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Oryza glaberrima is one of the two cultivated species of rice, and harbors various interesting agronomic traits, especially in biotic and abiotic resistance, compared with its Asian cousin O. sativa. A previous reference genome was published but newer studies highlighted some missing parts. Moreover, global species diversity is known nowadays to be represented by more than one single individual. For that purpose, we sequenced, assembled and annotated de novo three different cultivars from O. glaberrima. After validating our assemblies, we were able to better solve complex regions than the previous assembly and to provide a first insight in pan-genomic divergence between individuals. The three assemblies shown large common regions, but almost 25% of the genome present collinearity breakpoints or are even individual specific.
Rice is the first world human food resource, with 80% of the human population relying on rice for 20% for its daily nutrient intake. From the 24 species belonging to the Oryza genus, only two are cultivated: Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima, the Asian and African rice, respectively. The Asian is cultivated worldwide, whereas the African is endemic and restricted to West Africa (Vaughan et al. 2005, 2008).
African rice domestication probably occurred near Dia, in the Niger delta in Mali around 2,500 and 3,500 years ago from the wild rice O. barthii (Portères 1962). This wild species originated probably from the same genome AA ancestor than Asian rice more than a million years ago, in Asia, with a divergence between the proto-O. rufipogon and the proto-O. barthii through a transfer of O. barthii ancestor to Africa. Following, the African ancestor evolved in O. barthii with the Sahara appearance (Vaughan et al. 2005). The African Rice is thus the result of double evolutionary bottleneck throttling: the first associated to the divergence of ancestor of AA genome species in direction of Africa, and the second, associated with the African domestication. Such evolution explains why the African rice has a much lower genetic diversity than O. sativa (Vaughan et al. 2008).
The great diversity of the Oryza genus could serve as a pool of genes for the improvement of cultivated varieties (Ge et al. 1999), and in this regard the African rice would be a good tool for varietal improvement of O. sativa. However, despite strong cytological similarities, Asian and African rices are reproductively isolated due to an extremely high sterility barrier, managed mainly by the S1 locus (Sano 1990; Garavito et al. 2010). Introgressions were nevertheless achieved by AfricaRice in the early 2000s, through the cross of some O. sativa with some varieties of O. glaberrima, through recurrent back-crosses on the Asian rice parent, called NEw RICe for Africa (NERICA; Gridley et al. 2002). These lines present a better resistance to drought than Asian rice and a better yield than African rice. The original parents were chosen first based on their use in breeding schemes from AfricaRice for O. sativa, and second on their supposed ecology for O. glaberrima. Thus, no specific traits were targeted in those crosses, neither any idea of genetic diversity. Then, in order to improve such crosses, we need to know trait-related genes and alleles, and genomic sequences for each of these two species are required.
O. sativa was sequenced in 2005 (International Rice Genome Sequencing Project 2005) using the Nipponbare cultivar from the subspecies japonica, and is the best annotated plant genome in its current version (Kawahara et al. 2013). Four other reference-like sequences are nowadays available so far for this species (Sakai et al. 2014; Pan et al. 2013; Schatz et al. 2014). The comparison of those accessions with the others have shown that a not negligible part of the whole genome is not shared between two given individual of the same species. Indeed, between Nipponbare (japonica subgroup) and Kasalath (aus subgroup), more than 10% of sequences are either present or absent of the genome (Sakai et al. 2014). In the same way, around 6% of the genome is individual-specific when comparing two indica varietes (Zhang et al. 2016). Such data highlights the need to have more than one reference per species in order to understand the full variability of a given species.
For O. glaberrima, few data are available so far, as only the CG14 cultivar sequence (parent of the first generation of NERICA) was released in 2014 by the OMAP consortium (Wang et al. 2014) using a reference guided approach based on O. sativa ssp japonica cv NipponBare. This BAC-based assembly, of good overall quality, nevertheless presents abnormalities in terms of specific African sequences (such as the SWEET14 gene duplication, Hutin et al. 2015). Moreover, various analyses shown that the CG14 OMAP sequence have important gaps (between 20% and 30% of the whole sequence is missing; Nabholz et al., 2014; Orjuela et al. 2014; Hutin et al. 2015; Ta et al. 2016). In order to extend the potentiality of allele and gene mining in O. glaberrima, we decided to sequence, assemble and annotate three accessions of O. glaberrima: TOG5681 and CG14 (both parents of two NERICA generations and representing each one extremity of the variability of the species), as well as G22 because of its centric position in this variability (Orjuela et al. 2014). We re-assembled CG14 cultivar in order to be able to compare the three accessions without introducing biases such as sequencing technologies or assembly tools. The three assemblies were found to be highly similar, but each of them harbors a dedicated set of unique scaffolds.
Three accessions of Oryza glaberrima (CG14, TOG5681 and G22) were used in this study. Information such as identifier and synonymous or original location are available in Orjuela et al. (2014). The plants were grown at IRD greenhouses at Montpellier (France) under normal conditions, and DNA extracted from fresh leaves using QIAGEN Genomic Tip/20 kit (Germany), as recommended by suppliers.
Different Illumina sequencing were performed for CG14, TOG5681, and G22. For CG14 and TOG5681, Montpellier GenomiX (Montpellier, France) performed the library construction (1 library for TOG5681 and 2 for CG14) using the Truseq DNA sample prep kit (Illumina) and the sequencing on a Hiseq2000 using Truseq v3 clustering and SBS kit (Illumina). A single lane was used for 100 bases paired-end reads. An additional 75 paired-end sequencing for TOG5681 was performed by Integragen (Evry, France) on a GaIIx sequencer and a Truseq DNA sample prep. kit. For G22, the sequencing was performed by CEA/Genoscope (Evry, France) on a HiSeq2500 sequencer using TruSeq DNA sample prep. kit, 100 bases paired-end reads (table 1).
The ABySS software (Simpson et al. 2009) was used for generating the three assemblies. After tests, a k-mer size of 48 and the number minimal of pairs needed to consider link between two reads of 8 were fixed.
Only sequences larger or equal to 200 bp were conserved for further analyses. N50 and N90 calculation were performed as the statistical value so that 50% and 90% of all contigs/scaffolds have a size higher or equal to this value, respectively.
The MAKER-P software (Campbell et al. 2014) was used for the structural annotation on the scaffolds of the three assemblies. ESTs and full-length cDNA from O. sativa (indica and japonica data) were used as support for annotation, as well as proteins of O. sativa from SwissProt and local databases. Repeated elements were masked using the Oryza model of RepeatMasker (Smit et al. 1996–2010) and using RepBase (Bao et al. 2015) Oryza data. For gene prediction, O. sativa SNAP hmm file was used. The other parameters of MAKER-P were conserved as default. Functional annotations were added upon the MAKER-P structural annotations, using BLAST2GO software. In that purpose, we performed a BLASTx analysis upon the Plant Protein database v137 from PlantGDB (http://www.plantgdb.org/) using standard values except for an e-value of e10−3. The InterProScan tool v5 (Jones et al. 2014) was used to obtain the motifs in all protein model using standard conditions.
Ten sampling of 400 Mb of raw reads were performed using RandomFQ from ea-utils suite (Aronesty 2013) and their 31 k-mer content estimated using Jellyfish (Marçais and Kingsford 2011). The mean value for each k-mer was then recovered and compared with its value in the assembly (also calculated using Jellyfish). A g-test with a single freedom of liberty was performed to estimate the significant differences at P < 0.05.
MUMmer (Kurtz et al. 2004) was used for whole genome comparisons as follows: first NUCmer alignment package calculated the delta file, then the show-coords utility parsed this delta alignment output. Thirdly, mummerplot utility converted the output from NUCmer to a format suitable for plotting with gnuplot. Only alignments which represent the best one-to-one mapping of reference and query subsequences were displayed. Finally show-snps utility reported polymorphism contained in delta output format from NUCmer, without SNP with ambiguous mapping.
To evaluate the presence of divergent regions among the three accessions, BLASTn analyses between the three assemblies against each other were performed. BLAST results were parsed to class the scaffolds into three different categories:
The three assemblies provide as expected a large number of scaffolds, ranging from 49,622 for G22 to 64,988 for CG14 (table 1). Their N50 and N90 value are high, allowing large-scale analyses or molecular targeting (PCR primer design, sequence capture, etc), ranging from 10 to 15 kb for N50 and 2 to 5.8 kb for N90. In order to validate the structure of the assembly, in terms of representativity of the initial data set, we performed a k-mer comparison with original datasets (see “Materials and Methods” for more details). The divergence is lower than 1% for CG14 and G22, and less than 1.2% for TOG5681 (table 1), showing that our assemblies reflect correctly the initial datasets. The variation for TOG5681 may be explained because of the use of a 75 bp sequence set. Each of the assembly covered ~300 Mb (table 1), a little less than the CG14 OMAP assembly (Wang et al. 2014). However, short reads data are known to provoke lower assembly size due to incomplete assembly of repeated regions (Paszkiewicz and Studholme 2010). Nevertheless, the assemblies were enough complete to identify specific events such as the duplication of the SWEET14 gene (Hutin et al. 2015) in African rices. At this position, our assemblies are split in four scaffolds, two per side (fig. 1A), indicating that a duplicated sequence in two different locations. In the same way, we obtained a better resolution on the RYMV1 locus (Albar et al. 2003) than on the OMAP reference (fig. 1B).
The MAKER-P structural annotation provided between 49,000 and 51,262 gene locations per assembly (table 2), with more than 160,000 models (mean 3.2 mRNA possibilities per gene location) per assembly, which is quite similar to what was found for Oryza sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare. The Blast2GO functional annotation was able to annotate almost half of those models. The majority of these assemblies is genome-related (93%), the organite-related part being between 2,071 models related to mitochondria and 4,814 to the chloroplast (CG14 values, similar for the two other assemblies; table 2). At the opposite of Wang et al. (2014), we were able to identify the Hd1 gene (also shown previously to be normally absent from O. glaberrima, Sanyal et al. 2010), in all three assemblies.
We decided to compare our assemblies in terms of what is non-collinear or either absent. MUMmer analyses shown that the three assemblies seemed coherent when compared at a genome wide scale (supplementary fig. S1, Supplementary Material online). MUMmer analyses shown that global collinearity is almost conserved between our three independent assemblies. Moreover, the mean SNP density for O. glaberrima is of 2.4 SNP per kb (similar as the ~2.3/kb for Wang et al. 2014), which is quite lower than in its Asian cousin O. sativa (around 7/kb, Zhang et al. 2016). However, MUMmer analyses are only at macro-scale, and we decided to be more precise and to use BLASTn to identify non-collinear and absent regions when compared one to another.
Each assembly was compared with other ones using BLASTn (see “Materials and Methods” for detailed procedures). Basic statistics about the CG14 vs. TOG5681 comparison are provided in table 3.
As expected for a poorly diverse species, most of the scaffolds are almost collinear (55–65%), and 45–35% are not. Collinearity breaks may be due to transposable elements activities or large genomic modification (duplication, deletion, inversion). The GO type of genes between the similar and not similar scaffolds here are not significantly different (data not shown).
Interestingly, around 100 scaffolds per assembly (<0.2%) are stand-alone in this analysis, i.e., they are not referenced (not detected) in the other one. Very few genes are located on those small sequences (from 202 to 3041 bases long; table 3), but with very few information about their potential function or involvement in metabolic pathway (only 2 GO are identified). More analyses (transcriptomic, phylogenetic) are requested to identify a potential role for those genes.
In this study, we propose three new assemblies for the African cultivated rice species, O. glaberrima. When compared with current available reference genome CG14 OMAP v1.1 (Wang et al. 2014), our sequences are smaller and more fragmented. However, as we use a completely de novo approach, it resulted in a closer assembly to reality, as we did not bias our assembly toward Nipponbare genome, but with smaller genomic size and more scaffolds (as expected). Indeed, we obtained better sequences on some loci such as RYMV1 (Albar et al. 2003), and we can identify the duplication leading to SWEET14-controlled Xanthomonas resistance (Hutin et al. 2015). However, we cannot found all genes and sequences found in the OMAP assembly. Interestingly, we found the Hd1 gene, supposed to be absent in the African rice in a sativa-anchored BAC-based analysis (Sanyal et al. 2010). However, complementary analyses have to be conducted to determine if this gene is truly active in the species. These assemblies are thus imperfect but can provide good complement for genomic analyses in the cultivated African rice.
Those three assemblies are quite similar at the whole genome-scale (supplementary fig. S1, Supplementary Material online) and present a very low SNP density, as expected. We then aimed to find large divergence within those sequences, and decided to check the (micro-)collinearity status of our assemblies, and found that around 25% of the genome present enough variation to lead to collinearity breakdown. As shown on Asian rice (Sakai et al. 2014; Schatz et al. 2014; Zhang et al. 2016), we identified thus large scale variations and thus a larger pan-genomic space than what could have been expected based only on SNP data (Nabholz et al. 2014; Orjuela et al. 2014). Interestingly, we found around 0.6% of our scaffolds to be absent in one assembly regarding another one. Very few genes exist on those scaffolds, and no specific GO enrichment or gene structure was found for them. They may be either old sequences surviving only in one of the three samples analyzed here, or at the opposite new sequences arising in the African rice genome. More individuals from this species have to be studied to conclude on such sequences.
The three individuals were chosen because of their location in the O. glaberrima diversity tree (Orjuela et al. 2014), i.e., on each side for CG14 and TOG5681, and in the middle for G22. Their divergence, even small, can drive to reproductive isolation, and thus to sympatric speciation (Dieckmann and Doebeli 1999). A better knowledge of the physical differences between subgroup will help us to better understand such a mechanism.
In addition, these differences highlight the need to better known the pan-genomic structure of the cultivated plant, in order to optimize breeding. In this regard, the example of the Sub1A locus (Xu et al. 2006) is highly relevant: this gene allows a higher tolerance for submergence but is present only in some subgroups of the O. sativa ssp indica. The current sequencing cost and facilities allow any research group to sequence massively various samples. Thus, when we will have access to the whole pan-genome of O. glaberrima through massive resequencing, we would be able to empowered new NERICA type crosses to transfer more efficiently the O. glaberrima characters of interest to O. sativa.
Authors want to thank Sophie Cheron-Perez, Harold Chrestin and Julie Orjuela-Bouniol for their help in plant management and DNA extraction. C Monat was supported by grants from French ANR (AfriCrop project #ANR-13-BSV7-0017) and NUMEV Labex (LandPanToggle #2015-1-030-LARMANDE) grants. The whole project was funded through a AfricaRice/IRD LoA (GLASS project).