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In 202 women with koilocytotic atypia in cervical smears, 136 had predominantly small condylomata of the uterine cervix, and 66 had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) of varying degree either with koilocytosis of the neoplasia or associated with condylomata. Koilocytosis correlated well with the histological diagnosis of condylomata, but occasionally it obscured the cytological evidence of CIN. Human papilloma virus particles were found in the cells of condylomata in 10 cases and in those of CIN II with koilocytosis in two cases of 21 examined ultrastructurally. There was evidence that the condyloma of the uterine cervix is a well-defined morphological entity and also that cytopathie changes similar to those seen in condylomata are present in some cases of CIN.