. Numerical taxonomic study of fast-growing soybean rhizobia and a proposal that Rhizobium fredii be assigned to Sinorhizobium gen. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 38:392–397. doi:.10.1099/00207713-38-4-392 [Cross Ref]
10. Soliman SA, Shanan NT, Massoud ON, Swelim DM 2012. Improving salinity tolerance of Acacia saligna (Labill.) plant by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium inoculation. Afr J Biotechnol 11:1259–1266.
11. Fall F. 2016. Impact de Sporobolus robustus Kunth sur la germination, l’établissement et la diversité de la microflore symbiotique de la rhizosphère de légumineuses à usages mutiples dans les sols salés du delta du Sine et Saloum au Sénégal. PhD dissertation Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Dakar, Senegal.
12. Bennett S. 2004. Solexa Ltd. Pharmacogenomics 5:433–438. doi:.10.1517/14622416.5.4.433 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
13. Bolger AM, Lohse M, Usadel B 2014. Trimmomatic: a flexible trimmer for Illumina sequence data. Bioinformatics 30:2114–2120. doi:.10.1093/bioinformatics/btu170 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
14. Nurk S, Bankevich A, Antipov D, Gurevich AA, Korobeynikov A, Lapidus A, Prjibelski AD, Pyshkin A, Sirotkin A, Sirotkin Y, Stepanauskas R, Clingenpeel SR, Woyke T, McLean JS, Lasken R, Tesler G, Alekseyev MA, Pevzner PA 2013. Assembling single-cell genomes and mini-metagenomes from chimeric MDA products. J Comput Biol 20:714–737. doi:.10.1089/cmb.2013.0084 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
15. Gnerre S, MacCallum I, Przybylski D, Ribeiro FJ, Burton JN, Walker BJ, Sharpe T, Hall G, Shea TP, Sykes S, Berlin AM, Aird D, Costello M, Daza R, Williams L, Nicol R, Gnirke A, Nusbaum C, Lander ES, Jaffe DB 2011. High-quality draft assemblies of mammalian genomes from massively parallel sequence data. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:1513–1518. doi:.10.1073/pnas.1017351108 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

Articles from Genome Announcements are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)