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McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is characterized by café-au-lait spot, multiple endocrine hyperfunction, and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. A somatic point mutation of Gsalpha protein was reported to decrease GTPase activity, leading to increase in the GSalpha-associated hormone actions via cAMP. IL-6 is known to stimulate osteoclast formation and in the IL-6 promoter, a cAMP responsive element has been identified. In this paper, we investigated the role of IL-6 in the bone lesions of MAS, using the isolated fibrous cells from the polyostotic fibrous dysplasia tissues in bones of the two patients with MAS. Bone biopsy specimen revealed the increased osteoclast in number. In both patients, a GSalpha mutation (Arg201 -> His) was identified in the cultured fibrous cells. Intracellular cAMP content and IL-6 secretion by the patient cells were increased. Rp-8Br-cAMP significantly inhibited IL-6 production in the patient cells, while it had no effect on normal control. The addition of dibutyryl cAMP significantly increased the synthesis of IL-6 in normal control cells. In contrast, no effect of dibutyryl cAMP on IL-6 synthesis was observed in the cells from one of the MAS patients. These data suggest that IL-6 is, at least, one of the downstream effectors of cAMP and that the increased IL-6 synthesis has a pathogenic role in the bone lesions of MAS patients via increasing the number of osteoclasts. These results may provide a new strategy for the therapy of MAS patients.