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Zookeys. 2016; (598): 27–55.
Published online 2016 June 14. doi:  10.3897/zookeys.598.9060
PMCID: PMC4926671

The genus Paraplonobia Wainstein and Neopetrobia Wainstein (Acari, Trombidiformes, Tetranychidae) from Saudi Arabia: new species, new records and key to the world species of Paraplonobia

Abstract

The two tetranychid genera Paraplonobia Wainstein and Neopetrobia Wainstein (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) are reported for the first time from Saudi Arabia. Three new species Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) arabica Mirza & Alatawi, sp. n., Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) haloxylonia Alatawi & Mirza, sp. n. and Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) tabukensis Kamran & Alatawi, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on adult females, collected from Prosopis juliflora (SW.) Dc. (Fabaceae) and Haloxylon salicornicum Bunge (Amaranthaceae) from two different regions of Saudi Arabia. Neopetrobia mcgregori (Pritchard and Baker) is redescribed and illustrated based on female collected from Cynodon dactylon L. (Poaceae).The diagnostic morphological features including leg chaetotaxy of all known species of the subgenus Anaplonobia is tabulated. A key to the world species of the genus Paraplonobia is also provided.

Keywords: Hystrichonychini, arabica, haloxylonia, tabukensis, Prosopis

Introduction

The genus Paraplonobia Wainstein belongs to the tribe Hystrichonychini Pritchard and Baker of the subfamily Bryobiinae (Acari: Prostigmata: Tetranychidae). Wainstein (1960) considered Anaplonobia and Paraplonobia as subgenera of Aplonobia Womersley. Later, Tuttle and Baker (1968) proposed Anaplonobia and Paraplonobia as two valid genera. After that, Gutierrez (1985) categorized the genus Paraplonobia into three subgenera: Anaplonobia Wainstein, Brachynychus Mitrofanov & Strunkova and Paraplonobia Wainstein on the basis of coxal setal count and the aspect of peritremes and considered the genus Anaplonobia as subgenus of Paraplonobia (Gutierrez 1985).

The genus Paraplonobia includes 32 species to date, which are widely distributed throughout the world. The subgenera Anaplonobia, Paraplonobia, and Brachynychus include 22, nine and one species, respectively (Baker and Tuttle 1972, Meyer 1987, Bolland et al. 1998, Migeon and Flechtmann 2004).

The subgenera Anaplonobia and Paraplonobia have a coxal setal formula of 2–2–1–1 while the subgenus Brachynychus has a coxal setal formula of 4–3–2–2. The subgenus Anaplonobia differs from Paraplonobia by having anastomosed peritremes while the later has simple peritremes (Gutierrez 1985, Bolland et al. 1998).

The genus Neopetrobia also belongs to the tribe Hystrichonychini and morphologically closely resembles the genus Paraplonobia except for the fourth pair of dorsocentral setae f1 which are widely spaced as compared to setae c1, while f1 setae are normally spaced as c1 in Paraplonobia (Meyer 1987, Bolland et al. 1998). The genus Neopetrobia has been categorized into three subgenera; Neopetrobia, Reckia Wainstein and Langella Wainstein (Gutierrez 1985, Bolland et al. 1998). The subgenus Neopetrobia is different from other two subgenera by having integument without tuberculate or reticulate pattern and rounded or spindle shaped dorsal setae and includes ten species to date (Bolland et al. 1998).

A few tetranychid species have been reported from Saudi Arabia (SA): Bryobia praetiosa Koch, Eotetranychus fallugiae Tuttle & Baker, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein), Eutetranychus palmatus Attiah, Oligonychus afrasciaticus (McGregor), Oligonychus pratensis (Banks), Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval), Tetranychus turkrestzni (Ugarov & Nikolskii), and Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Martin 1972, Alatawi 2011). The genus Paraplonobia is poorly known from Arabian peninsula. Previously, two species Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) harteni Meyer and Paraplonobia (Paraplonobia) dactyloni Smiley & Baker were reported from Yemen (Meyer 1996; Smiley and Baker 1995).

Two genera, Paraplonobia and Neopetrobia, are reported upon for the first time from Saudi Arabia with three new species: Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) arabica sp. n., Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) haloxylonia sp. n. and Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) tabukensis sp. n. which are described and illustrated based on adult females. The male of Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) haloxylonia sp. n. is also described and illustrated. Neopetrobia mcgregori (Pritchard & Baker) is redescribed and illustrated based on female.

Diagnostic features of all known species of the subgenus Anaplonobia are provided including body morphological features, leg I length in comparison to body length, and leg chaetotaxy (Tables (Tables11 and and2)2) as well as a key to the world species of the genus Paraplonobia.

Table 1.
Some morphological diagnostic features of the world species of the subgenus Anaplonobia, genus Paraplonobia.
Table 2.
Length of leg I and leg chaetotaxy of world species of subgenus Anaplonobia genus Paraplonobia.

Materials and methods

The mite specimens were collected by shaking the plant parts, especially leaves, onto a white sheet of paper. Mites found moving on paper were collected with the help of a camel hairbrush and preserved in small vials containing 70% ethanol. Preserved mite specimens were observed under a stereomicroscope (SZX10, Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) and mounted on glass slides in Hoyer’s medium. The mounted specimens were examined under phase contrast microscope (DM2500, Leica, Wetzlar, Germany). Different body parts were pictured using an auto montage software system (Syncroscopy, Cambridge, UK), then drawn with Adobe Illustrator (Adobe System Inc., San Jose, CA, USA). All measurements are in micrometers. The terminology used in this paper follows that of Lindquist (1985). All type specimens were deposited at Acarology Laboratory, Department of Plant Protection, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University except one each of female and male paratypes of Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) haloxylonia sp. n., female paratype each of Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) arabica sp. n., and Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) tabukensis sp. n., with Accession numbers, OSAL 0115769, OSAL 00115768, OSAL 0110333 and OSAL 0110332 respectively, that were deposited at Ohio State University Acarology Laboratory (OSAL), USA.

Results and discussion

Family Tetranychidae Donnadieu
Subfamily Bryobiinae Berlese

Genus. Paraplonobia

Keywords: Animalia, Prostigmata, Tetranychidae

Wainstein, 1960

Type species.

Aplonobia (Paraplonobia) echinopsili Wainstein, 1960 by original designation.

Diagnosis.

Based on Baker and Tuttle 1968, Gutierrez 1955, Meyer 1974, Meyer 1987, Bolland et al. 1998.

Body oval; prodorsum without lobes and with three pairs of setae; dorsal opisthosomal setae ten pairs. Dorsal setae not set on prominent tubercles; setae f1 normal in position, coxal setal formula variable, most species with 2–2–1–1 except one species of the subgenus Brachynychus having 4–3–2–2 setae on coxae I–IV respectively; anal setae three pairs; peritremes simple/anastomosing; tarsus I with two sets of duplex setae, present close to distal end of tarsus; claws and empodium pad-like each with tenant hairs (Fig. (Fig.5A5A).

Figures 3 8.
Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) arabica sp. n. adult female. 3 stylophore and peritremes 4 palp 5 leg I 5A duplex setae, empodium and claws of tarsus I 6 legII 7 legIII 8 leg IV.

Subgenus. Anaplonobia

Keywords: Animalia, Prostigmata, Tetranychidae

Wainstein

Diagnosis.

Based on Gutierrez 1985, Bolland et al. 1998.

Peritremes anastomosed, coxal setal formula 2–2–1–1.

The subgenus Anaplonobia includes 22 species (Migeon and Flechtmann 2004). The species of the subgenus Anaplonobia can be grouped into two categories: 1) Eight species with dorsal body setae slightly shorter/as long as or longer than distances to the bases of consecutive setae (Tables (Tables11 and and2),2), second group with dorsal body setae distinctly shorter than distances between their bases, contains 17 species including three new species (Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) arabica sp. n., Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) haloxylonia sp. n., and Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) tabukensis sp. n.) reported in this study (Table (Table1,1, ,22).

Shape of setae (spatulate, subspatulate, lanceolate or setiform), comparative length of setae with respect to the distance of setae next behind, shape of peritremes (compact anastomose, branched or weakly anastomosed), propodosomal shield (pebbled, lobbed, with longitudinal/transverse striations), hysterosoma (medially with closely/widely spaced striations), comparative length of leg I with respect to body length (shorter/longer) and leg chaetotaxy are the major diagnostic characters vary among/within the species of subgenus Anaplonobia (Table (Table1,1, ,22).

Most species of the subgenus Anaplonobia have been reported from USA, Mexico, South Africa and Pakistan and collected mostly from three host plants families Asteraceaea, Fabaceae and Poaceae (Bolland et al. 1998) (Table (Table11).

The specimens of new species Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) arabica sp. n., collected from Prosopis juliflora from three different regions (Riyadh, Tabuk, and Jazan) of Saudi Arabia, are morphologically similar except for some variations in setal counts on Tibia II and Tarsus I–II–III. (Table (Table2).2). The variations in the setal count of leg I–II–IV (Tibia and Tarsus) in Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) prosopis had been found also in the description made by Tuttle and Baker (1964) from USA and Toroitich and Ueckermann (2009) from Kenya (Table (Table2).2). However, in some other species of the subgenus Anaplonobia, setal variations on genua, tibiae and tarsi have been found among the different specimens collected from the same host and location within the same species. i.e. genua I (8–9) in Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) candicans, tibia I (12–13) and tarsus II (12–13) of Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) glebulanta, and tarsus III (12–13) of Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) theroni (Table (Table22).

Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) arabica sp. n.

Keywords: Animalia, Prostigmata, Tetranychidae

http://zoobank.org/200D2E10-9324-4C31-8B04-F08C8F33EBD1

Figs 1–2 , 3–8

Figures 1, 2.
Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) arabica sp. n. adult female. 1 dorsum 2 venter.

Diagnosis.

Dorsal body setae subspatulate, serrate, expanded distally and distinctly shorter to the distances of setae next in line, first pair of dorsocentral setae c1 reaching 2/3 to the distance of setae d1, setae c1 almost 1.5 times widely spaced than setae f1, setae e2, f1, f2 and h1 set on small tubercles, dorsal hysterosomal striations widely spaced, propodosoma medially with longitudinal broken striations, stylophore with a small mediocephalic emargination, peritremes branched tube like compact anastomosing, leg I shorter than body length.

Description of holotype female

(n = 9). Measurement of holotype followed by 8 paratypes (in parenthesis) (Figs (Figs118).

Dorsum (Fig. (Fig.1).1). Body oval; length of idiosoma 439 (430–443), maximum width 282 (280–287), length of body (gnathosoma + idiosoma) 476 (472–480). Propodosoma medially with longitudinal broken striations, without anterior projections. Dorsal body setae subspatulate, serrate, expanded distally and distinctly shorter to the distances of setae next in line, first pair of dorsocentral setae c1 reaching 2/3 to the distance of setae d1, setae c1 almost 1.5 times widely spaced than setae f1, setae e2, f1, f2 and h1 set on small tubercles. Dorsal striations transverse on hysterosoma, without lobes and widely spaced. Length of dorsal setae: v2 45 (42–46), sc1 40 (38–41), sc2 41 (40–43), c1 45 (44–48), c2 42 (40–44), c3 40 (39–44), d1 34 (32–38), d2 44 (43–46), e1 45 (44–48), e2 44 (43–45), f1 45 (44–45), f2 44 (42–45), h1 46 (45–48). Distance between dorsal setae: v2–v2 53 (51–55), v2–sc1 97 (95–98), sc1–sc2 56 (54–57), sc1–sc1 166 (162–167), sc2–sc2 263 (260–266), c1–c1 94 (92–96), c1–c2 82 (80–85), c2–c3 41 (39–44), c2–c2 261 (260–264), c3–c3 345 (340–346), d1–d1 82 (80–84), d1–d2 81 (80–82), d2–d2 226 (224–228), c1–d1 75 (74–78), c3–d2 97 (95–99), e1–e1 63 (61–65), e1–e2 78 (74–79), e2–d2 85 (83–86), e2–e2 79 (75–79), f1–f1 63 (60–65), f2–f2 107 (105–108), f1–f2 53 (50–54), f1–d1 69 (66–70), h1–h1 57 (55–59).

Venter (Fig. (Fig.2).2). Idiosoma ventrally with transverse striations from setae 1a to 3a; most of the area between 3a to 4a is transverse with few V-shaped striations laterally; transverse posterior to setae 4a; striations transverse regular anterior to aggenital setae (ag). The intercoxal setae 1a slightly longer than the distance 1a–1a. The intercoxal setae 3a just equal to distance 3a–3a. The intercoxal setae 4a 4/5 to the distance 4a–4a. Length of intercoxal and coxal setae: 1a 39 (35–40), 3a 52 (51–55), 4a 50 (48–52), 1b 54 (52–56), 1c 18 (16–20), 2b 37 (35–38), 2c 21 (20–24), 3b 23 (21–25), 4b 38 (36–39); aggenital setae ag 48 (44–48), ag–ag 27 (25–28); genital setae two pairs, g1 32 (30–24), g2 40 (38–42), g1–g1 40 (39–44), g2–g2 56 (52–57), g1–g2 12 (10–14); anal setae three pairs, ps1 21 (18–24), ps2 37 (35–39), ps3 58 (54–60), ps1–ps1 33 (30–34), ps2–ps2 26 (24–27), ps3–ps3 19 (18–22); para-anal setae two pairs, h2 33 (31–34), h2– h2 17 (16–18), h3 38(35–40), h3–h3 46 (45–48).

Gnathosoma (Figs 3–4). Stylophore elongate, slender and slightly notched anteriorly. Peritremes branched tube like compact anastomosing (Fig. (Fig.3).3). Scapular setae m 36 (34–37), m–m 32 (31–35). Palp femur and genu each with one seta, palp tibia with three setae, tibial claw strongly curved; palp tarsus with three setae, three eupathidia, one solenidion (Fig. (Fig.44).

Legs (Figs 5–8). Length of legs I–IV (without coxae) 336, 251, 276, 298 respectively. Leg I shorter than body length. Number of setae and solenidia (in parenthesis) on legs I–IV: coxae 2–2–1–1, trochanters 1–1–1–1, femora 5–5–3–3, genua 4–4–3–3, tibiae 9(1)–(8–9)–9–9; tarsi I with 12–14 tactile setae, two sets of duplex setae at distal end, two eupathidia and one/two solenidion; tarsi II with 8–9 tactile setae, one set of duplex setae, two eupathidia and one solenidion; tarsi III with 8–9 tactile setae and one solenidion; tarsi IV with 9 tactile setae and one solenidion. True claws pad like each with one pair of tenant hair; empodium pad–like with two rows of small tenant hairs.

Male. Not in collection.

Etymology.

The specific epithet is derived from the region “Arabia” from where type specimens were collected.

Type material.

Holotype and one paratype female, Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae), Deesa Valley, Dessa, Tabuk, SA, 27°36.048'N, 036°25.592'E, October, 18, 2015, coll. J.H. Mirza.; seven paratype females, Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae), Sharma, Near Red Sea, Tabuk, SA, 28°03.479'N, 035°17.186'E, October, 19, 2015, coll. M. Kamran.

Remarks.

The Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) arabica sp. n. relates to Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) prosopis (Tuttle & Baker, 1964), Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) algarrobicola (Gonzalez, 1977) and Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) boutelouae Tuttle & Baker, 1968 because of sharing following similar characters: dorsal body setae spatulate and distinctly shorter to the distances of setae next behind and widely spaced dorsal hysterosomal striations. Also, the new species closely resembles Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) prosopis by setae c1 at least reaching half distance to the bases of setae d1. However, the new species differs from all related species by having stylophore anteriorly with slight incision (notch). The new species is also distinguished from Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) prosopis by setae c1 reaching to the distance of setae d1 (2/3 vs.1/2), setae c1–c1 almost 1.5 times widely spaced than setae f1–f1 vs. almost sub/equally spaced in Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) prosopis. The new species can be separated from other related species Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) algarrobicola and Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) boutelouae by the setae c1 reaching 2/3 to the distance of d1 vs. less than half as long as distances to the bases setae next behind in later species

Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) haloxylonia sp. n.

Keywords: Animalia, Prostigmata, Tetranychidae

http://zoobank.org/09E8353-E635-4C38-B277-8D6DDC56C31A

Figs 9–10 , 11–15 , 16–19 , 20, 21 , 22–24 , 25–28

Figures 9, 10.
Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) haloxylonia sp. n. adult female. 9 dorsum 10 venter.
Figures 11 15.
Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) haloxylonia sp. n. adult female. 11, 12 spermatheca 13, 14 stylophore and peritremes 15 palp.
Figures 16 19.
Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) haloxylonia sp. n. 16 legI 16A duplex setae, empodium and claws of tarsus I 17 leg II 18 leg III 19 leg IV.
Figures 20, 21.
Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) haloxylonia sp. n. adult male. 20 dorsum 21 venter.
Figures 22 24.
Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) haloxylonia sp. n. adult male. 22–23 aedeagus 24 palp.
Figures 25 28.
Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) haloxylonia sp. n. adult male. 25 leg I 25A duplex setae, empodium and claws of tarsus I 26 leg II 27 leg III 28 leg IV.

Diagnosis.

Dorsal setae lanceolate, densely serrate, not set on tubercles and distinctly shorter to the distances of setae next behind, dorsocentral setae (c1, d1 and e1) almost 1/3 to the distance of setae next behind, propodosoma medially with weak, longitudinal irregular striations, hysterosoma with transverse and closely spacedstriations medially, stylophore slightly notched anteriorly, peritremes anastomosed distally, with few long thread like branches, and hysterosomal striations closely spaced, leg I shorter than body.

Description of holotype female

(n = 39). Measurements of holotype followed by 38 paratypes (in parenthesis) (Figs (Figs9919).

Dorsum (Fig. (Fig.9).9). Body oval; length of idiosoma 583 (578–585), maximum width 372 (369–378), length of body (gnathosoma + idiosoma) 658 (655–663). Propodosoma medially with weak, longitudinal irregular striations; laterally longitudinal regular striations; hysterosomal striations medially transverse and closely spaced, laterally longitudinal irregular. Dorsal setae lanceolate, densely serrate, not present on tubercles and distinctly shorter to the distances of setae next behind, dorsocentral setae (c1, d1 and e1) almost 1/3 to the distance of setae next behind, Length of dorsal setae: v2 28 (26–29), sc1 24 (23–25), sc2 22 (21–24), c1 19 (18–21), c2 22 (21–23), c3 25 (24–28), d1 15 (12–16), d2 18 (17–19), e1 16 (15–17), e2 20 (19–20), f1 25 (24–28), f2 31 (29–32), h1 34 (32–35). Distance between dorsal setae: v2–v2 72 (70–73), v2–sc1 75 (72–78), sc1–sc2 66 (63–67), sc1–sc1 167 (163–172), sc2–sc2 254 (250–259), c1–c1 90 (88–92), c1–c2 75 (71–78), c2–c3 81 (78–85), c2–c2 231 (229–234), c3–c3 373 (372–375), d1–d1 91 (89–92), d1–d2 65 (62–69), d2–d2 204 (201–206), c1–d1 103 (100–104), c3–d2 160 (158–161), e1–e1 55 (53–57), e1–e2 53 (50–54), e2–d2 85 (82–86), e2–e2 150 (148–152), f1–f1 60 (59–62), f2–f2 80 (78–83), f1–f2 28 (25–29), f1–d1 93 (91–94), h1–h1 31 (28–32).

Venter (Figs (Figs101012). Idiosoma ventrally with transverse simple striations from setae 1a to 3a; longitudinal irregular between setae 3a and 4a; transverse posterior to setae 4a; striations longitudinal irregular anterior to aggenital setae (ag). Length of intercoxal and coxal setae: 1a 25 (24–26), 3a 19 (19–21), 4a 22 (21–23), 1b 33 (31–33), 1c 22 (21–24), 2b 24(23–25), 2c 22 (21–23), 3b 23 (22–24), 4b 27 (26–28); aggenital setae, ag 28 (27–28), ag–ag 32 (29–32); genital setae two pairs, g1 31 (30–33), g2 20 (19–21), g1–g1 32 (31–33), g2–g2 35 (34–36), g1–g2 10 (10–12); anal setae three pairs, ps1 11 (10–12), ps2 16 (15–17), ps3 17(16–18), ps1–ps1 16 (15–18), ps2–ps2 22 (20–23), ps3–ps3 26 (25–26); para–anal setae two pairs, h2 16 (15–17), h2– h2 14 (13–16), h3 17 (15–17), h3–h3 31 (30–32) (Fig. (Fig.10).10). Spermathecae elongate, star shaped structure at distal end (Fig. 11–12).

Gnathosoma (Figs 13–15). Stylophore slightly notched anteriorly. Peritremes anastomosed distally, with few long thread like branches (Figs 13–14). Scapular setae m 22 (21–23), m–m 17 (16–18). Palp femur and genu each with one seta, palp tibia with three setae, tibial claw strongly curved; palp tarsus with three setae, three eupathidia, one solenidion (Fig. (Fig.1515).

Legs (Figs 16–19). Length of legs I–IV (without coxae) 507, 328, 340, 400 respectively. Leg I shorter than body length. Number of setae and solenidia (in parenthesis) on legs I–IV: coxae 2–2–1–1, trochanters 1–1–1–1, femora 9–6–4–4, genua 5–5–4–4, tibiae 13(1)–9–9–9; tarsi I with 15 tactile setae, two sets of duplex setae at distal end, 11 tactile setae and two solenidia well proximal to duplex setae, two eupathidia; tarsi II with 10 tactile setae, one set of duplex setae, two eupathidia and one solenidion; tarsi III with 12 tactile setae and one solenidion; tarsi IV with 12 tactile setae and one solenidion. True claws pad like each with one pair of tenant hair; empodium pad-like with two rows of small tenant hairs.

Male (n = 11) (Figs (Figs202028). Dorsum (Fig. (Fig.20).20). Body almost oval, slightly tapering caudally; idiosoma 320–325 long, 190 wide; striations on dorsum entirely dotted; propodosomal striations same as in female, hysterosomal also same as in female except longitudinal/oblique or irregular in the area medially between dorsal setae e1 and h1, shape of setae also same as in female.

Venter (Figs (Figs212123). Idiosoma ventrally with transverse striations except in the area between ventral setae 3a and 4a and genito-anal area; the area between 3a and 4a with simple dots (without striations); genito-anal setae five pair, genital setae two pairs (g1, g2), anal setae three pairs (ps1, ps2, ps3); para-anal setae two pairs (h2, h3); aedeagus up turned, broadly sigmoid, sharply tapering distally (Figs 22–23).

Gnathosoma. Stylophore and peritremes as in female; palp femur with small horn-like seta, palp genu with one dorsal seta, palp tibia with three setae and strongly curved tibial claw; palp tarsus thumb like with one solenidion, three eupathidia and three setae (Fig. (Fig.2424).

Legs (Figs 25–28). Length of leg I–IV (without coxae) 366, 223, 250, 289 respectively. Setae with solenidion in parenthesis on legs I–IV as; coxae 2–2–1–1, trochanters 1–1–1–1, femora 9–6–4–4, genua 5–5–4–4, tibiae 9(2)+8duplex–10(1)–9–9, tarsus I with six pairs of duplex setae (two pairs distally, two pairs at mid and two pairs at proximal part of the tarsus), 15 tactile setae, two eupathidia, one solenidion, tarsus II with one duplex seta, nine tactile setae, two eupathidia, one solenidion, tarsus III with 12 tactile setae, one solenidion, tarsus IV with 13 tactile setae, one solenidion. True claws pad like each with one pair of tenant hair; empodium pad-like with two rows of small tenant hairs.

Etymology.

The specific epithet is derived after the host plant, Haloxylon salicornicum from which some type specimens were collected.

Type material.

Holotype female, one male and two female paratypes, Haloxylon salicornicum (Amaranthaceae), Salbookh Road, Dariyah, Riyadh, SA, 24°30.649'N, 46°46.615'E, September, 18, 2012, coll. M. Kamran; four males and 22 female paratypes, Hilaria sp. (Poaceae), Tashlia, Heyer Road, Riyadh, SA, 24°29.000'N, 46°47.890'E, January, 17, 2015, coll. J.H. Mirza; five males and four females paratypes, Hilaria spp. (Poaceae), Sanabal Farm, Kharaj, Riyadh, SA, 24°16.999'N, 47°11.854'E, January, 23, 2015, coll. M. Kamran.

Remarks. The Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) haloxylonia sp. n. closely resembles Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) contiguus (Chaudhri, Akbar and Rasool 1974) because both species sharing the following set of similar characters; peritremes distally with few branches, dorsal body setae short, subequal in length, lanceolate, prodorsal shield entirely with longitudinal striaitons and hysterosomal striations closely spaced. The new species, differs from Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) contiguus by comparative length of leg I (shorter than body vs. longer than body), dorsocentral setae (c1, d1 and e1) almost 1/3 to the distance of setae next behind vs. more than half, number of setae on genu I (5 vs. 4) in Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) contiguus.

Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) tabukensis sp. n.

Keywords: Animalia, Prostigmata, Tetranychidae

http://zoobank.org/57BF2D3A-80B0-4C7E-90CD-FACB4543B5FF

Figs 29–30 , 31, 32 , 33–36

Figures 29, 30.
Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) tabukensis sp. n. adult female 29 dorsum 30 venter.
Figures 31, 32.
Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) tabukensis sp. n. adult female. 31 Stylophore and peritremes 32 palp.
Figures 33 36.
Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) tabukensis sp. n. 33 leg I 33A duplex setae, empodium and claws of tarsus I 34 leg II 35 leg III 36 leg IV.

Diagnosis.

Dorsal setae slightly lanceolate, densely serrate, not present on tubercles and distinctly shorter to the distances of setae next behind, prodorsum entirely with longitudinal striaitons, hysterosomal striations closely spaced, peritremes complex anastomosed distally, stylophore slightly rounded anteriorly, leg I shorter than body length, number of setae on femur I–IV 8–6–3–3, number of setae on genu I–IV 4–5–3–3.

Description of holotype female

(n = 3). Measurements of holotype followed by 2 paratypes (in parenthesis) (Figs (Figs292936).

Dorsum (Fig. (Fig.29).29). Body rounded; length of idiosoma 483 (480–490), maximum width 445 (440–450), length of body (gnathosoma + idiosoma) 595 (590–610). Propodosoma medially with weak and laterally with strong longitudinal regular striations; hysterosomal striations medially transverse and closely spaced, laterally longitudinal irregular. Dorsal setae slightly lanceolate, densely serrate, not present on tubercles and and distinctly shorter to the distances of setae next behind, dorsocentral setae (c1, d1 and e1) almost 1/3 to the distance of setae next behind. Length of dorsal setae: v2 34 (32–36), sc1 29 (28–31), sc2 30 (28–32), c1 28 (26–30), c2 26 (24–28), c3 29 (28–32), d1 23 (21–25), d2 22 (21–24), e1 21 (20–23), e2 22 (21–24), f1 23 (21–24), f2 26 (24–27), h1 27 (25–29). Distance between dorsal setae: v2–v2 89 (85–90), v2–sc1 68 (65–690), sc1–sc2 68 (67–70), sc1–sc1 204 (202–206), sc2–sc2 301 298–302), c1–c1 138 (135–140), c1–c2 91 (89–92), c2–c3 79 (75–80), c2–c2 327 (325–328), c3–c3 424 (422–426), d1–d1 119 (118–120), d1–d2 91 (89–92), d2–d2 295 (292–298), c1–d1 88 (86–89), c3–d2 110 (109–112), e1–e1 27 (25–28), e1–e2 85 (84–86), e2–d2 85 (84–86), e2–e2 229 (228–231), f1–f1 78 (76–80), f2–f2 113 (110–114), f1–f2 35 (33–36), f1–d1 82 (81–84), h1–h1 53 (52–56).

Venter (Fig. (Fig.30).30). Idiosoma ventrally with transverse simple striations from setae 1a to 3a; longitudinal regular between setae 3a and 4a; transverse posterior to setae 4a; striations longitudinal regular anterior to aggenital setae (ag). Length of intercoxal and coxal setae: 1a 40 (38–42), 3a 32 (31–34), 4a 32 (30–35), 1b 46 (44–47), 1c 32 (31–34), 2b 30 (29–34), 2c 29 (28–31), 3b 32 (31–34), 4b 32 (31–35); aggenital setae (ag) 42 (41–45), ag–ag 23 (21–25); genital setae two pairs, g1 43 (40–44), g2 39 (35–40), g1–g1 52 (50–55), g2–g2 60 (58–64), g1–g2 12 (10–13); anal setae three pairs, ps1 20 (18–21), ps2 26 (24–27), ps3 28 (27–29), ps1–ps1 23 (20–24), ps2–ps2 32 (31–35), ps3–ps3 23 (21–26); para-anal setae two pairs, h2 27 (26–28), h2– h2 11 (10–13), h3 32 (31–34), h3–h3 28 (27–29).

Gnathosoma (Figs 31–32). Stylophore rounded anteriorly. Peritremes small compact anastomosed distally (Fig. (Fig.31).31). Scapular setae m 28 (27–29), m–m 37 (26–39). Palp femur and genu each with one seta, palp tibia with three setae, tibial claw strongly curved; palp tarsus with three setae, three eupathidia, one solenidion (Fig. (Fig.3232).

Legs (Figs 33–36). Length of legs I–IV (without coxae) 450, 282, 345, 408 respectively. Leg I shorter than body length. Number of setae and solenidia (in parenthesis) on legs I–IV: coxae 2–2–1–1, trochanters 1–1–1–1, femora 8–6–3–3, genua 4–5–3–3, tibiae 13(1)–9–8–8; tarsi I with 10 tactile setae, two sets of duplex setae at distal end, all tactile setae well proximal to duplex setae, two eupathidia; tarsi II with 7 tactile setae, one set of duplex setae, two eupathidia; tarsi III with 11 tactile setae, one set of duplex setae,; tarsi IV with 11 tactile setae one set of duplex setae,. True claws pad like each with one pair of tenant hair; empodium pad-like with two rows of small tenant hairs.

Male. Not in collection.

Etymology.

The specific epithet is derived from the region of Saudi Arabia, Tabuk, from where it was collected.

Type material.

Holotype female, two paratype females, Haloxylon salicornicum (Amaranthaceae), 30 km Tabuk road, Sharma, Tabuk region, SA, 28°03.479'N, 035°17.186'E, October, 19, 2015, coll. M. Kamran and J.H. Mirza.

Remarks.

The Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) tabukensis sp. n. closely resembles Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) theroni (Meyer 1974) because both species share the following set of similar characters; dorsal body setae, lanceolate and distinctly shorter to the distances of setae next behind, prodorsum entirely with longitudinal striaitons, hysterosomal striations closely spaced, peritremes complex anastomosed distally (Meyer 1974, 1987). The new species differs from Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) theroni by shape of stylophore anteriorly (rounded vs. slightly indented), number of setae on femur I–IV (8–6–3–3 vs. 9–6–4–4), number of setae on genu I–IV (4–5–3–3 vs. 5–5–6–6), number of setae on tibia III (8 vs. 6) and on tarsi I–II excluding duplex setae and solenidia (10–7 vs. 18–14) in Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) theroni.

Key to the world species of the genus Paraplonobia (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) (after Meyer 1987).

1Coxal formula not exceeding 3–3–1–1 2
Coxal formula 4–3–2–2, dorsal body setae serrate pointed at the tip not set on tubercles, peritremes simple, empodial pad and true claws equal in length subg. Brachynychus, species Paraplonobia (Brachynychus) cousiniae (Mitrofanov & Strunk.)
2Peritremes anastomosed subg. Anaplonobia, 11
Peritremes simple subg. Paraplonobia, 3
3Stylophore rounded anteriorly 4
Stylophore notched anteriorly 5
4Dorsal body setae slightly lanceolate, leg I shorter that body Paraplonobia (Paraplonobia) edenvillensis Meyer
Dorsal body setae slender, leg I about as long as body Paraplonobia (Paraplonobia) myops (Pritchard & Baker)
5Dorsal body setae generally slender or slightly lanceolate and pointed distally 6
Dorsal body setae broadly lanceolate 9
6First three pair of dorsocentral setae c1, d1 and e1 about half as long as distance between bases of consecutive setae 7
First three pair of dorsocentral setae c1, d1 and e1 minute about a third to a fourth as long as the distance between bases of consecutive setae 8
7Length of body 466 µm (530 µm including gnathosoma), leg I as long as body, posterior opisthosomal setae longer than longitudinal distance between their bases Paraplonobia (Paraplonobia) hilariae Tuttle & Baker
Length of body 380 µm, leg I 160 µm long, shorter than body, posterior opisthosomal setae shorter than longitudinal distance between their bases Paraplonobia (Paraplonobia) herniariae (Bagdasarian)
8Body elongate, length of body 345 µm, length of leg I 191 µm (without coxa and trochanter) Paraplonobia (Paraplonobia) boutelouae Baker & Tuttle
Body oval, length of body 570 µm, length of leg I 419 µm (without coxa and trochanter) Paraplonobia (Paraplonobia) dactyloni Smiley & Baker
9Dorsocentral setae (c1, d1, e1 and f1) more than half as long as distances between consecutive setae, leg I shorter than body 10
Dorsocentral setae (c1, d1, e1 and f1) almost half as long as distances between consecutive setae, leg I shorter than body Paraplonobia (Paraplonobia) tridens Tuttle & Baker
10Peritremes terminating in a ball-like rounded structure; prodorsum with a wellmarked punctate shield; tibia IV with 8 setae Paraplonobia (Paraplonobia) penicillatus Chaudhri et al.
Peritremes terminating in oval shaped structure; prodorsum without a well-marked punctate shield; tibia IV with 7 setae Paraplonobia (Paraplonobia) echinopsili (Wainstein)
11Dorsal body setae slightly shorter/as long as/ longer than distances between their bases 28
Dorsal setae distinctly shorter than distances between their bases 12
12Dorsal integument striated, without tubercles or lumps 13
Dorsal integument provided with tubercles or lumps forming a distinct pattern along with striation Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) glebulenta (Meyer)
13Dorsal body setae slender, setiform 14
Dorsal body setae broadly spatulate, subspatulate or lanceolate 15
14Stylophore indented anteriorly, dorsocentral setae c1, d1 and e1 about 2/3 of the distance between their basis, peritremes weakly anastomosed Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) inornata (Meyer)
Stylophore rounded anteriorly, dorsocentral setae c1, d1 and e1 about half the distance between, peritremes strongly anastomosed, stylophore rounded anteriorly. Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) ambrosiae (Tuttle et al.)
15All dorsal body setae spatulate, subspatulate, expanded distally 16
Most of dorsal body setae lanceolate, not expanded distally 19
16First pair of dorsocentral setae c1 less than half as long as distances to the bases setae next behind 17
First pair of dorsocentral setae c1 at least reaching 1/2 or 2/3 of distance to the bases of setae next behind 18
17Prodorsum medially with irregular broken striations Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) boutelouae Tuttle & Baker
Prodorsum medially with regular longitudinal striations Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) algarrobicola (Gonzalez)
18First pair of dorsocentral setae c1 reaching one half to the distance of setae next behind, setae c1 and f1 almost sub/equally spaced Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) prosopis (Tuttle & Baker)
First pair of dorsocentral setae c1 reaching 2/3 to the distance of setae next behind, setae c1 almost 1.5 times widely spaced than setae f1 Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) arabica sp. n.
19Hysterosomal setae d1and e1 lanceolate and about half as long as f1, setae f1 spatulate Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) brickellia Baker & Tuttle
Dorsocentral setae subequal in length, lanceolate serrate 20
20Prodorsum entirely with longitudinal striations 21
Median area of prodorsum entirely/partially with transverse striations 26
21Peritremes ending with few irregular branches 22
Peritremes distally with complex anastomosed 24
22Stylophore slightly indented anteriorly, dorsum with closely spaced striations 23
Stylophore rounded anteriorly, dorsum with widely spaced striations Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) acharis (Pritchard & Baker)
23Leg I distinctly longer than the body, first pair of dorsocentral setae c1 more than half to the distance of setae next behind Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) contiguus (Chaudhri et al.)
Leg I shorter than body, first pair dorsocentral setae c1 1/3 to the distance of setae next behind Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) haloxylonia sp. n.
24Dorsum with widely spaced striaitons, femora I with 11 setae Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) candicans (Meyer)
Dorsum with closely spaced striations, femora I with 8 or 9 setae 25
25Stylophore rounded anteriorly, setae on femora I–IV 8–6–3–3, setae of genua I–IV 4–5–3–3 Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) tabukensis sp. n.
Stylophore indented anteriorly, setae on femora I–IV 9–6–4–4, setae of genua I–IV 5–5–6–6 Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) theroni (Meyer)
26Propodosomal shield medially with two distinct bands of transverse striations Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) daryaensis Chaudhri et al.
Propodosomal shield entirely with transverse strations 27
27Leg I shorter than body, peritremes weakly anastomosed Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) harteni (Meyer)
Leg I longer than body, peritremes with complex anastomose Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) concolor Chaudhri et al.
28Stylophore anteriorly rounded 29
Stylophore anteriorly deeply notched Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) tshipensis (Meyer)
29Dorsal body setae slender/setifrom 31
Dorsal body setae spatulate/subspatulate 30
30Dorsal body setae set on tubercles, longer than the distances of setae next behind, propodosoma with broken striations Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) juliflorae (Tuttle & Baker)
Dorsal body setae not set on tubercles, as long as or slightly shorter to the distances of setae next behind, propodosoma medially with basket weaved pattern Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) euphorbiae (Tuttle & Baker)
31Opisthosomal setae much longer than the distance to the setae next in line Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) coldeniae (Tuttle & Baker)
Opisthosomal setae as long as the distance to the setae next in line 32
32Prodorsal shield pebbled, most of opisthosomal setae set on tubercles Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) calame (Pritchard & Baker)
Prodorsal shield tuberculate/striate, opisthosomal setae not set on tubercles 33
33Opisthosomal striations closely spaced with fine lobes Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) artemisia Baker & Tuttle
Prodorsal shield tuberculate34
34Opisthosomal striations mostly broad folds and covered with tubercles, peritreme small bulb like anastomosing Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) berberis Baker & Tuttle
Opisthomosal striations comparatively closely spaced with fine lobes, peritremes elongate anastomose Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) allionia Baker & Tuttle

Genus. Neopetrobia

Keywords: Animalia, Prostigmata, Tetranychidae

Wainstein, 1956

Type species.

Neopetrobia dubinini Wainstein, 1956.

Diagnosis.

Based on Baker and Tuttle 1968, Gutierrez 1955, Meyer 1974, Meyer 1987, and Bolland et al. 1998.

True claws pad like, each bearing a pair of tenant hairs; empodial pad longer than true claws, bearing a row of tenant hairs, distally not coalescent; dorsum with 3 pairs of prodorsal setae which are short and spindle shaped or spatulate; setal tubercles small or nonexistent; fourth pair of dorsocentral setae (f1) widely spaced, not normal as c1; peritremes anastomosing distally.

Subgenus. Neopetrobia

Keywords: Animalia, Prostigmata, Tetranychidae

Wainstein

Diagnosis.

Based on Gutierrez 1985, and Bolland et al. 1998.

Integument without tuberculate or reticulate pattern; dorsal setae rounded or spindle-shaped.

Neopetrobia mcgregori

Keywords: Animalia, Prostigmata, Tetranychidae

(Pritchard & Baker)

Figs 37–38 , 39, 40 , 41–44

Figures 37, 38.
Neopetrobia (Neopetrobia) mcgregori (Pritchard & Baker) adult female. 37 dorsum 38 venter.
Figures 39, 40.
Neopetrobia (Neopetrobia) mcgregori (Pritchard & Baker) adult female. 39 stylophore and peritremes 40 palp.
Figures 41 44.
Neopetrobia (Neopetrobia) mcgregori (Pritchard and Baker) adult female. 41 leg I 41A duplex setae, empodium and claws of tarsus I 42 leg II 43 leg III 44 leg IV.
  • Monoceronychus mcgregori Pritchard & Baker, 1955.
  • Neopetrobia mcgregori (Pritchard & Baker) Meyer, 1987. Bolland et al. 1998.

Redescription.

Female (n=9). Body oval; length of idiosoma 369–372, maximum width 238–241, length of body (gnathosoma + idiosoma) 430–433.

Dorsum (Fig. (Fig.37).37). Propodosoma without anterior projections. Dorsum of opisthosoma and most of opisthosoma with nearly smooth integument, metapodosomal dorsum with widely spaced strong striations. Dorsal body setae minute, lanceolate, densely serrate, not present on tubercles. Length of dorsal setae: v2 13–14, sc1 14–15, sc2 13–14, c1 13–14, c2 12–13, c3 10–11, d1 11–12, d2 12–13, e1 10–11, e2 12–13, f1 11–12, f2 15–16, h1 16–17. Distance between dorsal setae: v2–v2 54–56, v2–sc1 48–50, sc1–sc2 47–50, sc1–sc1 113–114, sc2–sc2 165–167, c1–c1 57–58, c1–c2 50–52, c2–c3 41–42, c2–c2 161–162, c3–c3 234–236, d1–d1 57–58, d1–d2 56–57, d2–d2 160–161, c1–d1 57–58, c3–d2 79–80, e1–e1 54–56, e1–e2 45–47, e2–d2 64–66, e2–e2 135–136, f1–f1 80–82, f2–f2 86–88, f1–f2 31–32, f1–d1 79–80, h1–h1 38–40.

Venter (Fig. (Fig.38).38). Idiosoma ventrally with transverse simple widely spaced striations from setae 1a to 3a; longitudinal regular between setae 3a and 4a; transverse posterior to setae 4a; striations transverse regular anterior to aggenital setae (ag). Length of intercoxal and coxal setae: 1a 18–19, 3a 19–20, 4a 15–16, 1b 30–31, 1c 13–14, 2b 16–17, 2c 10–13, 3b 15–17, 4b 11–12; aggenital setae (ag) 26–27, ag–ag 38–39; genital setae two pairs, g1 17–18, g2 21–22, g1–g1 41–42, g2–g2 76–78, g1–g2 21–22; anal setae three pairs, ps1 11–12, ps2 10–11, ps3 12–13, ps1–ps1 11–13, ps2–ps2 16–18, ps3–ps3 11–13; para-anal setae two pairs, h2 11–13, h2– h2 7–9, h3 7–8, h3–h3 17–19.

Gnathosoma (Figs 39–40). Stylophore slender, the sides angularly converging anteriorly and with a small mediocephalic emargination. Peritremes anastomosing with distal enlargement slender. Scapular setae m 17–18, m–m 19–21. Palp femur and genu each with one seta, palp tibia with three setae, tibial claw strongly curved; palp tarsus with two setae, two eupathidia, one solenidion.

Legs (Fig. 41–44). Length of legs I–IV (without coxae) 240, 150, 148, 180 respectively. Number of setae and solenidia (in parenthesis) on legs I–IV: coxae 2–2–1–1, trochanters 1–1–1–0, femora 8–6–2–2, genua 4–4–4–4, tibia 8(1)–9–9–9; tarsi I with 11 tactile setae, two sets of duplex setae at distal end, three setae proximal to duplex setae, two eupathidia and one solenidion; tarsi II with nine tactile setae, one set of duplex setae, two setae proximal to duplex setae, one setae in line with duplex setae, two eupathidia and one solenidion; tarsi III with six tactile setae; tarsi IV with seven tactile setae. True claws pad like each with one pair of tenant hair; empodium pad-like with two rows of small tenant hairs.

Materials examined.

12 females, Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae), near exit10, King Abdullah Road, Riyadh, SA, 24°45.826'N, 46°45.470'E, September 07, 2015, coll. M. Kamran and E. M. Khan.

Remarks.

Neopetrobia mcgregori was originally described very briefly under the genus Monoceronychus and has been only reported from Miami shores of Florida, USA (Pritchard and Baker 1955). Later, it was moved to the genus Neopetrobia on the basis of widely spaced fourth pair of dorsocentral setae (f1) (Bolland et al. 1998). Worldwide, this is the second report of this species and no obvious differences have been observed in Saudi Arabian specimens from the original description.

Supplementary Material

XML Treatment for Paraplonobia :
XML Treatment for Anaplonobia :
XML Treatment for Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) arabica :
XML Treatment for Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) haloxylonia :
XML Treatment for Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) tabukensis :
XML Treatment for Neopetrobia :
XML Treatment for Neopetrobia :
XML Treatment for Neopetrobia mcgregori :

Acknowledgement

The authors wish to thank the Deanship of Scientific Research, College of Food and Agriculture Research Center, at King Saud University, Riyadh, for providing facilities and funds to complete this research work. Also, we thank Dr. Carlos H.W. Flechtmann, Department of Entomologia, Acarologia, Universidade de São Paulo, ESALQ, CNPq-Brasil and to Dr. E.A. Ueckermann, ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute, Queenswood, Pretoria, South Africa for providing useful literature.

Notes

Citation

Kamran M, Mirza JH, Alatawi FJ (2016) The genus Paraplonobia Wainstein and Neopetrobia Wainstein (Acari, Trombidiformes, Tetranychidae) from Saudi Arabia: new species, new records and key to the world species of Paraplonobia. ZooKeys 598: 27–55. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.598.9060

References

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