Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jclinpathJournal of Clinical PathologyVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
J Clin Pathol. 1996 October; 49(10): 810–817.
PMCID: PMC500774

Human papillomavirus DNA in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.


AIM: To compare the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung in Okinawa with that in Niigata on the mainland. METHODS: All patients presenting with SCC of the lung in Okinawa and Niigata in 1993 were included in the study. Diagnoses were confirmed by conventional histological examination of paraffin wax sections. Human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with primers specific for the E6 and E7 regions of the HPV genome. PCR products were analysed by Southern and dot blotting. RESULTS: The incidence of well differentiated SCC of the lung was high in patients from Okinawa compared with moderately and poorly differentiated types, and compared with the incidence of SCC in patients from Niigata. This is despite similar patterns of age, sex (predominatly male), and smoking habit. More patients from Okinawa, however, were positive for HPV DNA by PCR (79%) and NISH (53%). Many patients haboured HPV types 6, 16, and 18. Only 30% of patients from Niigata were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and 20% by NISH. These patients all harboured one HPV type only. CONCLUSION: Surprisingly large numbers of patients from Okinawa were positive for HPV DNA. The detection of HPV DNA was strongly associated with well differentiated SCC. This was particularly true for HPV types 6 and 16. There was no correlation between either smoking and detection of HPV DNA, or smoking and histological differentiation.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Auerbach O, Garfinkel L, Parks VR. Histologic type of lung cancer in relation to smoking habits, year of diagnosis and sites of metastases. Chest. 1975 Apr;67(4):382–387. [PubMed]
  • Béjui-Thivolet F, Liagre N, Chignol MC, Chardonnet Y, Patricot LM. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in squamous bronchial metaplasia and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung by in situ hybridization using biotinylated probes in paraffin-embedded specimens. Hum Pathol. 1990 Jan;21(1):111–116. [PubMed]
  • Yousem SA, Ohori NP, Sonmez-Alpan E. Occurrence of human papillomavirus DNA in primary lung neoplasms. Cancer. 1992 Feb 1;69(3):693–697. [PubMed]
  • Watts SL, Brewer EE, Fry TL. Human papillomavirus DNA types in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1991 Jun;71(6):701–707. [PubMed]
  • Chang KW, Chang CS, Lai KS, Chou MJ, Choo KB. High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and possible association with betel quid chewing and smoking in oral epidermoid carcinomas in Taiwan. J Med Virol. 1989 May;28(1):57–61. [PubMed]
  • Cooper K, Herrington CS, Stickland JE, Evans MF, McGee JO. Episomal and integrated human papillomavirus in cervical neoplasia shown by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation. J Clin Pathol. 1991 Dec;44(12):990–996. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Impraim CC, Saiki RK, Erlich HA, Teplitz RL. Analysis of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues by enzymatic amplification and hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotides. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987 Feb 13;142(3):710–716. [PubMed]
  • Saiki RK, Scharf S, Faloona F, Mullis KB, Horn GT, Erlich HA, Arnheim N. Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Science. 1985 Dec 20;230(4732):1350–1354. [PubMed]
  • McNicol P, Paraskevas M, Guijon F. Variability of polymerase chain reaction-based detection of human papillomavirus DNA is associated with the composition of vaginal microbial flora. J Med Virol. 1994 Jun;43(2):194–200. [PubMed]
  • Engelke DR, Hoener PA, Collins FS. Direct sequencing of enzymatically amplified human genomic DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jan;85(2):544–548. [PubMed]
  • Mierendorf RC, Pfeffer D. Direct sequencing of denatured plasmid DNA. Methods Enzymol. 1987;152:556–562. [PubMed]
  • Cole ST, Danos O. Nucleotide sequence and comparative analysis of the human papillomavirus type 18 genome. Phylogeny of papillomaviruses and repeated structure of the E6 and E7 gene products. J Mol Biol. 1987 Feb 20;193(4):599–608. [PubMed]
  • Shamanin V, Delius H, de Villiers EM. Development of a broad spectrum PCR assay for papillomaviruses and its application in screening lung cancer biopsies. J Gen Virol. 1994 May;75(Pt 5):1149–1156. [PubMed]
  • Barnes W, Delgado G, Kurman RJ, Petrilli ES, Smith DM, Ahmed S, Lorincz AT, Temple GF, Jenson AB, Lancaster WD. Possible prognostic significance of human papillomavirus type in cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 1988 Mar;29(3):267–273. [PubMed]
  • Bergeron C, Barrasso R, Beaudenon S, Flamant P, Croissant O, Orth G. Human papillomaviruses associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Great diversity and distinct distribution in low- and high-grade lesions. Am J Surg Pathol. 1992 Jul;16(7):641–649. [PubMed]
  • McLachlin CM, Tate JE, Zitz JC, Sheets EE, Crum CP. Human papillomavirus type 18 and intraepithelial lesions of the cervix. Am J Pathol. 1994 Jan;144(1):141–147. [PubMed]
  • Wilczynski SP, Bergen S, Walker J, Liao SY, Pearlman LF. Human papillomaviruses and cervical cancer: analysis of histopathologic features associated with different viral types. Hum Pathol. 1988 Jun;19(6):697–704. [PubMed]
  • Willett GD, Kurman RJ, Reid R, Greenberg M, Jenson AB, Lorincz AT. Correlation of the histologic appearance of intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervix with human papillomavirus types. Emphasis on low grade lesions including so-called flat condyloma. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1989;8(1):18–25. [PubMed]
  • Schneider A. Natural history of genital papillomavirus infections. Intervirology. 1994;37(3-4):201–214. [PubMed]
  • Uchima E, Kajiwara M, Mukai T, Ohno Y, Nagamori H, Matsumoto H, Miyazaki T, Suzuki K, Ito S. Distribution of Gm allotypes among the three populations of the Miyako Islands in Okinawa. Nihon Hoigaku Zasshi. 1989 Aug;43(4):310–314. [PubMed]
  • Altmann A, Jochmus I, Rösl F. Intra- and extracellular control mechanisms of human papillomavirus infection. Intervirology. 1994;37(3-4):180–188. [PubMed]
  • Glew SS, Stern PL, Davidson JA, Dyer PA. HLA antigens and cervical carcinoma. Nature. 1992 Mar 5;356(6364):22–22. [PubMed]
  • Helland A, Børresen AL, Kaern J, Rønningen KS, Thorsby E. HLA antigens and cervical carcinoma. Nature. 1992 Mar 5;356(6364):23–23. [PubMed]
  • Wank R, Thomssen C. High risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix for women with HLA-DQw3. Nature. 1991 Aug 22;352(6337):723–725. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Clinical Pathology are provided here courtesy of BMJ Publishing Group