Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of bmcmeduBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Medical Education
BMC Med Educ. 2004; 4: 13.
Published online Aug 10, 2004. doi:  10.1186/1472-6920-4-13
PMCID: PMC514564
Explaining computation of predictive values: 2 × 2 table versus frequency tree. A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN74278823]
Anke Steckelberg,corresponding author1 Andrea Balgenorth,1 Jürgen Berger,2 and Ingrid Mühlhauser1
1Unit of Health Sciences and Education, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
2Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science in Medicine, University Hospital Hamburg, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Anke Steckelberg: ASteckelberg/at/; Andrea Balgenorth: Andrea_Balgenorth/at/; Jürgen Berger: Berger/at/; Ingrid Mühlhauser: Ingrid_Muehlhauser/at/
Received February 28, 2004; Accepted August 10, 2004.
Involving patients in decision making on diagnostic procedures requires a basic level of statistical thinking. However, innumeracy is prevalent even among physicians. In medical teaching the 2 × 2 table is widely used as a visual help for computations whereas in psychology the frequency tree is favoured. We assumed that the 2 × 2 table is more suitable to support computations of predictive values.
184 students without prior statistical training were randomised either to a step-by-step self-learning tutorial using the 2 × 2 table (n = 94) or the frequency tree (n = 90). During the training session students were instructed by two sample tasks and a total of five positive predictive values had to be computed. During a follow-up session 4 weeks later participants had to compute 5 different tasks of comparable degree of difficulty without having the tutorial instructions at their disposal. The primary outcome was the correct solution of the tasks.
There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. About 58% achieved correct solutions in 4–5 tasks following the training session and 26% in the follow-up examination.
These findings do not support the hypothesis that the 2 × 2 table is more valuable to facilitate the calculation of positive predictive values than the frequency tree.
Articles from BMC Medical Education are provided here courtesy of
BioMed Central