Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jnnpsycJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and PsychiatryVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1974 April; 37(4): 422–426.
PMCID: PMC494673

Comparative trial of benzhexol, amantadine, and levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease


Fourteen slightly disabled patients with Parkinsonism were treated separately with benzhexol, amantadine, and levodopa. Benzhexol and amantadine both gave a 15% reduction in functional disability and levodopa a 36% reduction. Benzhexol lessened the rigidity and improved the flexion of posture of Parkinson's disease, but had little or no effect on akinesia and tremor. Amantadine and levodopa caused improvement in all these symptoms. The combination of benzhexol and amantadine was as effective after four weeks of treatment as levodopa was after six months.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (658K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Appleton DB, Eadie MJ, Sutherland JM. The continued use of amantadine hydrochloride in parkinsonism. Med J Aust. 1971 Oct 2;2(14):707–709. [PubMed]
  • Calne DB, Reid JL, Vakil SD, Rao S, Petrie A, Pallis CA, Gawler J, Thomas PK, Hilson A. Idiopathic Parkinsonism treated with an extracerebral decarboxylase inhibitor in combination with levodopa. Br Med J. 1971 Sep 25;3(5777):729–732. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Castaigne P, Laplane D, Dordain G. L'amantadine. Expérimentation clinique prolongée chez 50 parkinsoniens. Nouv Presse Med. 1972 Feb 19;1(8):533–536. [PubMed]
  • Cotzias GC, Papavasiliou PS, Gellene R. Modification of Parkinsonism--chronic treatment with L-dopa. N Engl J Med. 1969 Feb 13;280(7):337–345. [PubMed]
  • DUVOISIN RC. A REVIEW OF DRUG THERAPY IN PARKINSONISM. Bull N Y Acad Med. 1965 Aug;41:898–910. [PubMed]
  • Duvoisin RC. Cholinergic-anticholinergic antagonism in parkinsonism. Arch Neurol. 1967 Aug;17(2):124–136. [PubMed]
  • Farnebo LO, Fuxe K, Goldstein M, Hamberger B, Ungerstedt U. Dopamine and noradrenaline releasing action of amantadine in the central and peripheral nervous system: a possible mode of action in Parkinson's disease. Eur J Pharmacol. 1971 Sep;16(1):27–38. [PubMed]
  • Hughes RC, Polgar JG, Weightman D, Walton JN. Levodopa in Parkinsonism: the effects of withdrawal of anticholinergic drugs. Br Med J. 1971 May 29;2(5760):487–491. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Marsden CD, Barry PE, Parkes JD, Zilkha KJ. Treatment of Parkinson's disease with levodopa combined with L-alpha-methyldopahydrazine, an inhibitor of extracerebral DOPA decarboxylase. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1973 Feb;36(1):10–14. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Parkes JD, Zilkha KJ, Knill-Jones RP, Clements PJ, Baxter R. L-dopa and amantadine hydrochloride in Parkinson's disease. Int Z Klin Pharmakol Ther Toxikol. 1971 Apr;4(3):356–360. [PubMed]
  • Pearce J, Rao NS. Amantadine in Parkinsonism. Lancet. 1970 Nov 21;2(7682):1091–1092. [PubMed]
  • Scatton B, Cheramy A, Besson MJ, Glowinski J. Increased synthesis and release of dopamine in the striatum of the rat after amantadine treatment. Eur J Pharmacol. 1970;13(1):131–133. [PubMed]
  • Schwab RS, England AC., Jr Amantadine HCL (Symmetrel) and its relation to Levo-Dopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Trans Am Neurol Assoc. 1969;94:85–90. [PubMed]
  • Stromberg U, Svensson TH, Waldeck B. On the mode of action of amantadine. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1970 Dec;22(12):959–962. [PubMed]
  • Yahr MD, Duvoisin RC. Drug therapy of parkinsonism. N Engl J Med. 1972 Jul 6;287(1):20–24. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group