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Biodivers Data J. 2016; (4): e7964.
Published online 2016 April 5. doi:  10.3897/BDJ.4.e7964
PMCID: PMC4911545

Guide to the littoral zone vascular flora of Carolina bay lakes (U.S.A.)

Abstract

Background

Carolina bays are elliptic, directionally aligned basins of disputed origin that occur on the Atlantic Coastal Plain from the Delmarva Peninsula to southern Georgia. In southeastern North Carolina, several large, natural, lacustrine systems (i.e., Carolina bay lakes) exist within the geomorphological features known as Carolina bays. Within the current distribution of Carolina bays, Bladen and Columbus counties (North Carolina) contain the only known examples of Carolina bay lakes. The Carolina bay lakes can be split into two major divisions, the “Bladen Lakes Group” which is characterized as being relatively unproductive (dystrophic – oligotrophic), and Lake Waccamaw, which stands alone in Columbus County and is known for its high productivity and species richness. Although there have been several studies conducted on these unique lentic systems, none have documented the flora comprehensively.

New information

Over the 2013−2014 growing seasons, the littoral zone flora of Carolina bay lakes was surveyed and vouchered. Literature reviews and herbarium crawls complemented this fieldwork to produce an inventory of the vascular plant species. This survey detected 205 taxa (species/subspecies and varieties) in 136 genera and 80 vascular plant families. Thirty-one species (15.2%) are of conservation concern. Lake Waccamaw exhibited the highest species richness with 145 catalogued taxa and 26 species of conservation concern. Across all sites, the Cyperaceae (25 spp.), Poaceae (21 spp.), Asteraceae (13 spp.), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Juncaceae (8 spp.), and Lentibulariaceae (6 spp.) were the six most species-rich vascular plant families encountered. A guide to the littoral zone flora of Carolina bay lakes is presented herein, including dichotomous keys, species accounts (including abundance, habitat, phenology, and exsiccatae), as well as images of living species and vouchered specimens.

Keywords: North American southeastern Coastal Plain lakes, floristics, aquatic, emersed vegetation

Introduction

Carolina bays are shallow elliptical depressions of disputed origin aligned in a northwest-southeast direction on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the eastern United States from the Delmarva Peninsula to southern Georgia (Tuomey 1848, Glenn 1895, Melton and Schriever 1933, Prouty 1952, LeBlond 1995, Sharitz 2003). In southeastern North Carolina, several large, natural, lacustrine systems exist within the geomorphological features known as Carolina bays. Within the current distribution of Carolina bays, Bladen and Columbus counties in North Carolina contain the only known examples of Carolina bay lakes. Carolina bay lakes can be split into two major divisions, the “Bladen Lake Group”, which are dystrophic to oligotrophic and relatively unproductive, and Lake Waccamaw, which stands alone in Columbus County and is known for its high productivity, species richness, and rates of endemism (Weiss and Kuenzler 1976, Casterlin et al. 1984, LeBlond 1995, North Carolina Division of Water Quality, Environmental Sciences Section, Intensive Survey Unit 2009, North Carolina Division of Water Quality, Environmental Sciences Section, Intensive Survey Unit 2012, Schafale 2012).

Although there have been several studies conducted on these unique lentic (freshwater) systems (Prouty 1935, Eyles 1941, Hubbs and Raney 1946, Frey 1949, Frey 1951a, Frey 1951b, Frey 1954, Louder 1962, Casterlin et al. 1984, Newman and Schalles 1990; see also Suppl. material 1), none have focused comprehensively on their vegetation. Several manuals, guides, and broader floristic works are available on wetlands of North Carolina and the eastern United States (Suppl. material 2), but few floras have followed the guidelines and recommendations of Palmer et al. (1995) and Denslow et al. (2010) and documented the site-specific aquatic flora of wetlands, streams, rivers, ponds, or lakes in North Carolina (Sieren and Warr 1992, Warren et al. 2004). Nifong (1998) estimated the occurrence of 620 functionally intact, unaltered, Carolina bays remaining in the Coastal Plain of the Carolinas, and an annual rate of loss of about 36 functionally intact North Carolina bays to development, agriculture, silviculture, and other means. It is imperative that the few remaining unaltered bays be studied, especially Carolina bay lakes, considering that with increasing demotechnic growth (Wetzel 2001) and insecure protection status of isolated wetlands (Sharitz 2003), many freshwater systems, including Carolina bays and bay lakes, face an uncertain future.

A narrow time frame exists to study the few remaining natural freshwater systems not affected by severe degradation. Denslow et al. (2010) found only one aquatic flora (Sieren and Warr 1992) within the state of North Carolina between the years 1834−2009, showing a neglect of aquatic systems in floristic studies within the state. To help fill this gap in knowledge, the objectives of this study were to (1) inventory the littoral zone vascular flora of Carolina bay lakes through the collection of voucher specimens, (2) provide a comprehensive checklist of the littoral zone vascular flora based on integration of new and historic collections and reports, and (3) create an illustrated guide based on the checklist.

Background

Lake Ecosystems and Abiotic Factors

Catchment Area

Lakes (also referred to as lentic systems along with ponds) exhibit physical and chemical characteristics unique to the soils, vegetation, and land use activities present on immediately surrounding lands; thus, no two lakes are exactly the same (Moss et al. 1996, Brönmark and Hansson 2005). All lakes occur within catchment areas. A catchment area can also be referred to as a watershed or drainage basin, which is simply the zone of land surrounding a lake that drains precipitation into the lake basin (Brönmark and Hansson 2005). The area, geology, edaphic (soil) properties, land use, and vegetation of catchment areas affect the acidity, water color, nutrient input, and chemical composition of lakes (Wetzel 2001, Brönmark and Hansson 2005). Large catchment areas have a more pronounced impact on the chemical properties of lakes because they drain more precipitation, and thus the potential for more nutrients, into the lake basin. Consequently, land use activities that release excessive nutrient inputs into large catchment areas (e.g., intensive agriculture) are likely to cause eutrophication (Casterlin et al. 1984, Brönmark and Hansson 2005).

Water Color

The observed color of natural lake waters is caused by the selective absorption of wavelengths as light penetrates through the water column (Wetzel 2001). Organic matter (i.e., dead and decomposing plant and animal parts) is the principal determinant of water color in lakes (Juday and Birge 1933, Rasmussen et al. 1989, Brönmark and Hansson 2005). Due to differences in wavelength absorption, waters with little dissolved organic matter, such as hardwater lakes or glacial streams, appear blue/green, and, in contrast, lakes containing much dissolved organic matter in the form of humic substances (e.g., Carolina bay lakes and bogs) appear yellow/red or “tea-stained” in color. Humic substances are large molecules formed as a result of decomposing organic matter; they are difficult for the microbial community to degrade and are long-lived within the lake system (Brönmark and Hansson 2005).

Trophic status

Trophic status refers to the rate at which organic matter is supplied by or transported into a lake. Humic substances are the most common component in allochthonous organic matter; consequently, wetlands that receive the bulk of their organic matter from allochthonous sources (e.g., Carolina bay lakes, bogs, pocosins) are heavily “tea-stained” and are commonly referred to in the southeastern United States as “black water” lakes, streams, rivers, ponds. Lakes receiving the majority of their organic matter from allochthonous sources have been given the term dystrophic. Dystrophic lakes have low productivity and are often acidic due to large quantities of allochthonous humic input.

Phosphorous is limiting in freshwater systems and is therefore a useful determinant for production. Phosphorous concentrations are easier to quantify than carbon content and production, and, as a result, trophic status is often classified based on phosphorous content (Brönmark and Hansson 2005). Oligotrophic lakes experience low productivity associated with autochthonous carbon production and low levels of phosphorous and nitrogen. Eutrophic lakes experience high productivity associated with autochthonous production and high levels of phosphorous and nitrogen.

pH

The unit commonly used to measure acidity is pH. It is technically defined as the reciprocal of the activity of free hydrogen ions (H+; Covington et al. 1985). Because pH is measured on a logarithmic scale, a change of one unit in pH corresponds to a ten-fold increase in hydrogen ions (Brönmark and Hansson 2005). pH is measured on a scale of 1–14; most lakes possess a pH between 6 and 9, but extreme cases of acidity (1–5) and alkalinity (10–14) also exist depending upon various abiotic and biotic conditions within a lake’s catchment area (see above; Brönmark and Hansson 2005). Geological and hydrological conditions within catchment areas primarily control the pH of lakes; however, acid rain can also affect the pH of lakes. In North America, coal-fired power plants and other industries emit sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere. As weather systems make their way across North America from west to east, they pick up this sulfur dioxide (SO2) and deposit it across the landscape in the form of precipitation (i.e., acid rain). The cumulative effects of acid rain deposition on both terrestrial and aquatic systems is known to be most severe in the eastern United States; this is due to the region's geographic location in relation to broad-scale weather paterns and industries emitting sulfur dioxides (Schindler 1988).

Photosynthesis and respiration are also known to affect the pH of waters by influencing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the water column. When CO2 is taken up and stored by aquatic macrophytes, phytoplankton, and algae during photosynthesis, free hydrogen ions (H+) are neutralized or taken up by carbonates, bicarbonates, and hydroxides, causing a reduction in H+ and thus a higher pH. Respiration adds CO2 into the system, thus releasing free H+ into the water column and lowering the pH (Brönmark and Hansson 2005). Because photosynthesis and respiration can cause fluctuating differences in pH within a 24-hour cycle, alkalinity is typically considered to be a better measurement of a lake's acidification status (Brönmark and Hansson 2005).

Alkalinity

Alkalinity refers to a lake's ability to neutralize strong inorganic acids (i.e., it is a measure of how sensitive a lake is to acidification). It is now used synonymously with acid neutralizing capacity (ANC; Wetzel 2001). Today, alkalinity is generally expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/L), but has commonly been recorded in the past in milligrams per liter (mg/L; Brönmark and Hansson 2005). Lakes with an alkalinity above 0.5 meq/L have good buffering capacities, whereas lakes with alkalinities below 0.01 meq/L have little or no buffering capacities (Wetzel 2001,Brönmark and Hansson 2005). Lakes with low alkalinities are susceptible to drops in pH with only small additions of acid (H+), whereas lakes with high alkalinities can withstand the addition of acid (H+) into their systems without proportional drops in pH (Brönmark and Hansson 2005).

Wetzel (2001) noted that the property of alkalinity in most fresh waters is imparted by the presence of carbonates (i.e., carbonate, bicarbonate, calcium carbonate). Carbonates and hydroxides remove hydrogen ions (H+) from lakes, thus neutralizing their acidity (i.e., raising the pH to a more basic status). Lake Waccamaw, the largest Carolina bay lake, has a high alkalinity (7.0−12 mg/L or 0.14−0.24 meq/L; Weiss and Kuenzler 1976) due to the presence of both subsurface and surficial limestone deposits within and around the lake. As a result, it possesses a neutral to basic pH (6.8−8.5 s.u.) and has the ability to handle larger additions of acid.

Carolina Bays, Bay Lakes, and Pocosins

Carolina Bays

The core concentration of Carolina bays occurs in southeastern North Carolina and northeastern South Carolina (Ross 2003; Fig. Fig.1).1). Although these depressions share the same elliptical shape, they vary dramatically in length along their long axis from 50 m to 8 km (with some as large as 3,600 ha; Prouty 1935, Thom 1970, Savage 1982, Sharitz and Gibbons 1982). Nifong (1982) suggested that there are fewer than 13,000 bays (unaltered and altered) left in the Coastal Plain of the Carolinas, as opposed to the 400,000 proposed by Prouty (1935). It was not until the early 20th century that researchers fully recognized the magnitude and extent of Carolina bay distribution by the use of airplanes and soon-to-be aerial imagery.

Figure 1.
Core distribution of Carolina bays. Carolina bays are known to occur from the Delmarva Peninsula south to southern Georgia. Although many historical texts frequently cite the distribution range of Carolina bays as occurring from New Jersey south to Florida, ...

Savage (1982) declared that: “When seen from the air, Carolina bays are an astounding, unforgettable revelation. But though hundreds of thousands lie clearly visible, scattered across the Atlantic Coastal Plain from Maryland to northern Florida, they are often all but unrecognizable to the uninitiated eyes of groundlings”. The first aerial images produced of the Atlantic Coastal Plain exposed Carolina bays to both citizens and scientists on a broad scale; moreover, they initiated a flurry of scientific research on Carolina bay distribution, numbers, origin, vegetation, and soils.

The term bay is used to describe these landscape features not because they commonly contain hydric soils or are inundated with water, but because of the presence of three species of bay tree typically found within and around their elliptical boundaries (i.e., Magnolia virginiana L. [sweetbay; Magnoliaceae], Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg. [swamp bay; Lauraceae], and Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J. Ellis [loblollybay; Theaceae]. Traditionally, the term “bay” tree has been used when speaking of the laurel trees within the Lauraceae family. While Persea palustris may be properly referred to as a “bay” tree, Gordonia lasianthus and Magnolia virginiana may not (sensu stricto), hence their common names being one word (i.e., loblollybay and sweetbay). Gordonia lasianthus and Magnolia virginiana bear a noticeable morphological resemblence to the laurels of the Lauraceae; thus, they are generally referred to as “bay” trees (sensu lato). North of Virginia, these mysterious landscape features are referred to as Delmarva potholes, bays, or basins (Tiner and Burke 1995, Lide 1997, Sharitz 2003, Tiner 2003). The inability to agree upon a clear-cut definition and universal name for these unique geological features has caused some discrepancy among estimates of bay numbers (Lide 1997).

Collectively, Carolina bays and pocosins represent the largest total acreage of palustrine wetlands in the Carolinas (Wilson 1962, Richardson 1983, Richardson and Gibbons 1993, Nifong 1998). Pocosins occur on the Atlantic Coastal Plain from southern Virginia to northern Florida (essentially the same range as Carolina bays). Unlike Carolina bays, pocosins have been poorly mapped throughout the whole of their range. Wilson (1962) and Richardson (1981) comprehensively mapped the pocosins of North Carolina. It is estimated that ca. 70% of the nation's pocosin habitat occurs in North Carolina and that over 50% of the state's palustrine wetlands are comprised of pocosins (Richardson and Gibbons 2003). Richardson (1981) suggested that ca. 8,300 km2 (3,200 mi2) of unaltered pocosins were drained for other land uses between 1962 and 1979; and ca. 3,700 km2 (1,450 mi2) of unaltered pocosins remained in North Carolina in 1980. Based on the presence of wetland soils (i.e., “soils formed under conditions of saturation, flooding, or ponding long enough during the growing season to develop anaerobic conditions in the upper part” [Vepraskas and Richardson 2001]), North Carolina is estimated to have contained nearly 7.5 million acres (3.03 million hectares) of wetlands prior to European settlement of the state; 95% of these wetlands were located in the Coastal Plain (North Carolina Division of Environmental Management 1994).

Geographic location, soil depth, soil type, surrounding land use, varying hydrology, and fire regimes interact to create vastly different vegetative and wetland assemblages within Carolina bays. Nifong (1998) summarized this diversity, noting that bays included “in some form, virtually every non-marine wetland system found on the southeastern Coastal Plain, including brackish marsh, freshwater pond, freshwater marsh, freshwater prairie, pocosin, bay forest, bog, swamp forest, depression meadow, cypress savanna, and longleaf pine savanna communities, among others”. Other communities found within Carolina bays include Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) plantations, cropland, and open lakes (Carolina bay lakes).

Carolina bays can be divided into two classes based on soil substrate: clay-based bays and peat-based bays. The vast majority of Carolina bay literature has referenced peat-based bays, frequently using terms such as “pocosin” or “evergreen shrub bog” to describe the vegetation growing over deep organic soils. However, there are about 27 bays (as of 1982) located in the Carolinas that contain clay subsoil not overlain with sand or peat (Kelley and Batson 1955, Nifong 1982). These clay-based bays are restricted to Cumberland, Scotland, Hoke, and Robeson Counties in North Carolina. The vegetative physiognomy of clay-based bays differs from peat-based bays in that the structure is more open in the former (i.e., they have a sparse overstory of Taxodium and an herbaceous understory composed mostly of herbaceous taxa). However, clay-based bays do share some of the classical Carolina bay morphology features (e.g., elliptical boundaries, varying size, sand rims) with peat-based Carolina bays.

Clay-based bays are species-rich communities, often supporting rare taxa within their boundaries (Nifong 1982). Clay-based bays in high quality condition typically have an open canopy with a species-rich herbaceous understory. Fire and water level fluctuations are two disturbance regimes that account for the diversity found in these bays (Sutter and Kral 1994, Nifong 1998). Peat based bays are more prevalent throughout the Coastal Plain of the Carolinas. Peat-based bays are not as restricted to the inner Coastal Plain and are not as floristically rich as high quality clay-based bays.

Bladen County, North Carolina, is well-known for its many Carolina bays. Nifong (1998) found 617 Carolina bays within Bladen County; of these, 325 were classified as fully vegetated and 292 were classified as cleared (i.e., > 50% of their natural vegetation removed). Bladen County hosts the densest cluster of unaltered bays in the state (the county is fourth densest for bays in any condition). The majority of the bays in Bladen County are found in the Cape Fear River Valley, between the Cape Fear River and the South and Black Rivers. All of these bays are considered peat-based bays. Among extent Carolina bay lakes, all but one occur in Bladen County.

Carolina bays should not be confused with pocosins; they are two distinct physiographic features that just so happen to coexist with one another on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. These two landscape features differ from one another and using the terms synonymously is a common mistake among both laymen and professionals (Ross 2003). The term pocosin originated as an eastern Algonquian term meaning “swamp-on-a-hill” (Richardson 1983). It is defined by Ross (2003) as “a Coastal Plain wetland area of variable shape and size in an area of poor surface drainage whose vegetation is mostly broad-leafed evergreen shrubs and Pinus serotina Michx. growing on organic peaty soils” and by Brinson (1991) as “ecosystems dominated by woody, predominantly evergreen species and that normally occur on histosols (organic peat or muck soils ≥ 40 cm deep) or on soils with a histic epipedon (uppermost soil horizon used to classify a soil)”. Pocosins typically are located on broad, flat, interstream areas or near estuaries where rising sea levels affect their hydrology and hinder their drainage. Although there may be “pocosin-like vegetation” within a Carolina bay, the features are structurally of different origins. Unlike Carolina bays, the origin of pocosins is generally more understood (Whitehead 1972, Whitehead 1981, Brinson 1991, Richardson and Gibbons 1993).

Brinson (1991) attributed pocosin formation and subsequent persistence to two factors: climate and topography. Climate, he attested, “determines the exchange of matter and thermal energy between pocosins and the atmosphere”. The bulk of this exhange is in the form of precipitation, much of which is lost to evapotranspiration following its input. Brinson (1991) added “while the muted topographic relief of the Atlantic Coastal Plain is probably the main contributor to pocosin formation, the feedback between climate and topography is likely essential”. In summary, pocosins have formed in landscape positions with low topgraphic relief where the regional climate and lack of surficial hydrologic connections with adjacent wetland systems interact to form ombrotrophic conditions. Here, organic matter in the form of dead terrestrial vegetation is deposited onto wetland soils and accumlates at a slow, consistent rate through geologic time, resulting in the formation of pocosins.

Historically, the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains supported a heterogeneous landscape of longleaf pine savannas, xeric sandhills, upland mixed-pine hardwoods, pocosins, Carolina bays, bottomland hardwood forests, natural lakes, and black and brown-water river systems (Garren 1943, Christensen 1999). However, it is now a highly fragmented and fire-suppressed region dominated by agriculture, residential developments, and large cities with few large intact parcels of natural ecosystems remaining. Demotechnic growth (Wetzel 2001, Dudgeon et al. 2006), global warming (Smith and Tirpak 1989), increasing agricultural production (Tilman et al. 2002), fire supression (Nowacki and Abrams 2008, Palmquist et al. 2014), urbanization (Terando et al. 2014), shoreline development (Radomski and Goeman 2001, Ford and Flaspohler 2010, Frost and Hicks 2012), and introduction of invasive species (Pimentel et al. 2005) continue to threaten and encroach upon the few “natural”, intact, terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems remaining in the Southeast, including Carolina bays and bay lakes.

Carolina bays are valuable components of our national and state natural heritage (Nifong 1998). Their variable hydrology and size, presence of rare and endemic taxa, and isolated landscape position, make them valuable habitats for southeastern flora and fauna and provide important ecosystem services (Suppl. material 4). Unfortunately, Carolina bays and other palustrine wetland systems have suffered from extensive habitat loss and degradation during the past three centuries (Bennett and Nelson 1991, Mitsch and Gosselink 1993, North Carolina Division of Environmental Management 1996, Kirkman et al. 1996, Nifong 1998). Using 1988 aerial imagery, Nifong (1998) found 8,057 Carolina bays in the state of North Carolina. Of these 8,057 total bays, 6,331 (79%) had more than half of their natural vegetation removed.

Sharitz and Gibbons (1982) and Nifong (1998) suggested several ways to better preserve and manage Carolina bays in the future. For an excellent review on the copious amount of Carolina bay literature available, see Ross (2000), Ross (2003); and for detail specifically about bays in the Carolinas, see Nifong (1998).

Carolina Bay Lakes

Several Carolina bays in southeastern North Carolina contain large (i.e., > 50 hectares) natural lakes within their elliptic boundaries (Frey 1949), thereby giving them the name Carolina bay lakes. Each lake is located in the southernmost portion of the elliptical feature known as a Carolina bay (Fig. (Fig.2).2). The northern portions of the bays (i.e., the portions not inundated by lake waters) contain organic, peaty soils and a unique vegetative assemblage comprised of bay trees (Gordonia lasianthus, Magnolia virginiana, Persea palustris), ericaceous shrubs (e.g., Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench, Eubotrys racemosa (L.) Nutt., Kalmia L., Lyonia Nutt., Rhododendron L., Vaccinium L., Zenobia pulverulenta (W. Bartram ex Willd.) Pollard), and several other species well-associated with nutrient-poor soils (e.g., Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., Nyssa biflora Walter, Pinus serotina, and Smilax laurifolia L.).

Figure 2.
Position of Carolina bay lakes within Carolina bays. Carolina bay lakes are located in the southeasternmost portions of Carolina bays. The northern portions of the bays (i.e., the portion not inundated by lake waters) support shrub-bog plants over organic ...

Nine Carolina bay lakes (i.e., Bakers Lake, Bay Tree Lake, Horseshoe Lake, Jones Lake, Lake Waccamaw, Little Singletary Lake, Salters Lake, Singletary Lake and White Lake) are known to exist within the known distribution of Carolina bays. All nine lakes occur in Bladen and Columbus counties, North Carolina (Frey 1949, LeBlond 1995, LeBlond and Grant 2005; Fig. Fig.3).3). Carolina bay lakes, with the exception of Lake Waccamaw and White Lake, are nutrient poor because they receive the bulk of their hydrologic inputs in the form of precipitation. These lakes are also characteristically dystrophic due to the dominance of organic soils within their catchment area. Organic soils do not allow for the rapid decomposition of plant and animal matter, resulting in the high amount of humic substances found in the water column.

Figure 3.
Geographic location of all nine Carolina bay lakes (green text boxes). Bladen County (light yellow) supports eight of the nine Carolina bay lakes known to exist; all eight lakes occur within the Cape Fear River Valley between the Cape Fear River and South ...

Although some Carolina bays may contain shallow marshes or ponds (Bennett and Nelson 1991, Nifong 1998), these are not considered lakes. There is no universally accepted technical definition that distinguishes a lake from a pond (Heinonen et al. 2008); however, it seems reasonable to accept as distinguishing that lakes have a clearly defined littoral and profundal zone, a larger overall size (>8 hectares), a shoreline exposed to wave dynamics, greater water depth, a mixing of the water column by wind induced turbulence, and the ability to retain the bulk of their water volume even in years of drought (Cowardin et al. 1979, Moss et al. 1996, Williams et al. 2004, Biggs et al. 2005, Brönmark and Hansson 2005).

Carolina bays are considered to be geographically isolated wetlands with their primary water source coming directly from precipitation (Sharitz 2003, Tiner 2003). Although the vast majority of Carolina bays lack surface water connections to outside aquatic systems, Carolina bay lakes are an exception. Carolina bay lakes all contain drainage outlets--usually along their southern shorelines, but in the northwest for White Lake (Frey 1949)--that release excess water into the Cape Fear and Waccamaw River drainages during periods of high precipitation. However, during years of scarce rainfall, these lakes are more or less isolated from surrounding lotic systems and are confined to their basins (N. Howell, pers. obs.).

Lacustrine Zonation (derived from Wetzel 2001)

Lakes, including Carolina bay lakes, can be divided into distinct transitional zones, moving from the shoreline to the center of the lake (Fig. (Fig.44).

Figure 4.
Lacustrine zonation. EPI = epilittoral zone, EU = eulittoral zone. Aerial imagery obtained from NRCS Geospatial Data Gateway: https://gdg.sc.egov.usda.gov. Map Produced by Nathan Howell using ArcGis Desktop: Version 10.2.2. (Environmental Systems Research ...

(1) Epilittoral zone: The zone that lies entirely above the lake surface and is not influenced by the spray of surf. This zone can be thought of as the terrestrial or upland zone; the highest water levels never reach it and it is not affected by lakeshore dynamics or hydrology.

(2) Supralittoral zone: The zone that lies entirely above the lake surface and is influenced by the spray of the surf.

(3) Eulittoral zone: The zone encompassing the entire region of the shoreline from the highest and lowest seasonal water levels. This zone experiences natural disturbances such as water level fluctuations and wave dynamics.

(4) Infralittoral zone: This zone is subdivided into three zones in relation to the occurrence and distribution of the major classes of aquatic macrophytes: upper infralittoral zone where emergent rooted macrophytes persist; middle infralittoral zone where floating-leaved rooted macrophytes occur; and lower infralittoral zone where submersed-rooted, adnate, or free-floating macrophytes occur. The eulittoral and infralittoral zones collectively constitute the littoral zone.

(5) Littoriprofundal zone: The zone occupied by photosynthetic algae and bacteria, often associated with the metalimnion (i.e., the stratum between the epilimnion and hypolimnion representing a marked thermal change; also synonymous with thermocline) of stratified lakes.

(6) Profundal zone: The zone that consists of the remainder of the vegetation free sediments.

The Littoral Zone

The littoral zone of lakes (i.e., the eulittoral and infralittoral zones) is an important transition zone between adjacent uplands and the deeper pelagic area of the lake. This zone contains vascular macrophytes (i.e., aquatic vascular plants large enough to see with the naked eye) that have evolved from their terrestrial ancestors to cope with the physical and physiological demands of persisting in an aquatic environment (Sculthorpe 1967, Wetzel 2001, Brönmark and Hansson 2005, Keddy 2010). The vascular macrophytes and coarse woody debris that exist in this zone provide critical habitat for zooplankton, photosynthetic and heterotrophic microflora, macroinvertebrates, herpetofauna, avifauna, fish, and mammals (Brusnyk and Gilbert 1983, Pieczynska 1990, North Carolina Division of Environmental Management 1996, Wetzel 2001, Keddy 2010, Ewert et al. 2011). The littoral zone is characterized by having high productivity, including some of the highest rates of organic matter synthesis in the biosphere (Wetzel 2001).

Aquatic Macrophytes (derived from Wetzel 2001)

Aquatic macrophytes may be divided into four classes. Moving from the shoreline out to deeper water, these classes are as follows [taxa vouchered or reported from Carolina bay lakes are indicated by c]:

(1) Emergent macrophytes: Species rooted in saturated and inundated soils with a water depth up to 1.5 meters; root systems remain in anoxic soil conditions while leaves and reproductive organs stay above the water surface. These plants are often rhizomatous, stoloniferous, or cormous with the potential to reproduce asexually. Heterophyllous (i.e., when a plant exhibits vegetative polymorphism, having morphologically different submersed and aerial organs) species may also be emergent. Examples of genera that may be grouped in this category include Carex L.c, Cephalanthus L.c, Cladium P. Brownec, Juncus L.c, Panicum L.c, Pontederia L.c, Rhynchospora Vahlc, Scirpus L.c, and Typha L.

(2) Floating-leaved macrophytes: Species rooted in the substratum with floating leaves attached to long flexible petioles or on short petioles attached to an ascending stem.

Submersed leaves precede the floating leaves in heterophyllous species. Reproductive organs remain atop or above the water surface. Examples of genera grouped into this category include Brasenia Schreb.c, Nelumbo Adans.c, Nuphar Sm.c, Nymphaea L.c, Nymphoides Ség.c, and Potamogeton Lc.

(3) Submersed macrophytes: Species that remain completely submersed in the water column, but are rooted to the substratum. Leaf morphology is highly variable in this group, from finely dissected to very broad, and reproductive organs may be emersed, floating, or submersed. Examples of genera included in this group are Ceratophyllum L., Isoetes L., and Myriophyllum Lc.

(4) Freely floating macrophytes: Species that remain unattached to the substratum and are completely dependent upon the nutrients in the water column for survival. Reproductive organs may be floating or aerial. Examples of genera include Azolla Lam., Eichhornia Kunth, Hydrocharis L., Limnobium Rich., Trapa L., and Utricularia Lc.

Factors affecting Aquatic Macrophyte Richness in Lakes

Lacoul and Freedman (2006) provided a thorough review on how various environmental influences affect aquatic plants in freshwater systems. A few of these environmental factors are reviewed below.

Latitude

It is well known that generally the number of species occuring at the equator greatly exceeds that of the temperate and northern latitudes (Edmonds 1997). Although this general rule applies across most groups of taxa, it does not seem to apply to aquatic plants. Crow (1993) found that aquatic plants are more diverse in temperate rather than tropical latitudes. When comparing temperate wetland floras to those of tropical climes, this pattern is reinforced (Stuckey 1975, Henry and Scott 1984, Peet and Allard 1993, Ruch et al. 2009). Because Carolina bay lakes differ little in latitude, this factor does not significantly affect species richness in these systems.

pH and Alkalinity

Peat-based Carolina bays are known to have acidic (< 7 pH), nutrient poor, organic soils (Daniels et al. 1984, Leab 1990, Newman and Schalles 1990). In many respects, these isolated wetlands of the Southeast are quite similar to the peatlands of the northern United States and Canada. Floristic diversity in peatlands has been shown to increase with increased levels of calcium and alkalinity in the groundwater (Glaser et al. 1990, Vitt and Chee 1990). Similarly, aquatic macrophyte richness of lakes tends to be lower in unproductive lakes with low pH (e.g., Carolina bay lakes) and higher in more productive lakes with higher alkalinities (Roelofs 1983, Roberts et al. 1985, Rørslett 1991, Dodson et al. 2000, Vestergaard and Sand-Jensen 2000, Søndergaard et al. 2005).

Water Color

Waters with increased levels of humic substances are typically, dystrophic, acidic, and tea-stained. Tea-stained waters are not as transparent as lakes with low humic substances, thus humic lakes have a shallow euphotic zone and a narrow littoral zone, reducing the abundance and depth at which aquatic macrophytes may grow (Spence 1982). Vestergaard and Sand-Jensen (2000) also saw decreased richness in aquatic macrophytes when water transparency was low. An excellent example of how increased humic substances affect water transparency and macrophyte richness and composition can be seen when comparing White Lake to the other Carolina bay lakes. White Lake is an oligotrophic lake with transparent water due to the presence of natural springs on the lake floor. Secchi depths commonly reach to the bottom of the lake (3m/10 ft) and submerged aquatic macrophytes are able to colonize the deepest portions of the lake with ease (i.e., the euphotic zone is deep compared to the other bay lakes).

Hydrography

Frey (1949) documented the morphometry and hydrography of the Carolina bay lakes and determined that the southern portions of the lakes possessed a gentle, tapering hydrography while the northern portions possessed a steep hydrography. Floristic inventories by the first author confirm that aquatic macrophyte richness is higher along southern shorelines; so much so, that the surveying of northern shorelines was abandoned early in the life of the project. A broad sandy terrace occurring along the southern shore of Lake Waccamaw (Fig. (Fig.5)5) creates a wide littoral zone compared to other Carolina bay lakes. This stretch of shoreline, with its gentle hydrography, is known to support over 140 species of wetland plants, while the Bladen lakes, with their comparatively steeper hydrography, are known to support < 55 wetland plant taxa (see floristic summary).

Figure 5.
Broad, shallow, sandy terrace along Lake Waccamaw’s southern shoreline. The gentle relief of this terrace creates a wide littoral zone. Wide littoral zones are more floristically diverse and contain more available area for the establishment of ...

Lake Size

As a general rule, species richness usually increases with increasing area (Arrhenius 1921, Williams 1964, Connor and McCoy 1979, Rosenzweig and M.L. 1995, Søndergaard et al. 2005). Findlay and Houlahan (1997) found that species richness increased with area sampled for birds, mammals, hepertofauna, and plants in southeastern Ontario wetlands. Results from this work also support these findings with Bakers Lake (i.e., the smallest bay lake) supporting the least diverse littoral zone flora and Lake Waccamaw (i.e., the largest bay lake) supporting the most species-rich littoral zone flora. Other large natural lakes of North Carolina Coastal Plain (e.g., Lake Phelps, Lake Mattamuskeet, Lake Waccamaw) are known to support diverse shoreline floras, more so than the smaller lakes of the region (Lynch and Peacock 1982, Schafale 2012; N. Howell, pers. obs.).

Water Level Variation, Disturbance, and Soil Fertility

Keddy and Fraser (2000) summarized factors that govern littoral zone diversity irrespective of geographic location or size. Three environmental factors (i.e., water levels, soil fertility, and disturbance) govern the composition and floral diversity of littoral zones. Shorelines exposed to intermediate levels of natural disturbances will support a richer flora than those experiencing little to no disturbances and those experiencing extremely harsh disturbances. Natural disturbances may include wave action, ice scour, water level fluctuations, fire, or grazing. If water level fluctuations were absent from a lake or similar waterbody (e.g., in a permanently impounded pond), a two-staged littoral zone would result, with aquatic macrophytes in the aquatic zone and shrubs and trees in the terrestrial zone. Under long-term water level fluctuations, a multi-staged littoral zone would result, leading to increased heterogeneity and a richer flora. Keddy and Fraser (2000) attested that “simply changing water levels from one year to the next doubles the number of vegetation types”. Rørslett (1991) observed that northern European lakes experiencing water level fluctuations of 1–2 meters per year showed greater macrophyte richness than sites experiencing little or intense disturbances. Carolina bay lakes historically would have experienced long-term water level fluctuations, but the installation of water control structures (i.e., dams) in some of the lakes outlet channels has resulted in more stabilized systems (N. Howell, pers. obs.).

Shorelines exposed to frequent disturbances typically have silt and clay stripped from them; and consequently, contain few nutrients. Sheltered shorelines receive clay and silt deposits and therefore contain a higher nutrient content. Foreshores will have a distinct vegetative community characterized as having low biomass and rare species, while backshores (bays or backwater areas sheltered from disturbance) will support a higher biomass community composed of a few clonal dominants (Keddy 2010). Macrophyte richness is always higher in areas of intermediate disturbance. Eutrophification of littoral zones causes increased soil fertility, which increases biomass and negatively impacts macrophyte richness and rare plant taxa.

Study Sites

Bakers Lake

Bakers Lake (30.35 hectares; 75 acres) is a small, privately owned, Carolina bay lake, located in northwestern Bladen County between Little Singletary Lake and the Cape Fear River north of Thoroughfare Bay, ca. 1.5−2 miles east of the intersection of SR 1318 (Old River Road) and SR 1320 (Middle Road; LeBlond and Grant 2005; Fig. Fig.6).6). This site is located along the northwest boundary of the Bladen Lakes Macrosite, a large tract of undeveloped and relatively unfragmented land between the Cape Fear, South, and Black River systems (LeBlond and Grant 2005; Figs Figs7,7, ,8).8). The macrosite extends from southern Cumberland County, through Bladen County, and into southwestern Pender County. This large area is given the name “macrosite” because it contains numerous “standard sites” (i.e., smaller tracts of land with high ecological integrity) that are strongly geographically associated with one another. The majority of the macrosite is located in Bladen County and contains the largest concentration of unaltered, intact, Carolina bays.

Figure 6.
Bakers Lake and surrounding lands. Bakers Lake is located in northern Bladen County and is surrounded by a mix of agriculture and forestland. Aerial imagery, transportation, and hydrography layers obtained from NRCS Geospatial Data Gateway: https://gdg.sc.egov.usda.gov ...
Figure 7.
Bladen Lakes Macrosite (vector). The Bladen Lakes Macrosite (hatched pattern) is a large area encompassing parts of southern Cumberland County, eastern Bladen County, and northwest Pender County. Historically, macrosites were established by the North ...
Figure 8.
Bladen Lakes Macrosite (ortho). The North Carolina Natural Heritage Program no longer uses macrosites as viable natural area boundaries, but here it is useful to show the extent of the Bladen Lakes Macrosite boundary. Note the large areas of fragmented ...

Dr. Clemuel Johnson and wife Nancy Johnson, of Elizabethtown, have owned Bakers Lake and surrounding lands (451.40 hectares; 1,155.45 acres) since 1980. Prior to the Johnson’s ownership, Agnes Holden Williams owned the lake and surrounding lands. Ms. Williams’ father acquired the land from an unknown seller during the early 20th century. This seller was able to successfully purchase the lake before 1929, when North Carolina legislation mandated that all lakes greater than 50 acres in size be made property of the state.

Bakers Lake forms the headwaters of Phillips Creek, which drains southward into the Cape Fear River. Bakers Lake Natural Area (i.e., Bakers Lake bay and immediate surrounding lands) is known to support five natural community types (i.e., Pond Pine Woodland – Typic Subtype (S3,G3), Peatland Atlantic White Cedar Forest (S1,G2), Low Pocosin – Gallberry/Fetterbush Subtype (S2,G2), Sand Barren – Typic Subtype (S2,G2), and Natural Lake Shoreline – Cypress Subtype (S2,G3; LeBlond and Grant 2005). Bakers Lake has been known to support heron rookeries and small populations of the state rare Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga [W2; S3B, G5]; LeGrand et al. 2014) during the spring and summer months (S. Clark, pers. comm.; N. Howell, pers. obs.). In addition, the site provides important stopover habitat for large flocks of migrating waterfowl (e.g., Aix sponsa [Wood Duck], Anas americana [American Widgeon], Anas clypeata [Northern Shoveler], Anas crecca [Green-winged Teal], Anas discors [Blue-winged Teal], Anas platyrhynchos [Mallard], Anas strepera [Gadwall], Aythya collaris [Ring-necked Duck], Aythya valisineria [Canvasback], Branta canadensis [Canada Goose], Bucephela albeola [Bufflehead], Lyphodytes cucullatus [Hooded Merganser], Oxyura jamaicensis [Ruddy Duck; G. German and S. Clark, pers. comm; N. Howell pers. obs.).

Anthropogenic disturbances (i.e., silvicultural practices, dam installation in the outflow channel, agricultural fields, confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), fire supression, and rural residential development) have either been documented on site or on adjacent properties (LeBlond and Grant 2005; S. Clark, pers. comm.). These disturbances have lowered the integrity of several of the aforementioned natural community types within and adjacent to Bakers Lake Natural Area (N. Howell, pers. obs.), but restoration potential is still relatively high. The installation of a flashboard riser system in the outflow channel has altered the natural hydrology of the lake and caused natural water level fluctuations to essentially cease. Following the installation of the dam, the lake consistently stays at a high level, thus narrowing the littoral zone and forcing aquatic macrophytes to occur at or just below the maximum annual high water mark (N. Howell, pers. obs.).

The water quality of Baker’s Lake has not been formally tested by state agencies, but appears high in humic substances (N. Howell, pers. obs.) and the chemistry is likely similar to that of the other Bladen lakes. The lake is here considered dystrophic and relatively unproductive.

Bay Tree Lake

Bay Tree Lake (formerly Black Lake; 588.81 hectares; 1,455 acres) is a large, state-owned Carolina bay lake, located in east-central Bladen County along NC Hwy 41 east of White Lake and west of NC Hwy 210. Bay Tree Lake is part of Bay Tree Lake State Park, a 1,006.85 hectare (2,488 acre) park that includes Bay Tree Lake bay and large parcels of land lying to the north and west of Bay Tree Lake (Fig. (Fig.99).

Figure 9.
Bay Tree Lake State Park (highlighted in green) and surrounding lands. Lands surrounding Bay Tree Lake State Park to the south are privately owned and have been partially converted to agriculture. Black Creek Bay and several others in the vicinity have ...

The North Carolina General Assembly passed legislation in 1911 confirming the status of Bay Tree Lake as a state-owned public trust resource (North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Planning and Development Section 2006b). Historically, Bay Tree Lake was not included within the original natural area site boundary determined by the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program (NCNHP) due to high levels of shoreline disturbance. Today, the lake is considered part of the natural area due to the presence of three rare dragonflies (Gomphus australis [Clearlake Clubtail], Gomphus cavillaris brimleyi [Brimley’s “Sandhill” Clubtail], and Progomphus bellei [Belle’s Sanddragon]) that utilize the lake throughout their life cycle.

In January 1965, a private land development group had the option to purchase 5,665.59 hectares (14,000 acres) of land surrounding Bay Tree Lake with the intent of creating an inland resort community (North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Planning and Development Section 1996a). Later that year, a proposal was constructed and sent to the North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development concerning the drainage of Bay Tree Lake. The purpose for draining the lake was to improve the quality of the water and lake bottom for recreational purposes (e.g., swimming and boating). Permission to lower lake levels 4 feet was granted in 1965 and in January of 1966, the development group made a request to completely drain the lake where peat deposits and debris could be taken from the lake bottom (North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Planning and Development Section 1996a).

The purpose of the drainage project was to release tannic, tea-colored, waters from the lake and divert all incoming tannic waters from a northerly adjacent swamp to below the outflow channel. Drainage of the lake was completed in the winter of 1966. The lake remained dry for 5 years while developers removed debris and peat deposits and imported large quantities of white sand, which would later be distributed around the entirety of the lakeshore. In 1970, the lakes outflow channel was plugged and the lake began to refill (North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Planning and Development Section 1996a). After two years, the lake had nearly reached its original water levels. Shortly after residential lots went for sale, a breach of the lake rim occurred and tea-stained waters were allowed to re-enter the lake. The breach was plugged within 24 hours, but the lake had already returned to its original dystrophic condition (North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Planning and Development Section 1996a). The lake has not been significantly altered since and remains in a dystrophic condition to this day.

Bay Tree Lake State Park contains five natural community types (Mesic Pine Savanna – Coastal Plain Subtype [S2,G2G3]; Sand Barren – Typic Subtype [S2,G2]; Small Depression Drawdown Meadow – Typic Subtype [S2S3,G2?]; Small Depression Pocosin – Blueberry Subtype [S2,G3?]; and Xeric Sandhill Scrub – Typic Subtype [S3S4,G3?]. A Natural Lake Shoreline community was not assigned to Bay Tree Lake by the NCNHP due to the shoreline’s disturbance history. The present authors agree with this determination and have chosen not to assign a natural lake shoreline community to this site. However, it is worth noting that the shoreline flora of Bay Tree Lake differs only slightly from the other Bladen Lakes.

Bay Tree Lake forms the headwaters of Lake Creek, a small blackwater creek that drains southeast to the South River (the boundary between Bladen and Sampson counties). Much of the land surounding Bay Tree Lake State Park has been cleared for agriculture (particularly blueberry farms) and has limited the landscape connectivity between it and other intact natural areas. Several bay complexes occur in the immediate vicinity of Bay Tree Lake including Beagle Bay, Black Creek Bay, Causeway Bay, Cooley Bay, Horsepen Bay (now an artificially created lake/pond), Floodgate Bay, Kelso Bay, and Spring Bay. A residential resort community is located along the north and east shorelines of the lake. The boundaries of this community have continued to extend around the east and southeast shorelines. Residential development, agricultural expansion, severe offroad vehicle use, and fire supression are the primary threats to biological diversity within and around Bay Tree Lake State Park (N. Howell pers. obs.). Available water quality parameters for Bay Tree Lake are provided in Table Table11.

Table 1.
Water Quality Data for Bay Tree Lake (Bladen County, North Carolina). Frey (1949) sampled Bay Tree Lake 6 times during the Summer and Fall of 1947. Weiss and Kuenzler (1976) sampled Bay Tree Lake twice in 1974 (March 22 and June 6) and 4 times in 1975 ...

Horseshoe Lake

Horseshoe Lake (also known as Suggs Mill Pond; 109 hectares; ca. 270 acres) is an irregularly shaped Carolina bay lake located in northern Bladen County south of Bushy Lake State Natural Area, east of Little Singletary Lake, north of SR 1325 (Gum Springs Rd), and west of SR 1002 (Old Fayetteville Rd). Horseshoe Lake is one of two Carolina bay lakes within Suggs Mill Pond Game Land (4469.34 hectares; 11,044 acres; Fig. Fig.10),10), the other being Little Singletary Lake. Suggs Mill Pond Game Land is owned by the State of North Carolina and the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC) and is located in northern Bladen County and southern Cumberland County. This game land is located in the northwestern portion of the Bladen Lakes Macrosite and contains one of the largest remaining examples of unaltered Carolina bay complexes.

Figure 10.
Suggs Mill Pond Game Land (outlined in green) and surrounding lands. Lands north of the red dividing line occur in Cumberland County while lands south of the red line occur in Bladen County. Suggs Mill Pond Game Land contains two large bay lakes within ...

The state first gained rights to the property in 1994 when a 62-acre (25 ha) parcel was donated to the NCWRC from Canal Woods Industries. Thereafter, much of the remaining property was purchased from Canal Woods. The fact that Horseshoe Lake and Little Singletary lake were not owned by the state of North Carolina until the mid-1990s suggests that these lakes were involved in a similar ownership situation as Bakers Lake (i.e., these lakes must have been privately owned prior to 1929 when legislation mandated that all lakes greater than 50 acres (20.2 ha) in size be released to the state of North Carolina). Suggs Mill Pond Game Land is one of four North Carolina game lands enrolled in the Cooperative Upland habitat Restoration and Enhancement program (CURE), where management for early successional habitat is the top priority (Allen et al. 2015). Traditionally, hunters and fishermen were primary users of Suggs Mill Pond Game Land, but an increasing number of non-traditional users (i.e., birders, canoers, hikers, photographers, and researchers) visit the site regularly.

The largest bay on site contains a horsehoe-shaped artificial impoundment (Horseshoe Lake). Horseshoe Lake forms the headwaters of Ellis Creek, which drains southwest to the Cape Fear River. Although an old milldam currently maintains Horseshoe Lake, it is thought that a smaller body of open water may have been present prior to the dam’s installation in the late 19th or early 20th centuries. Horseshoe Lake was formed subsequent to the dam installation, as water levels began to rise into the peat-filled Carolina bay. Today, it is best described as a semi-permanent impoundment; however, the presence of floating bogs within the lake makes it unique from other semi-permanent impoundments in North Carolina. Parts of the lake support patches of the rare floating bog community (the largest extent known from the state), which is dominated by sedges, orchids, carnivorous plants, and ericaceous shrubs. Other portions comprise the Coastal Plain Semipermanent Impoundment community, which is characterized by open water, dominated by floating-leaved macrophytes, and a sparse overstory of Taxodium ascendens Brongn.

The floating bog community type is quite unique. Manifestations of this community type occur just above the water surface and range in size from ca. 10 × 10 m to a few hectares in size (N. Howell, pers. obs.). Some bogs may contain well-developed herbaceous vegetation in addition to small (e.g., < 3 m tall) trees of Chamaecyparis thyoides, Nyssa biflora, and Taxodium ascendens, while others contain a strictly herbaceous component. Exposed portions of peat can be seen around the peripheries of some bogs; here, Drosera intermedia Hayne, Eleocharis baldwinii (Torr.) Chapm. /E. vivipara Link, Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Ker Gawl, Utricularia striata Leconte ex Torr., Utricularia purpurea Walter, and other small-statured herbaceous plants can be seen colonizing the apparently young peat formations. Isolated floating bogs (i.e., bogs surrounded by open water and separated from adjacent bogs and upland habitats) of varying size show a consistent zonation pattern. Small statured herbaceous taxa colonize the outer periphery and are slowly replaced by larger herbaceous taxa (Andropogon glaucopsis, Dulichium arundinaceum (L.) Britton, Hypericum virginicum L., Rhexia nashii Small, Rhynchospora alba (L.) Vahl, Rhynchospora inundata (Oakes) Fernald, Xyris fimbriata Elliott, and Xyris smalliana Nash) and woody species (Acer rubrum L., Chamaecyparis thyiodes, Decodon verticillatus (L.) Elliott, Nyssa biflora, and Taxodium ascendens) when moving toward the center. Thus, a dome-shaped appearance is typically seen.

Few examples of floating bogs or mats of vegetation are known to science. The floating peat mats of New Hampshire are most similar to those of Horseshoe Lake. These peat mats possess the same general structure and abiotic conditions as those of Horseshoe Lake and are known to contain several overlapping taxa, inculding Drosera intermedia, Dulichium arundinaceum, Eleocharis R. Br. spp., Hypericum virginicum, Nymphaea odorata W.T. Aiton, Rhynchospora alba, and Utricularia spp. (New Hampshire Division of Forests and Lands 2015).

A separate but similar case of floating vegetation mats, forming as a result of dam installation, has been observed at Goose Creek Reservoir in South Carolina (Hunt 1943). In 1933, a dam was installed on Goose Creek, ca. 12 miles north of Charleston, subsequently flooding historic rice plantations that had reverted to brackish marsh vegetation. Hunt (1943) described the zonation (looking across to the center of the mat from the outer periphery) of a typical floating mat as follows: (1) pioneer zone (i.e., the outer margins of the mats): Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., Bidens laevis (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw., Habenaria repens, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f., Persicaria glabra (Willd.) M. Gómez, and Sacciolepis striata (L.) Nash, (2) the cat-tail/shrub zone: Kosteletzkya pentacarpos (L.) Ledeb., Typha latifolia L., and Salix nigra Marshall, and (3) the main body: Acer rubrum, Apios americana Medik., Decodon verticillatus, Mikania scandens (L.) Willd., Panicum virgatum L. var. virgatum, Persea palustris, Rubus L. spp., and Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.

The floating “sudd” vegetation of the upper Nile River is also somewhat similar, forming large floating mats of marsh vegetation both along the margins and within the river. Denny (1984) gave a general description of the sudd vegetation as seen only from a boat. Several taxa commonly observed along the margins of the Sudd included: Ceratophyllum demersum L., Cyperus papyrus L., Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud., Typha domingensis Pers., Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. A complete checklist of the vascular plants collected from this vegetative study can be found in the attached appendix of Denny (1984).

Eleven natural community types exist within Suggs Mill Pond Game Land, but the low and high pocosin communities are dominant, comprising 48% (2,119.74 hectares; 5,238 acres) of the site (Allen et al. 2015). Lakes and impoundments make up 8.6% (381.21 hectares; 942 acres) of the total acreage of the game land. Fair to high quality landscape connections exist between Suggs Mill Pond Game Land and adjacent natural areas within the Bladen Lakes Macrosite (i.e., Bushy Lake State Natural Area, Charlie Long Mill Pond/Big Colly Bay Natural Area, Jessups Pond, Mill Pond Bay Natural Area, and White Pond Bay Natural Area; LeBlond and Grant 2005). These connections to other large natural areas provide relatively uninterrupted habitat for the movement of plants and animals. Records of Horseshoe Lake’s water quality are lacking, but the lakes water appears high in humic substances and the chemistry is more than likely similar to the other Bladen Lakes. The lake is dystrophic and probably exhibits a pH of < 5.

Jones Lake

Jones Lake (91.05 hectares; 225 acres) is one of two dystrophic Carolina bay lakes located within Jones Lake State Park (893.54 hectares; 2,208 acres; Fig. Fig.11),11), the other being Salters Lake. This lake is located in central Bladen County four miles north of Elizabethtown west of NC Hwy 242 and east of NC Hwy 53. Jones Lake State Parkforms the headwaters of an unnamed tributary of Turnbull Creek, which drains into the Cape Fear River. The state park sits on a sandy terrace (of Upper Pleistocene age) of the Cape Fear River (Soller 1988). Jones Lake was originally referred to as Woodward’s Lake, after Samuel Woodward, justice of the peace for the area in 1734 (North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Planning and Development Section 2006b). It is believed that the lake later received its current name from Isaac Jones, an adjacent landowner to Samuel Wooodward, on whose land Elizabethtown was later established in 1773. Jones Lake State Park was established in 1939 and became the first state park specifically devoted to African Americans (North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development 1940).

Figure 11.
Jones Lake State Park (outlined in green) and surrounding lands. Jones Lake State Park is located between state highways 53 and 242, north of the Cape Fear River. Aerial imagery, transportation, and hydrography layers obtained from NRCS Geospatial Data ...

LeBlond and Grant (2005) described both Jones and Salters Lakes as “among the very best examples of Carolina bay lakes in nearly pristine condition”. Jones Lake State Park is connected by fair to high quality landscape connections to Bethel Flatwoods, Cotton Bay Sand Ridge, Tatum Mill Pond/Cypress Bay, and Turnbull Creek Swamp natural areas.

Eleven natural community types have been described from Jones Lake State Park (i.e., Bay Forest, Coastal Plain Small Stream Swamp, High Pocosin, Low Pocosin, Natural Lake Shoreline, Peatland Atlantic White Cedar Forest, Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill Mixed Oak Variant, Pond Pine Woodland, Wet Pine Flatwoods Wet Spodosol Variant, Xeric Sandhill Scrub Coastal Plain Variant, Xeric Sandhill Scrub Sandbarren Variant; LeBlond and Grant 2005, Schafale 2012), several of which are of extremely high quality and globally rare, such as the Low Pocosin, Peatland Atlantic White Cedar Forest, and Xeric Sandhill Scrub (LeBlond and Grant 2005, Schafale 2012). Available water quality parameters for Jones Lake are provided in Table Table22.

Table 2.
Water Quality Data for Jones Lake (Bladen County, North Carolina). Frey (1949) sampled Jones Lake 9 times during the Summer and Fall of 1947. Weiss and Kuenzler (1976) sampled Jones Lake twice in 1974 (March 22 and June 6) and 4 times in 1975 (April 7, ...

Lake Waccamaw

Lake Waccamaw is located south of the township of Lake Waccamaw, between Friar Swamp to the northeast, and the Waccamaw River to the south. It is the only Carolina bay lake located in Columbus County and is the largest Carolina bay and bay lake (3,617.48 hectares; 8,939 acres) in North Carolina (LeBlond 1995). Lake Waccamaw is the third largest lake in North Carolina behind Lake Mattamuskeet and Lake Phelps. The lake is part of Lake Waccamaw State Park (4,327.70 hectares; 10,694 acres; Fig. Fig.12),12), which also includes lands directly abutting the lake’s southern shoreline. Stager and Cahoon (1987) estimated Lake Waccamaw to be ca. 15,000 years old or less.

Figure 12.
Lake Waccamaw State Park (outlined in green) and surrounding lands. Lake Waccamaw State Park is a large state park encompassing Lake Waccamaw and adjacent swampland and uplands. Aerial imagery, transportation, and hydrography layers obtained from NRCS ...

Prior to European civilization in the Southeast, the Waccamaw-Sioux Native American peoples, one of five Native American tribes known to inhabit the Cape Fear Region, inhabited the lands surrounding the lake (North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Planning and Development Section 2006a). Native American artifacts, including dugout canoes, dating back to 1015−315 B.P. have been found within and around Lake Waccamaw. In the early 18th century, an unknown young man traveled through Columbus County on his way from north Georgia and, upon seeing Lake Waccamaw, described it as “the most pleasantest place that ever I saw in my life. It is at least eighteen miles round, surrounded with exceeding good land, as oak of all sorts, hickory and fine cypress swamps” (Gentleman 1737).

This bay lake differs from the Bladen lakes in its larger size, neutral pH, mesotrophic status, and presence of alluvial hydrologic inputs (Big Creek). Tea-stained waters from Friar Swamp are delivered into northeast Lake Waccamaw via Big Creek, the largest of several creeks draining into the lake from Friar Swamp. Lake Waccamaw forms the headwaters of the Waccamaw River, a species-rich river system known to support several rare plant (e.g., Fimbristylis perpusilla R.M. Harper ex Small & Britton, Ilex amelanchier M.A. Curtis ex Chapm., Lipocarpha micrantha (Vahl) G.C. Tucker, Oldenlandia boscii (DC.) Chapm., Rhynchospora decurrens Chapm., and Sabatia kennedyana Fernald) and animal taxa (Alligator mississipiensis [American Alligator], Elliptio folliculata [Pod Lance], Etheostoma perlongum [Waccamaw Darter], Lampsilis ochracea [Tidewater Mucket], Menidia extensa [Waccamaw Silverside], Noturus spp. 2 [Broadtail Madtom], and Procambarus leptodactylus [Pee Dee Lotic Crayfish; LeBlond 1995]).

Much of the land surrounding Lake Waccamaw has been converted to agriculture (north of the lake) and loblolly pine plantations (south of the lake). A small portion of Lake Waccamaw’s bay is still present on the northern end.

The Coastal Plain Marl Outcrop occurs along a roughly 394 m (1,000 ft.) stretch of northern shoreline and is characterized by having vertical and overhanging low cliffs in the supralittoral zone of the lake. Portions of these cliffs are submerged in the upper eulittoral zone, but local residents privately own terrestrial portions. This marl community is known for supporting the only naturally occuring population of Venus hair fern (Adiantum capillus-veneris L.) in the state.

Shoreline residential development extends along the northern shores of the lake from the lake outlet (southwest corner of lake) to just south of Big Creek. These shorelines support the globally rare Natural Lake Shoreline Marsh (Lake Waccamaw Pondlily Subtype) community. Undeveloped shorelines (i.e., Natural Lake Shoreline Swamp – Lake Waccamaw Subtype) occur from just south of Big Creek to the lake’s outlet. Historically, Lake Waccamaw experienced wide-ranging water level fluctuations determined by precipitation. In 1925, a poorly constructed dam was built at the lakes outlet in an effort to stabilize lake levels for increased recreational use. Before construction began, lake levels were so low that vehicles could be driven to the construction site on the dried lake bed (North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Planning and Development Section 2006a).

The physical and hydrographic nature of Lake Waccamaw’s shoreline also differs from the other bay lakes. Lake Waccamaw’s shoreline is sandy around its entire periphery (Frey 1949), whereas the Bladen lakes may be either sandy or peaty along their shorelines.

A broad, sandy, terrace (lacking in Bladen lakes) is also present along the southeast shoreline of Lake Waccamaw (Fig. (Fig.5).5). This shallow underwater terrace extends perpendicularly out into the lake as far as 305 m (1,000 ft.; Frey 1949). The gentle relief of the terrace gradually extends shoreward resulting in a shallow, broad, littoral zone. This littoral zone is the most floristically rich of all Carolina bay lakes and is rivaled only by Lake Phelps in Washington County, North Carolina (N. Howell, pers. obs.). Varying water depths in the littoral zone of Lake Waccamaw result in the temporary and sometimes permanent presence of offshore sandbars and islands. This hydrographical heterogeneity in the littoral zone increases the floristic richness. A more detailed review of the lakes shoreline flora is provided in the floristic summary section and in Suppl. material 6.

The buffering effect of subsurface and surficial limestone on the naturally acidic waters of Lake Waccamaw result in an unusually diverse fauna. Lake Waccamaw contains the largest number of endemic animal species (i.e., endemic to this lake and nowhere else in the world; 10 taxa) of any site in North Carolina (Hubbs and Raney 1946, LeBlond 1995). An additional species, Fundulus waccamawensis (Waccamaw Killfish), is found only in waters within and adjacent to Lake Waccamaw and Lake Phelps (Washington County, North Carolina). Six other faunal taxa known to be rare but not endemic also occur within or adjacent to the lake. Available water quality parameters for Lake Waccamaw are provided in Table Table33.

Table 3.
Water Quality Data for Lake Waccamaw (Columbus County, North Carolina). Frey (1949) sampled Lake Waccamaw 8 times during the Summer and Fall of 1947. Weiss and Kuenzler (1976) sampled Lake Waccamaw twice in 1974 (March 22 and June 6) and 4 times in 1975 ...

Little Singletary Lake

Little Singletary Lake (626 acres; 253.33 hectares) is located in the western half of Suggs Mill Pond Game Land (Fig. (Fig.10).10). Unlike Horseshoe Lake, Little Singletary Lake is natural in origin and exhibits a more “typical” bay lake physiognomy. Little Singletary Lake forms the headwaters of Lake Run, a tributary of Ellis Creek, which drains into the Cape Fear River. Relatively intact landscape connections exist to the northeast (Horseshoe Lake), southeast (Marshy Bay Natural Area), and southwest (Cedar Swamp Seep Natural Area) from Little Singletary Lake.

Lands abutting the southern shoreline are privately owned and were once subject to residential development. Remnants of bulkheads and recreational piers can still be seen today along the southeast shoreline. The North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission gained property rights to all remaining lands surrounding Little Singletary Lake before residential development could ensue. On June 20, 2011, a lightning caused wildfire (Simmons Road Fire) started just west of Little Singletary Lake and by August 18th, had burned over 2,023 hectares (5,000 acres) of Carolina bay and pocosin habitat, much of which surrounded Little Singletary Lake. During growing seasons of extreme drought, water levels have been known to recede low enough to reveal a clean sandy lake bottom 90−275 m (100−300 yds) out into the lake (G. Lewis, pers. comm.). Native American projectile points have been found on this lake bottom during drought years (G. Lewis, pers. comm.).

The water quality of Little Singletary Lake has not been documented by state agencies. The water appears high in humic substances and is likely similar to the other Bladen lakes (i.e., dystrophic, acidic, shallow, nutrient poor).

Salters Lake

Salters Lake (127.47 hectares; 315 acres) is the larger of the two Carolina bay lakes located in Jones Lake State Park (Fig. (Fig.11).11). Salters Lake was named after Sallie Salter, a revolutionary war hero who spied on the Tories while encamped at Elizabethtown. Her spying played a role in the defeat over the Tories on August 28, 1771, at the battle of Elizabethtown, where 70 Whigs defeated 400 Tories (JNorth Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Planning and Development Section 2006b).

Salters Lake is similar to Jones Lake in many respects, but quite possibly could be the most “pristine” of all Carolina bay lakes. Salters Lake has no shoreline development, appreciable recreational activities (e.g., outboard motor use), immediate surrounding agricultural (crop or animal production) land use, water level control structures, or historical manipulation of any kind. Natural communities and landscape features for Salters Lake are the same as those for Jones Lake (above). Available water quality parameters for Salters Lake are provided in Table Table44.

Table 4.
Water Quality Data for Salters Lake (Bladen County, North Carolina). Frey (1949) sampled Salters Lake 7 times during the Summer and Fall of 1947. Weiss and Kuenzler (1976) sampled Salters Lake twice in 1974 (March 22 and June 6). North Carolina Division ...

Singletary Lake

Singletary Lake (233.09 hectares; 576 acres) is located within Singletary Lake State Park (494.12 hectares; 1,221 acres; Fig. Fig.13).13). This lake was named after Richard Singletary, who received the grant of land in 1729 (North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Planning and Development Section 1996b). Singletary Lake State Park is located just southeast of White Lake in central-southeast Bladen County between the Cape Fear River and Colly Swamp. Singletary Lake forms the headwaters of Lake Drain Creek, which drains into Big Colly Creek, which drains to the Black River, which drains into the Cape Fear River.

Figure 13.
Singletary Lake State Park (outlined in green) and surrounding lands. Singletary Lake State Park is primarily comprised of lands immediately surrounding Singletary Lake. In addition to the lands surrounding Singletary Lake, White Lake is also managed ...

Singletary Lake is similar to the other Bladen lakes in that it is dystrophic, acidic, and nutrient poor. It contains high quality examples of the Natural Lake Shoreline Swamp (Cypress Subtype) and Natural Lake Shoreline Marsh (Typic Subtype) communities. LeBlond and Grant (2005) described this lake’s shoreline community as “one of the most aesthetically pleasing natural communities in the North Carolina Coastal Plain”. A direct landscape connection exists between Singletary Lake and Colly Swamp and the Black River to the northeast. Fair quality landscape connections exist between the state park and the Cape Fear River to the southwest. Available water quality parameters for Singletary Lake are provided in Table Table55.

Table 5.
Water Quality Data for Singletary Lake (Bladen County, North Carolina). Frey (1949) sampled Singletary Lake 10 times during the Summer and Fall of 1947. Weiss and Kuenzler (1976) sampled Singletary Lake twice in 1974 (March 22 and June 6) and four times ...

White Lake

Although not included in the sampling aspect of this study, White Lake is unique and deserves a brief summary. White Lake (432.20 hectares; 1,068 acres) is a large Carolina bay lake located in east-central Bladen County about 6 miles east of Elizabethtown, just east of the intersection of NC Hwy 53 and U.S. Hwy 701 (Fig. (Fig.14).14). White Lake is owned by the state of North Carolina, and is managed by Singletary Lake State park. Unlike all of the remaining bay lakes, White lake’s water is clear and not tea-stained. This feature has made it an incredibly attractive location for development and vacationers. This lake is primarily used for recreation (e.g., water sports, swimming, fishing) and essentially all of its shoreline is residentially and commercially developed.

Figure 14.
White Lake and surrounding lands. Like the majority of Carolina bay lakes, White Lake is a state-owned lake. All but a very small portion of White Lake’s shoreline has been altered. Aerial imagery, transportation, and hydrography layers obtained ...

White Lake’s remarkable water clarity is attributed to the presence of artesian springs on the lake bottom (Wells and Boyce 1953). The clarity of the lake’s water yields a deep euphotic zone (i.e., sunlight can penetrate through the entirety of the water column) with submerged aquatic macrophytes (e.g., Myriophyllum humile (Raf.) Morong; N. Howell pers. obs.) present at the lakes deepest depths. White Lake receives its hydrologic inputs principally in two forms, precipitation and groundwater (through springs). Although this lake is primarily fed by springs, its overall water levels are determined by the regional water table (i.e., during drought years, White Lake’s water levels will drop just like all other bay lakes). Another unique feature of White Lake is the location of its outlet channel. White Lake’s outlet channel is located in the northwestern section of the lake as opposed to the southeastern section where it occurs in all other bay lakes. Frey (1954) reported that William Bartram, a renowned naturalist who documented the flora, fauna, and Native American culture of the southeastern United States in the 18th century, operated a sawmill on White Lake during the 20 years following 1770. A map in Bartram and Harper (1942) shows that White Lake was formerly called Lake Bartram. Available water quality parameters for White Lake are provided in Table Table66.

Table 6.
Water Quality Data for White Lake (Bladen County, North Carolina). Frey (1949) sampled White Lake 8 times during the Summer and Fall of 1947. Weiss and Kuenzler (1976) sampled White Lake twice in 1974 (March 22 and June 6). North Carolina Division of ...

Climate

Bladen Lake Group (Bladen County, NC)

Climate data from the nearest weather station to the Bladen County bay lakes, ca. 1.6 kilometers away in Elizabethtown, North Carolina (Bladen County: 34.68° N, -78.58°W; 30.5 m elev.), show that during the thirty-year period between 1971-2000, the average annual temperature was 16.44 °C (61.6 °F) and mean annual precipitation 1,254.76 mm (49.4 in). Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures were 22.83 °C (73.1 °F) and 10.11 °C (50.2 °F; State Climate Office of North Carolina 2014; Fig. Fig.1515).

Walter climate diagrams for weather stations closest to the Bladen Lakes (Bladen County, NC; a) and Lake Waccamaw (Columbus County, NC; b), based on data from the State Climate Office of North Carolina (2014). At the top left of each figure, the town ...

Figure 15a.

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Figure 15b.

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The lowest temperature recorded for Bladen County was -14.4 °C (6 °F) on January 17, 1977 (Leab 1990). The highest recorded temperature for Bladen County was 37.7 °C (100 °F) on July 20, 1977 (Leab 1990). Monthly average temperatures were highest in July and August and lowest in December and January. Monthly precipitation amounts were also highest in July and August, while the lowest monthly precipitation amounts were in April and November (State Climate Office of North Carolina 2014; Fig. Fig.15).15). The annual growing season, defined as the number of days in five out of ten years during which the daily minimum air temperature exceeds -2.2 °C (28 °F), is 243 days in Bladen County (weather data recorded from 1957-1979; Leab 1990).

Lake Waccamaw (Columbus County, NC)

Climate data from the nearest weather station to Lake Waccamaw, ca. 16 km away in Whiteville, North Carolina (Columbus County: 34.27287° N, -78.71499° W; 29.8 meters above sea level), show that for the 30-year period between 1971 and 2000, the average annual temperature was 17.16 °C (62.9 °F) and mean annual precipitation 1,275.08 mm (50.2 in). The average daily maximum and minimum temperatures over the same thirty-year period were 24.3 °C (75.8 °F) and 10 °C (50 °F; State Climate Office of North Carolina 2014; Fig. Fig.1515).

The lowest temperature recorded for Columbus County was -15 °C (5 °F) on February 12, 1973 (Spruill 1990). The highest recorded temperature for Columbus County was 40.5 °C (105 °F) on June 27, 1954 (Spruill 1990). Monthly average temperatures were highest in July and August and lowest in January and February. Monthly precipitation amounts were also highest in July and August, while the lowest monthly precipitation amounts were in April and November (State Climate Office of North Carolina 2014; Fig. Fig.15).15). The annual growing season, defined as the number of days in five out of ten years during which the daily minimum air temperature exceeds -2.2 °C (28 °F), is 240 days in Columbus County (weather data recorded from 1951-1981; Spruill 1990).

Plant Communities

Four plant community types and two subtypes can be distinguished within the littoral zone of Carolina bay lakes (Schafale 2012; Table Table7).7). Of these four community types and subtypes, three are globally critically imperiled (Natural Lake Shoreline Swamp – Lake Waccamaw Subtype; Natural Lake Shoreline Marsh – Typic Subtype; Natural Lake Shoreline Marsh − Lake Waccamaw Pondlily Subtype), while the others do not have a conservation ranking (Table (Table77).

Table 7.
Plant community types occurring within the littoral zone of Carolina bay lakes. Community types follow Schafale (2012); rank designations follow Robinson and Finnegan (2014). Community types are presented in order of increasing species richness. The Natural ...

Natural Lake Shoreline Swamp (Cypress Subtype; S2G3) [Taxodium distichumT. ascendens / Panicum hemitomon Schult. Woodland (CES203.044)].

This natural community type covers Carolina bay lake shorelines with narrow littoral zones characterized by an absent to sparse herbaceous component and a nearly closed canopy of Chamaecyparis Spach, Nyssa L., or Taxodium Rich. in the upper eulittoral zone. If a cross-section of this littoral zone were to be drawn, the epilittoral vegetation would abruptly coincide with the littoral zone (i.e., a zone of emergent herbaceous vegetation is lacking where it typically would occur between the epilittoral and infralittoral zones). This “two-staged” zonation pattern typical of this community type is directly attributable to the steeper hydrography and narrow littoral zone. The Natural Lake Shoreline Swamp (Lake Waccamaw Subtype) and the Natural Lake Shoreline Marsh community types can be distinguished from the depauperate Natural Lake Shoreline Swamp (Cypress Subtype) community type by having a broader littoral zone, a well-developed zone of herbaceous emergent macrophytes, a sparse to open canopy of Nyssa, Taxodium, or other obligate wetland hardwoods, and the absence of Nuphar sagittifolia (Walter) Pursh. Examples of this community type are found at Bakers Lake, and the western, northern, and eastern shorelines of Jones, Salters, Little Singletary, and Singletary Lakes.

Natural Lake Shoreline Swamp (Lake Waccamaw Subtype; S1G1) [Taxodium distichumT. ascendens / Panicum hemitomonSclerolepis uniflora (Walter) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. Woodland (CEGL004465)].

This natural community type covers the southern shoreline of Lake Waccamaw located between Big Creek and the lake’s outlet on the southwest shore. This stretch of natural shoreline is characterized by gentle hydrography, which results in a broad littoral zone, and a species-rich flora dominated by emergent herbaceous macrophytes, many of which are rare. Emergent macrophytes typical of this community type include Cladium mariscoides (Muhl.) Torr., Eriocaulon aqutaicum (Hill) Druce, Panicum hemitomon, Sclerolepis uniflora, and Xyris smalliana, among others. This community type can be distinguished from the species-poor Natural Lake Shoreline Swamp (Cypress Subtype) community type by its broader littoral zone and species-rich herbaceous component (95 taxa). It can be distinguished from the Natural Lake Shoreline Marsh community types by the absence or only irregular presence of Nuphar sagittifolia and the unique assemblage of diverse herbaceous taxa (e.g., Bacopa caroliniana (Walter) B.L. Rob., Boltonia asteroides (L.) L’Hér. var. glastifolia, Cladium mariscoides, Ludwigia brevipes (B.H. Long ex Britton, A. Braun & Small) Eames, L. sphaerocarpa Elliott, and Sclerolepis uniflora).

Natural Lake Shoreline Marsh (Typic Subtype; S1G1) [Panicum hemitomonJuncus spp. Coastal Plain Lakeshore Herbaceous Vegetation (CEGL004307)].

This natural community type covers the southern shorelines of the Bladen Lakes. The southern shorelines have a broader littoral zone than the remaining portions of the lakes. Consequently, they support a more diverse emergent herbaceous component. Herbs found in this community type include Eleocharis baldwinii, E. equisetoides (Elliott) Torr., E. vivipara, Juncus pelocarpus E. Mey., Panicum hemitomon, Panicum verrucosum Muhl., Rhexia nashii, Rhynchospora distans, Saccharum giganteum (Walter) Pers., Sacciolepis striata, Scirpus cyperinus (l.) Kunth, and Xyris smalliana. This community type is also characterized as having a sparse to open canopy of Nyssa and Taxodium. This community type can be distinguished from the Natural Lake Shoreline Marsh (Lake Waccamaw Pondlily Subtype) by the absence of Nuphar sagittifolia and from the Natural Lake Shoreline Swamp (Lake Waccamaw Subtype) by the occurence of < 30 herbaceous taxa, none of which include the unique and rare herbs found at Lake Waccamaw. Examples of this community type include the southern shorelines of Jones, Little Singletary, Salters, and Singletary Lakes.

Natural Lake Shoreline Marsh (Lake Waccamaw Pond-lily Subtype; S1G1) [Nuphar sagittifolaEriocaulon aquaticum Lakeshore Herbaceous Vegetation (CEGL004297)].

This natural community type covers the western, northern, and eastern shorelines of Lake Waccamaw (i.e., where residential and commercial development is present). It is the only Natural Lake Shoreline community type dominated by Nuphar sagittifolia (a distinguishing feature) and Eriocaulon aquaticum. Nuphar sagittifolia is essentially absent from the Natural Lake Shoreline Swamp (Lake Waccamaw Subtype) community type save for small stands around the mouth of Big Creek and around the dam at the lakes outlet.

floating Bog [Rhynchospora alba Saturated Herbaceous Vegetation (CEGL004463)]

This natural community type covers the rare examples of vegetation occuring on floating peat mats in deep water of natural or artificial ponds and lakes. Horseshoe Lake is the only Carolina bay lake known to support floating bogs. The floating bogs of Horseshoe Lake are the largest in the state. These floating bogs are saturated and nutrient-poor, supporting taxa that characteristically inhabit such stressful conditions (e.g., Calopogon tuberosus (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., Drosera intermedia, Dulichium arundinaceum, Hypericum virginicum, Pogonia ophioglossoides, Rhynchospora alba, R. inundata, and Xyris fimbriata). This community type’s “floating” nature and the presence of the aforementioned plant taxa sets it apart from all others.

Coastal Plain Semipermanent Impoundment (Cypress-Gum Subtype; G4G5) [Taxodium distichum / Lemna minor L. Forest (CEGL002420)]

All portions of Horseshoe Lake not considered floating Bog fall into the Coastal Plain Semipermanent Impoundment community type. This community type is characterized by a sparse to absent canopy of Taxodium ascendens with sporadically occurring beds of floating-leaved and submersed aquatics (e.g., Brasenia schreberi J.F. Gmel, Cabomba caroliniana A. Gray, Nymphaea odorata ssp. odorata, and Utricularia spp.). This community type can be distinguished from all others by the sparse presence of Taxodium throughout the lake with floating-leaved and submersed aquatics occurring underneath.

Floristic Summary

Across All Sites

The littoral zone vascular flora of Carolina bay lakes, based on vouchered collections, reports, and personal observations, consists of 205 taxa (170 species, 4 subspecies, 30 varieties, 1 hybrid) in 136 genera and 80 vascular plant families (Table (Table8;8; Suppl. material 6). Of these 205 taxa, 186 (90.7%) are vouchered and 19 (9.3%) are known only from reports (Peet et al. 2013a, Peet et al. 2013b, North Carolina Natural Heritage Program 2014; NCSU Crop Science Department [Rob Richardson and Justin Nawrocki, pers. comm., April 9, 2015]). Of the 186 vouchered taxa, 157 (84.4%) were collected by the first author; the remaining 29 (15.6%) vouchered taxa were collected from Carolina bay lake shorelines by others and were found by completing systematic searches of major herbaria (DUKE, NCSC, and NCU). Nineteen taxa (9.3%) are listed as significantly rare and twelve taxa (5.8%) are on the NCNHP Watch List (Table (Table9).9). Four taxa (1.9%) are Federal Species of Concern (Ludwigia brevipes; Nuphar sagittifolia; Rhexia aristosa Britton; Sagittaria weatherbiana). Pair-wise comparisons of species similarity for all bays are provided in Table Table1010.

Table 8.
Summary of vascular plant taxa collected or reported from Carolina bay lake littoral zones
Table 9.
List of North Carolina Significantly Rare and Watch List taxa collected or reported from Carolina bay lake littoral zones. Status and rank designations follow Robinson and Finnegan (2014). Taxa for which voucher specimens have been collected (by the first ...
Table 10.
Sørenson’s Similarity Index for Carolina bay lakes. Values in this table are represented as percentiles (i.e., when looking in the second column from the left under Bakers Lake, Bakers Lake is considered to be 16.4% similar to Bay Tree ...

Among all taxa treated in this guide, the major vascular plant groups consisted of the following total taxa: Eudicotyledons (101 taxa; 86 species, 1 subspecies, 13 varieties, 1 hybrid), monocotyledons (86 taxa; 71 species, 1 subspecies, 14 varieties), pteridophytes (7 taxa; 6 species and 1 subspecies), gymnosperms (5 species), basal angiosperms (4 taxa; 3 species and 1 subspecies), and magnoliids (2 taxa; 1 species and 1 variety; Table Table8;8; Fig. Fig.16).16). The richest families in the eudicotyledons are Asteraceae (13 taxa; 11 species, 1 variety, 1 hybrid), Ericaceae (8 taxa; 6 species, 2 varieties), Lentibulariaceae (6 taxa), Melastomataceae (5 taxa; 4 species, 1 variety), Hypericaceae (4 taxa; 3 species, 1 variety), and Rosaceae (4 taxa; Fig. Fig.17).17). The richest genera in the eudicotyledons are Utricularia (6 taxa), Rhexia L. (5 taxa), and Hypericum L. (4 taxa). The richest families in the monocotyledons are Cyperaceae (25 taxa; 20 species, 5 varieties), Poaceae (21 taxa; 17 species, 4 varieties), Juncaceae (8 taxa), Orchidaceae (5 taxa; 4 species, 1 variety), Alismataceae (4 taxa), Smilacaceae (4 taxa), and Xyridaceae (4 taxa: Fig. Fig.17).17). The richest genera in the monocotyledons are Rhynchospora (9 taxa; 8 species, 1 variety), Juncus (8 taxa), Dichanthelium (Hitchc. & Chase) Gould (6 taxa; 5 species, 1 variety), Carex (4 taxa; 3 species, 1 variety), Eleocharis (4 taxa; 3 species, 1 variety), Sagittaria L. (4 taxa), Smilax L. (4 taxa), and Xyris L. (4 taxa).

Figure 16.
Distribution of plant habit across all Carolina bay lakes. Lakes dominated by herbs have broader littoral zones, which encourage the establishment of herbaceous emergent macrophytes. Lakes dominated by trees and shrubs have narrow littoral zones, which ...
Figure 17.
The thirteen most species-rich vascular plant families across all Carolina bay lakes. Cyperaceae (orange), Ericaceae (yellow), Juncaceae (dull green), Poaceae (purple), Smilacaceae (neon green), and Xyridaceae (black) consistently occur across all sites. ...

Among all taxa treated in this guide, the most species-rich habit is herbs (140 taxa; 119 species, 2 subspecies, 18 varieties, 1 hybrid), followed by trees and shrubs (51 taxa; 42 species, 1 subspecies, 8 varieties), and vines (14 taxa, 12 species, 2 varieties; Fig. Fig.16).16). Among the herbs, Cyperaceae (25 taxa), Poaceae (20 taxa), Asteraceae (11 taxa), Juncaceae (8 taxa), Lentibulariaceae (6 taxa), Melastomataceae (5 taxa), and Orchidaceae (5 taxa) are the most species-rich families. Among trees and shrubs, the Ericaceae (8 taxa) and Rosaceae (4 taxa) were the most species-rich families. Among vines, the Smilacaceae (4 taxa) and Vitaceae (2 taxa) were the most species rich families.

Among the natural community types included in this work, the Natural Lake Shoreline Swamp (Lake Waccamaw Subtype) is the most species-rich (145 taxa) and the Natural Lake Shoreline Marsh (Lake Waccamaw Pondlily Subtype) is the least species-rich (< 10 taxa; Table Table7).7). Five exotic taxa are known to occur in the bay lakes, four (Alternanthera philoxeroides [Amaranthaceae], Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott [Araceae], Hydrilla verticillata (L.F.) Royle [Hydrocharitaceae], Triadica sebifera (L.) Small [Euphorbiaceae]) from Lake Waccamaw and one (Hypochaeris radicata L. [Asteraceae]) from Bay Tree Lake.

Individual Lakes

Among the lakes, the largest number of littoral zone taxa (i.e., species, subspecies, and varieties) occurred in Lake Waccamaw (145 taxa), followed by Bay Tree Lake (56 taxa) and Horseshoe Lake (52 taxa; Table Table11).11). The least number of littoral zone taxa occurred in Bakers Lake (18 taxa).

Table 11.
Number of taxa (species, subspecies, and varieties) by major taxonomic group across study sites. Sites are arranged from taxonomically richest to most depauperate. BALA = Bakers Lake; BATR = Bay Tree Lake; HOLA = Horseshoe Lake; JOLA = Jones Lake; LAWA ...

Bakers Lake

The littoral zone vascular flora of Bakers Lake is depauperate with respect to the other bay lakes (Table (Table11).11). A total of 18 taxa (14 species, 4 varieties) in 17 genera and 14 vascular plant families were found in this lake’s littoral zone (Suppl. material 6). All but one taxon (Tillandsia usneoides) from Bakers Lake were collected by the first author (i.e., there were no reports or historical vouchers). The richest eudicotyledonous family was Ericaceae (5 taxa; Fig. Fig.1717).

The most species-rich habit class was trees and shrubs (14 taxa; 10 species, 4 varieties), followed by herbs (3 taxa), and vines (1 taxa; Fig. Fig.16).16). Among the trees and shrubs, the Ericaceae (5 taxa) is the most species-rich family. No exotic taxa or taxa of conservation concern occured at this site. One species (Rhus copallinum L.) was unique to this Carolina bay lake (i.e., it was not found/reported from any other bay lake in this study; Suppl. material 5).

Bay Tree Lake

The littoral zone vascular flora of Bay Tree Lake is comprised of 56 taxa (48 species, 2 subspecies, and 6 varieties), in 47 genera and 34 vascular plant families (Table (Table11;11; Suppl. material 6). All but 2 taxa from Bay Tree Lake were vouchered; Decodon verticillatus and Pontederia cordata L. var. cordata were personal observations. No species of conservation concern were collected or reported from Bay Tree Lake’s littoral zone. One exotic taxon (Hypochaeris radicata) was collected from this site (Suppl. material 6). Twelve taxa are unique to this bay lake (i.e., they were not found/reported from any other bay lake in this study; Suppl. material 6: [Amelanchier canadensis (L.) Medik., Carex longii Mack., Cyperus odoratus L. var. odoratus, Diodia virginiana L., Fuirena pumila (Torr.) Spreng., Hypochaeris radicata, Juncus acuminatus Michx., Krigia virginica (L.) Willd., Nuttallanthus canadensis (L.) D.A. Sutton, Panicum virgatum, Rumex hastatulus Baldwin, Smilax glauca Walter, and Stipulicida setacea Michx. var. setacea]).

The richest eudicotyledon families are Asteraceae (3 taxa), followed by Ericaceae (2 taxa) and Aquifoliaceae (2 taxa;) . The richest monocotyledonous families are Poaceae (7 taxa; 6 species, 1 subspecies), Cyperaceae (5 taxa; 4 species, 1 variety), and Juncaceae (5 taxa). The richest monocotyledon genera are Juncus (5 taxa; 3 species, 1 subspecies, 1 variety) and Panicum (3 taxa).

The most species-rich habit class was herbs (35 taxa; 29 species, 2 subspecies, 4 varieties), followed by trees and shrubs (16 taxa; 15 species, 1 variety), and vines (4 species, 1 variety; Fig. Fig.16).16). Among the herbs, Poaceae (7 taxa; 6 species, 1 subspecies), Cyperaceae (5 taxa; 4 species, 1 variety), Juncaceae (5 taxa), and Asteraceae (3 taxa) are the most species-rich families. Among the trees and shrubs, Cupressaceae (3 taxa), Aquifoliaceae (2 taxa), and Ericaceae (2 taxa) are the most species-rich families.

Horseshoe Lake

The littoral zone vascular flora of Horseshoe Lake is comprised of 52 taxa (45 species, 2 subspecies, and 5 varieties), in 41 genera and 29 vascular plant families (Table (Table11;11; Suppl. material 6). All but three taxa from Horseshoe Lake were vouchered; Eleocharis baldwinii/vivipara, Rhexia aristosa, and Tillandsia usneoides were the only taxa not vouchered from the site. No exotic taxa were collected from this site. Sixteen taxa are unique to this bay lake (i.e., they were not found/reported from any other bay lake in this study; Suppl. material 6). Five taxa of conservation concern were collected or reported from this site (Rhexia aristosa, Rhynchospora alba, Rhynchospora inundata, Sagittaria isoetiformis J.G. Sm., and Xyris smalliana; Table Table99).

The richest eudicotyledon families are Ericaceae (4 taxa), Lentibulariaceae (3 taxa) and Melastomataceae (3 taxa). The richest eudicotyledonous genera are Rhexia (3 taxa), Utricularia (3 taxa), followed by Hypericum (2 taxa). The richest monocotyledonous families are Cyperaceae (5 taxa), Juncaceae (4 taxa), Poaceae (3 taxa), followed by Orchidaceae (2 taxa), Smilacaceae (2 taxa) and Xyridaceae (2 taxa). The richest monocotyledonous genera are Juncus (4 taxa), followed by Rhynchospora (2 taxa), Smilax (2 taxa), and Xyris (2 taxa).

The most species-rich habit class was herbs (38 taxa; 31 species, 2 subspecies, 4 varieties), followed by trees and shrubs (11 taxa; 10 species, 1 variety), and vines (3 taxa; Fig. Fig.16).16). Among the herbs, Cyperaceae (6 taxa), Juncaceae (4 taxa), followed by Lentibulariaceae (3 taxa), Melastomataceae (3 taxa), Poaceae (3 taxa), Orchidaceae (2 taxa), and Xyridaceae (2 taxa) are the most species-rich families. Among the trees and shrubs, the most species-rich family is Ericaceae (4 taxa).

Jones Lake

The littoral zone vascular flora of Jones Lake is comprised of 33 taxa (29 species, 1 subspecies, and 3 varieties), in 31 genera and 23 vascular plant families (Table (Table11;11; Suppl. material 6). All taxa, save for Cyrilla racemiflora, were vouchered by the first author or others. No exotic taxa were collected from this site. Two taxa are unique to this bay lake (i.e., they were not found/reported from any other bay lake in this study; Suppl. material 6: [Cyperus polystachyos Rottb., Rhynchospora inexpansa (Michx.) Vahl]). Xyris smalliana was the only species of conservation concern collected from this site (Table (Table99).

The richest eudicotyledonous family is Ericaceae (5 taxa). The richest eudicotyledonous genus is Lyonia (2 taxa; 1 species, 1 variety). The richest monocotyledonous families are Cyperaceae (3 taxa) and Poaceae (3 taxa). Monocotyledons are comprised of ten different genera.

The most species-rich habit class was trees and shrubs (20 taxa; 16 species, 1 subspecies, 3 varieties), followed by herbs (11 taxa), and vines (2 taxa; Fig. Fig.16).16). Among the herbs, Cyperaceae (3 taxa) and Poaceae (3 taxa) are the most species-rich families. Among the trees and shrubs, Ericaceae (5 taxa) and Cupressaceae (3 taxa) are the most species-rich families.

Lake Waccamaw

The littoral zone vascular flora of Lake Waccamaw is comprised of 145 taxa (122 species, 3 subspecies, 19 varieties, 1 hybrid), in 111 genera and 72 vascular plant families (Table (Table11;11; Suppl. material 6). Of the 145 total catalogued taxa, 127 are vouchered and 18 are known only from reports (Suppl. material 6). Twenty-six species of conservation concern were collected or reported from Lake Waccamaw’s littoral zone. Four exotic taxa (Alternanthera philoxeroides [Amaranthaceae], Colocasia esculenta [Araceae], Hydrilla verticillata [Hydrocharitaceae], Triadica sebifera [Euphorbiaceae]) are known from this site. Ninety-five taxa are unique to Lake Waccamaw (i.e., they were not found/reported from any other bay lake in this study; Suppl. material 6).

The richest eudicotyledonous families are Asteraceae (10 taxa; 8 species, 1 variety, 1 hybrid), followed by Lentibulariaceae (4 taxa), Ericaceae (3 taxa), Rosaceae (3 taxa), and Salicaceae (3 taxa). The richest eudicotyledonous genera are Utricularia (4 taxa), Eupatorium L. (2 taxa), Hypericum (2 taxa), Ludwigia L. (2 taxa), Nyssa (2 taxa), and Salix L. (2 taxa). The richest monocotyledonous families are Poaceae (17 taxa; 13 species, 1 subspecies, 3 varieties), Cyperaceae (14 taxa; 11 species, 3 varieties), Alismataceae (4 taxa), Juncaceae (3 taxa), Orchidaceae (3 taxa), and Smilacaceae (3 taxa). The richest monocotyledonous genera are Dichanthelium (Hitchc. & Chase) Gould (6 taxa; 5 species and 1 variety), Rhynchospora (6 taxa; 5 species and 1 variety), Sagittaria L. (4 taxa), Juncus (3 taxa; 3 species, 1 subspecies, 1 variety) and Smilax L. (3 taxa).

The most species-rich habit class was herbs (96 taxa; 80 species, 3 subspecies, 13 varieties, 1 hybrid), followed by trees and shrubs (36 taxa; 32 species, 4 varieties), and vines (13 taxa; 11 species, 2 varieties; Fig. Fig.16).16). Among the herbs, the Poaceae (16 taxa; 13 species, 1 subspecies, 2 varieties), Cyperaceae (14 taxa; 11 species, 3 varieties), Asteraceae (8 taxa; 6 species, 1 variety, 1 hybrid), Alismataceae (4 taxa), Lentibulariaceae (4 taxa), Juncaceae (3 taxa), and Orchidaceae (3 taxa) are the most species-rich families. Among the trees and shrubs, the Ericaceae (3 taxa), Rosaceae (3 taxa), Salicaceae (3 taxa), Betulaceae (2 taxa), Cupressaceae (2 taxa), Nyssaceae (2 taxa), and Sapindaceae (2 taxa) are the most species-rich families.

Little Singletary Lake

The littoral zone flora of Littoral Singletary Lake is comprised of 39 taxa (35 species, 1 subspecies, 3 varieties), in 32 genera and 21 vascular plant families (Table (Table11;11; Suppl. material 6). All of the 39 total catalogued taxa were vouchered (i.e., no taxa were known strictly from reports or observations; Suppl. material 6). Two species of conservation concern (i.e., Eleocharis equisetoides and Eleocharis vivipara) were collected from Little Singletary Lake’s littoral zone (Table (Table9).9). No exotic taxa are known from this site. Three taxa are unique to Little Singletary Lake (i.e., they were not found/reported from any other bay lake in this study; Suppl. material 6: [Agrostis hyemalis (Walter) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., Rhexia virginica L., and Xyris jupicai Rich.])

The richest eudicotyledonous genus is Rhexia (2 taxa). The richest monocotyledonous families are Cyperaceae (6 taxa; 5 species and 1 variety), Juncaceae (4 taxa; 2 species, 1 subspecies, 1 variety), and Poaceae (3 taxa). The richest monocotyledonous genera are Juncus (4 taxa), Eleocharis (3 taxa), and Panicum (2 taxa).

The most species-rich habit class was herbs (23 taxa; 20 species, 1 subspecies, 2 varieties), followed by trees and shrubs (15 taxa; 14 species and 1 variety), and vines (1 taxon; Fig. Fig.16).16). Among the herbs, the Cyperaceae (6 taxa), Juncaceae (4 taxa), and Poaceae (3 taxa) are the most species-rich families. Among the trees and shrubs, the Ericaceae (5 taxa) is the most species-rich family.

Salters Lake

The littoral zone flora of Salters Lake is comprised of 22 taxa (16 species, 2 subspecies, 4 varieties), in 18 genera and 16 vascular plant families (Table (Table11;11; Suppl. material 6). Twenty of the twenty-three total catalogued taxa were vouchered; Decodon verticillatus, Nyssa biflora, and Xyris iridifolia, were reports or personal observations (Suppl. material 6). Two species of conservation concern (i.e., Xyris iridifolia and Xyris smalliana) were collected/reported from Salters Lake’s littoral zone (Suppl. material 6; Table Table9).9). No exotic taxa are known from this site. One taxon is unique to Salters Lake (i.e., not found/reported from any other bay lake in this study; Suppl. material 5: [Xyris iridifolia])

The richest eudicotyledon family is Ericaceae (5 taxa). The richest eudicotyledonous genera are Lyonia (2 taxa) and Vaccinium (2 taxa). The richest monocotyledonous family is Xyridaceae (2 taxa). The richest monocotyledon genus is Xyris (2 taxa).

The most species-rich habit class was trees and shrubs (15 taxa; 11 species, 1 subspecies, 3 varieties), herbs (5 taxa; 4 species and 1 subspecies), and vines (2 taxa; Fig. Fig.16).16). Among the trees and shrubs, the Ericaceae (5 taxa) and Cupressaceae (2 taxa) are the most species-rich families. Among the herbs, the Xyridaceae (2 taxa) is the most species-rich family.

Singletary Lake

The littoral zone vascular flora of Singletary Lake is comprised of 36 taxa (32 species, 1 subspecies, 3 varieties), in 30 genera and 22 vascular plant families (Table (Table11;11; Suppl. material 6). All thirty-six total catalogued taxa were vouchered (i.e., none were reports or personal observations; Suppl. material 6). One taxon from Singletary Lake’s littoral zone is of conservation concern (i.e., Xyris smalliana; Suppl. material 6; Table Table9).9). No exotic taxa are known from this site. One taxon is unique to Salters Lake (i.e., not found/reported from any other bay lake in this study; Suppl. material 6: [Rhododendron viscosum (L.) Torr. var. serrulatum (Small) H.E. Ahles]).

The richest eudicotyledonous families are Ericaceae (7 taxa) and Rosaceae (2 taxa). The richest eudicotyledonous genus is Vaccinium (2 taxa). The richest monocotyledonous families are Juncaceae (3 taxa), Poaceae (2 taxa), and Xyridaceae (2 taxa). The richest monocotyledonous genera are Juncus (3 taxa) and Xyris (2 taxa).

The most species-rich habit class was trees and shrubs (22 taxa; 19 species and 3 varieties), herbs (11 taxa; 10 species and 1 subspecies), and vines (3 taxa; Fig. Fig.16).16). Among the trees and shrubs, the Ericaceae (7 taxa), Cupressaceae (3 taxa), Pinaceae (2 taxa), and Rosaceae (2 taxa) are the most species-rich families. Among the herbs, the Juncaceae (3 taxa), Poaceae (2 taxa), and Xyridaceae (2 taxa) are the most species-rich families.

White Lake

White Lake was not included in this study due to the severity of the lake’s shoreline development. A provisional checklist of plants known to occur within the littoral zone of White Lake (from historical vouchers, personal observation, and literature review) is provided in Suppl. material 7. The intent of the provisional checklist is to provide a baseline for future research in this lake.

Materials and methods

This work is restricted to the littoral zone vascular flora of unaltered Carolina bay lake shorelines. The littoral zone was defined as the zone of vegetation occurring between the maximum annual high water mark and the point at which submerged aquatic plants cease to persist (Fig. (Fig.4).4). Unaltered shorelines were defined as those lacking residential or commercial development (therefore, the entirety of White Lake and the developed shorelines of Lake Waccamaw and Bay Tree Lake were not included in this inventory).

During the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons, 36 total visits were made to the eight study sites meeting the criteria articulated above (i.e., Bakers Lake, Bay Tree Lake, Horseshoe Lake, Jones Lake, Lake Waccamaw, Little Singletary Lake, Salters Lake, Singletary Lake), resulting in 121 field hours and the identification of 204 taxa (species, subspecies, and varieties). A 10-foot aluminum boat with a transom-mounted trolling motor was used to transport equipment along Carolina bay lake shorelines. Where water was too shallow for the use of the trolling motor, we walked and pulled the boat by rope. GPS locations (NAD 83) were taken at numerous intervals and associated with all specimens collected within 30 m of each point. Digital photographs of plant habit and overall morphology were taken prior to collection using a Panasonic Lumix FZ−150. Plant specimens were pressed while in the field. Tissue samples were taken in the field and dessicated with blue indicating silica gel (purchased from Delta Enterprises Inc.) in ziploc bags. Voucher specimens and tissue samples were deposited respectively at the North Carolina State University Vascular Plant Herbarium (NCSC) and its DNA bank. The entirety of Carolina bay lake shorelines was surveyed, but it was quickly observed that all shorelines, save for the southernmost, were relatively depauperate. All taxa occurring along western, northern, and eastern shorelines could be found within the littoral zone of the southern shoreline, but the inverse did not hold true. The significantly gentler hydrography (see Frey 1949 for lake longitudinal profiles), and consequently wider littoral zone of southern shorelines, produces a more species-rich macrophyte community. Consequently, survey time was much longer on the southern, more diverse shorelines of Carolina bay lakes.

The flora is organized by the following major vascular plant groups: (1) pteridophytes, (2) gymnosperms, (3) monocots, and (4) basal angiosperms, magnoliids, and eudicotyledons. Dichotomomous keys are provided to each major group, as well as to families, genera, and species within each group. Notes are provided above some keys to aid in the identification process. Within each group, taxa are arranged alphabetically, by family, then genus, then species.

The following information is provided for each taxon account: taxon concept mapping, basionym, conservation status, habit, habitat, flowering and fruiting phenology, abundance, and presence/absence data for each site (Suppl. material 3). Unless stated otherwise, accepted taxon concepts follow Weakley (2012) and are tied to those in the following major works: RAB = Radford et al. (1968); GW = Godfrey and Wooten (1979), Godfrey and Wooten (1981); FNA = Flora of North America (pteridophytes: Blechnaceae [Cranfill 1993], Dryopteridaceae [Smith 1993b, Wagner and Montgomery 1993, Smith 1993b], Lycopodiaceae [Wagner and Beitel 1993], Osmundaceae [Whetstone and Atkinson 1993, Polypodiaceae [Andrews and Windham 1993]; gymnosperms: Cupressaceae [Michener 1993, Watson 1993, Watson and Eckenwalder 1993], Pinaceae [Kral 1993]; monocots: Alismataceae [Durand 2000], Araceae [Thompson 2000], Bromeliaceae [Luther and Brown 2000], Burmanniaceae [Lewis 2002], Cyperaceae [Ball and Reznicek 2002, Ball et al. 2002b, Kral 2002a, Kral 2002b, Kral and Persoon 2002, Mastrogiuseppe 2002, Mastrogiuseppe et al. 2002, Reznicek 2002, Reznicek and Catling 2002, Smith et al. 2002, Tucker 2002, Tucker et al. 2002], Eriocaulaceae [Kral 2000a], Haemodoraceae [Robertson 2002], Hydrocharitaceae [Haynes 2000a, Haynes 2000b], Hypoxidaceae [Herndon 2002], Juncaceae [Brooks and Clemants 2000], Mayacaceae [Faden 2000], Orchidaceae [Goldman et al. 2002, Hágsater et al. 2002, Romero-Gonzáles et al. 2002, Sheviak 2002, Sheviak and Brown 2002, Sheviak and Catling 2002], Poaceae [Barkworth 2003a, Barkworth 2003b, Campbell 2003, Clark and Triplett 2007, Daniel 2007, Freckmann and Lelong 2003a, Freckmann and Lelong 2003b, Harvey 2007, Peterson 2003, Terrell 2007, Wipff 2003], Pontederiaceae [Adanson et al. 2002], Smilacaceae [Holmes 2002], Xyridaceae [Kral 2000a]; basal angiosperms, magnoliids, and eudicots: Altingiaceae [Meyer 1997a], Amaranthaceae [Clemants 2003], Asteraceae [Bogler 2006, Chambers and O'Kennon 2006, Haines 2006, Holmes 2006, Karaman-Castro and Urbatsch 2006, Lamont 2006, Nesom 2006a, Nesom 2006b, Semple and Cook 2006, Siripun and Schilling 2006, Strother and Weedon 2006, Sundberg and Bogler 2006], Betulaceae [Furlow 1997], Cabombaceae [Wiersema 1997b], Caryophyllaceae [Swanson and Rabeler 2005], Clethraceae [Tucker and Jones 2009], Cyrillaceae [Lemke 2009], Ebenaceae [Eckenwalder 2009], Ericaceae [Dorr 2009, Fabijan 2009, Judd 2009, Judd and Kron 2009, Tucker 2009b, Tucker 2009a, Vander Kloet, S.P. 2009], Fagaeae [Jensen 1997], Iteaceae [Morin 2009], Juglandaceae [Stone 1997], Lauraceae [Wofford 1993], Magnoliaceae [Meyer 1997b], Myricaceae [Bornstein 1997], Nelumbonaceae [Wiersema 1997a], Nymphaeaceae [Wiersema and Hellquist 1997], Platanaceae [Kaul 1997], Polygonaceae [Mosyaking 2005], Ranunculaceae [Pringle 1997], Salicaceae [Argus et al. 2010], Sarraceniaceae [Mellichamp and Chase 2009], Theaceae [Prince 2009], Ulmaceae [Sherman-Broyles 1997]). Three symbols are used to relate whether our taxon concepts used here are equivalent (=), narrower (<), or broader (>) than those of other works. For example, the statement “= RAB, FNA” means that the taxon concept, as well as the species name used here, is the same as that used in RAB and FNA (see Dryopteris ludoviciana (Kunze) Small). The use of a “less than” symbol (e.g., “< Onoclea sensibilis L. – RAB, FNA”), indicates that the taxon concept used here is narrower than that used by RAB and FNA (alternatively, a “greater than” symbol would mean that the concept of a particular taxon is broader than in the cited works). An equals symbol followed by a different species name than the one bolded, indicates that the taxon concept used here is the same as in the work cited, except that the taxon was treated under a different name in the work cited (see Sagittaria filiformis J.G. Sm. vs. Sagittaria stagnorum Small).

Abundance estimates following the recommendations of Palmer et al. (1995) are provided for each lake in which a taxon was collected or observed by the current author (Table (Table12;12; Suppl. material 3). Taxa designated as “exotic” are not native to North America and are indicated by an asterisk preceding the scientific name. The conservation status and rank of species of conservation concern precede the habitat description in each taxon entry (e.g., E, FSC; S1, G2. “Habitat description”). Conservation status and rank of species are designated according to NatureServe (2012), the North Carolina Plant Conservation Program (2010), and the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program List of Rare Plants (Robinson and Finnegan 2014). Unvouchered taxa (i.e., those known only from reports or personal observations) are given one of four symbols in taxon entries (• = the first author observed the species while in the field, but was not able to collect a viable voucher specimen, ♦ = the taxon was reported by the Carolina Vegetation Survey (Peet et al. 2013a, Peet et al. 2013b), = ► the taxon was reported by the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program 2014), ¤ = the taxon was reported by the North Carolina State University Crop Science Program; Rob Richardson and Justin Nawrocki, pers. comm, April 9, 2015).

Table 12.
Descriptions for estimating the abundance of taxa (adapted from Palmer et al. 1995)

When available, digital photographs and line drawings were obtained from: Britton and Brown (1913), Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida, IFAS (2015), Hitchcock and Chase (1951), Mickel (1979), and United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA- NRCS) (2015).

In addition, relevant historical vouchers are cited based on systematic searches of the three major herbaria−DUKE, NCSC, and NCU. Unfortunately, it is not uncommon to find historical specimens containing vague habitat or locality descriptions. For a taxon to be included in the present study, a clear label statement referencing Carolina bay lake shoreline habitat was required (e.g., “collected from peat-drained lake bed of Suggs Mill Pond”). Herbarium vouchers meeting this criterion were annotated (following taxon concepts accepted here) and their label information was subsequently entered into spreadsheets for organization. Label information for new collections resulting from this study was captured in a DarwinCore compliant spreadsheet for upload to the online portal of the Southeastern Regional Network of Expertise and Collections (www.sernecportal.org), which feeds into iDigBio and the Global Biodiversity Data Facility (GBIF).

Checklists

PTERIDOPHYTES

Families represented: 6

Blechnaceae

Anchistea virginica

(L.) C. Presl

  • Anchistea virginica Basionym: Blechnum virginicum L.
  • Anchistea virginica Taxon concept: [= Woodwardia virginica (L.) Sm. − RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Infrequent): Howell BALA−14 (NCSC!)

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−4, 24 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Rare): Howell JOLA−44 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−59 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell LISI−42 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Upper eulittoral zone; typically found in saturated soils or rooted on logs, stumps, and other debris (NLSS–C, NLSS–LW, NLSM–T). Jun–Sep. Fig. Fig.1818

Anchistea virginica (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 18a.

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Specimen: Howell BATR24 (NCSC)

Figure 18b.

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Stipe; note the dark purple coloration.

Figure 18c.

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Mature frond

Figure 18d.

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Pinna; note the chain-like venation pattern along the sides of leaflet midveins.

Lorinseria areolata

(L.) C. Presl

  • Lorinseria areolata Basionym: Acrostichum areolatum L.
  • Lorinseria areolata Taxon concept: [= Woodwardia areolata (L.) T. Moore − RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−5, 26 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw: Wilbur 84200 (DUKE!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell LISI–6 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake: Hueske s.n. (NCU!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Upper eulittoral zone; typically found in saturated soils or rooted on logs, stumps, and other debris (NLSS–C, NLSS–LW, NLSM–T) . May–Sep. Fig. Fig.1919

Lorinseria areolata (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 19a.

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Specimen: Howell LISI6 (NCSC)

Figure 19b.

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Mature frond

Figure 19c.

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Frond underside

Figure 19d.

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Pinnae

Dryopteridaceae

Dryopteris ludoviciana

(Kunze) Small

  • Dryopteris ludoviciana Basionym: Aspidium ludovicianum Kunze
  • Dryopteris ludoviciana Taxon concept: [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Bennedict 1247 & 2298 (NCU!); Blomquist & Correll 7625 (NCU!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS–LW). Jun–Sep. This species was not encountered by the first author, but voucher specimens (see above) place it within close proximity of Lake Waccamaw’s shoreline (i.e., it has the potential to occur at the uppermost portions of the littoral zone where the swamp forest adjoins the shoreline community on the southwest side of the lake). Fig. Fig.2020

Figure 20.
Dryopteris ludoviciana (from Mickel 1979)

Lycopodiaceae

Lycopodiella appressa

(Chapm.) Cranfill

  • Lycopodiella appressa Basionym: Lycopodium inundatum L. var. appressum Chapm.
  • Lycopodiella appressa Taxon concept: [= Lycopodium appressum (Chapm.) F.E. Lloyd & Underw. − RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake: Wilbur 48656 (DUKE!)

Horseshoe Lake (Infrequent): Howell HOLA−52 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−110 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Upper eulittoral zone; usually in association with saturated peaty to sandy soils (NLSS–LW, CPSI–CG). Jul–Sep. Fig. Fig.2121

Lycopodiella appressa (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 21a.

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Specimen: Howell LAWA110 (NCSC)

Figure 21b.

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Specimen: Howell HOLA–52 (NCSC)

Figure 21c.

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Rooting stems where making contact with soil

Figure 21d.

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Terminal strobilus

Onocleaceae

Onoclea sensibilis

L.

  • Onoclea sensibilis Taxon concept: [< O. sensibilis L. – RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Wilbur 84220 (DUKE!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Upper eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). May−Jun. This species was not encountered by the first author in the field, but a single voucher (see above) places it within close proximity to Lake Waccamaw’s southwest shoreline. Fig. Fig.2222

Figure 22.
Onoclea sensibilis (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Osmundaceae

Osmunda spectabilis

Willd.

  • Osmunda spectabilis Taxon concept: [< O. regalis L. var. spectabilis (Willd.) A. Gray − RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−58, 87, 90 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; sometimes establishing itself on old stumps and logs (NLSS–LW). Mar–Jun. Fig. Fig.2323

Osmunda spectabilis (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 23a.

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Specimen: LAWA-90 (NCSC)

Figure 23b.

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Habit

Figure 23c.

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Sterile frond

Figure 23d.

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Sterile and fertile fronds

Polypodiaceae

Pleopeltis polypodioides michauxianavar.michauxiana

(Weath.) E.G. Andrews & Windham

  • Pleopeltis polypodioides michauxianavar.michauxiana Basionym: Polypodium polypodioides (L.) Watt var. michauxianum Weath.
  • Pleopeltis polypodioides michauxianavar.michauxiana Taxon concept: [< Polypodium polypodioides (L.) Watt – RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−47 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Infrequent): Howell SALA−1 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial, frequently epiphytic, herbs. Eulittoral zone; commonly on large limbs and trunks of Taxodium and Nyssa (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW). Jun−Oct. Fig. Fig.2424

Pleopeltis polypodioides var. michauxiana (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 24a.

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Specimen: Howell LAWA-47 (NCSC)

Figure 24b.

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Specimen: Howell SALA-1 (NCSC)

Figure 24c.

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Habit

Figure 24d.

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Habit

GYMNOSPERMS

Families represented: 2

Cupressaceae

Chamaecyparis thyoides

(L.) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb.

  • Chamaecyparis thyoides Basionym: Cupressus thyoides L.
  • Chamaecyparis thyoides Taxon concept: [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Infrequent): Howell BATR−2 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−2, 13 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Occasional): Brown s.n. (NCSC!); Howell JOLA−1, 23 (NCSC!); Lance s.n. (NCU!); Russell 1304 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell LISI−8, 26 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Infrequent): Howell SILA−14 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. At or just below the juncture of the supralittoral and eulittoral zones; often in saturated peaty or sandy soil (NLSS–C, NLSS–LW, NLSM–T). Mar–Apr; Oct– Nov. Fig. Fig.2525

Chamaecyparis thyoides (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 25a.

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Specimen: Howell HOLA-2 (NCSC)

Figure 25b.

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Bark

Figure 25c.

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Leaves and developing seed cones

Figure 25d.

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Leaves and mature seed cones

Taxodium ascendens

Brongn.

  • Taxodium ascendens Taxon concept: [= RAB; < T. distichum L. var. imbricarium (Nutt.) Croom − FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Abundant): Howell BALA−15 (NCSC!)

Bay Tree Lake (Abundant): Howell BATR−7 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Abundant): Howell HOLA−10 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Abundant): Howell JOLA−3, 22 (NCSC!); Krings 508 (NCSC!); Wilbur 57584 (DUKE!)

Lake Waccamaw (Abundant): Howell LAWA−13 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Abundant): Howell LISI−4, 20 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Abundnat): Howell SALA−8 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Abundant): Howell SILA−13 (NCSC!); Wilbur 27966 (DUKE!)

Notes

Trees. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–C, NLSS–LW, NLSM–T, NLSM−LWP, CPSI–CG). Mar– Apr; Oct. Fig. Fig.2626

Taxodium ascendens (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 26a.

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Specimen: Howell BALA-15 (NCSC)

Figure 26b.

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Habit

Figure 26c.

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Leaves

Figure 26d.

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Pollen cones

Taxodium distichum

(L.) Rich.

  • Taxodium distichum Basionym: Cupressus disticha L.
  • Taxodium distichum Taxon concept: [= RAB; < T. distichum (L.) Rich. var. distichum – FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake: Wilbur 61464 (DUKE!)

Jones Lake: Stone 3704 (DUKE!)

Lake Waccamaw: ♦

Salters Lake: Beckman & Linnenburger 38 (DUKE!)

Singletary Lake: Crosby 4032 (DUKE!)

Notes

Trees. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–C, NLSS–LW, NLSM−T). Infrequent. Mar–Apr; Oct. Fig. Fig.2727

Figure 27.
Taxodium distichum (from Britton and Brown 1913)

Pinaceae

Pinus serotina

Michx.

  • Pinus serotina Taxon concept: [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Jones Lake (Rare): Howell JOLA−14 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Rare): Howell SILA−37 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Juncture of supralittoral and eulittoral zones (NLSS–C). Apr–Aug (or any time of the year in response to fire). Fig. Fig.2828

Pinus serotina (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 28a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g028_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell SILA-37 (NCSC)

Figure 28b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g028_b.jpg

Specimen: Howell JOLA-14 (NCSC)

Figure 28c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g028_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 28d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g028_d.jpg

Mature seed cones

Pinus taeda

L.

  • Pinus taeda Taxon concept: [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−71 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Infrequent): Howell LISI−27 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Rare): Howell SILA−12 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Juncture of supralittoral and eulittoral zones (NLSS–C, NLSS–LW). Mar–Apr; Oct– Nov. Fig. Fig.2929

Pinus taeda (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 29a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g029_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-71 (NCSC)

Figure 29b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g029_b.jpg

Specimen: Howell SILA-12 (NCSC)

Figure 29c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g029_c.jpg

Young trees

Figure 29d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g029_d.jpg

Mature seed cones

MONOCOTYLEDONS

Families represented: 17

Alismataceae

Sagittaria filiformis

J.G. Sm.

  • Sagittaria filiformis Taxon concept: [= S. stagnorum Small – GW; S. subulata L. Buchenau var. gracillima (S. Watson) J.G. Sm.; = FNA, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

SR−P; SH, G4G5.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Blomquist & Schuster 16191 (DUKE!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral and infralittoral zones (NLSS−LW, NLSM−LWP). May−Sep. The first author has not encountered this taxon in the field, but a single voucher specimen (see above) confirms its historic presence within the lake. Fig. Fig.3030

Sagittaria graminea

Michx.

  • Sagittaria graminea Taxon concept: [= S. graminea Michx. var. graminea – RAB, GW; = S. graminea Michx. ssp. graminea – FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Frequent): Howell LAWA−19, 57 (NCSC!); Radford s.n. (NCU!); ♦

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW, NLSM−LWP). May−Nov. Fig. Fig.3131

Sagittaria isoetiformis

J.G. Sm.

  • Sagittaria isoetiformis Taxon concept: [< S. teres S. Watson (misapplied) – RAB; = GW, FNA, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

State T; S2, G4?.

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Infrequent): Grant s.n. (NCU!); Howell HOLA−34 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw: LeBlond 5792D (NCU!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW, NLSM−LWP, CPSI−CG, FB). Jun−Sep. Fig. Fig.3232

Sagittaria isoetiformis (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 32a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g032_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-34 (NCSC)

Figure 32b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g032_b.jpg

Leaf

Figure 32c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g032_c.jpg

Flower and floral buds

Figure 32d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g032_d.jpg

Flower and floral buds

Figure 32e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g032_e.jpg

Inflorescence (note bract)

Figure 32f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g032_f.jpg

Inflorescence bract detail

Sagittaria weatherbiana

Fernald

  • Sagittaria weatherbiana Taxon concept: [= S. graminea Michx. var. weatherbiana – RAB, GW; = S. graminea Michx. ssp. weatherbiana – FNA; = Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

State E, FSC; S2, G3G4.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Adams s.n. (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW, NLSM−LWP). Apr−Jun.

Araceae

Colocasia esculenta

(L.) Schott

  • Colocasia esculenta Basionym: Arum esculentum L.
  • Colocasia esculenta Taxon concept: [= GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−93 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW, NLSM−LWP). “Generally infertile in our area” (Weakley 2012). This species is exotic and has become naturalized in roadside ditches, canals, and portions of the lakes shoreline. It spreads by way of rhizome dispersal, which is almost cartainly caused by residential homeowners digging up rhizomes from their flower beds and either tossing them into the lake or into the canals that surround the lake. Fig. Fig.3333

Colocasia esculenta (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 33a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g033_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-93 (NCSC)

Figure 33b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g033_b.jpg

Habit

Wolffia

Horkel ex Schleid.

Notes

The first author has not encountered taxa within this genus in the field; however, the Carolina Vegetation Survey reported “Wolffia spp.” from the southwest side Lake Waccamaw. Although a species-level identification has not been made, a key to the two species most likely to inhabit this location is provided in the Identification Keys section below.

Bromeliaceae

Tillandsia usneoides

(L.) L.

  • Tillandsia usneoides Basionym: Renealmia usneoides L.
  • Tillandsia usneoides Taxon concept: [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Occasional): •

Bay Tree Lake (Frequent): Howell BATR−49 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): •

Jones Lake (Occasional): Howell JOLA–33 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Abundant): Howell LAWA−46, 84 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell LISI−18 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Occasional): Howell SALA−9 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Frequent): Howell SILA−6, 20 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial, epiphytic herbs. Eulittoral zone; common in low-hanging limbs of Taxodium or Nyssa (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW, NLSM−T, CPSI−CG). Apr−Jun. Fig. Fig.3434

Tillandsia usneoides (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 34a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g034_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-46 (NCSC)

Figure 34b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g034_b.jpg

Habit (draped on branches of Taxodium ascendens)

Figure 34c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g034_c.jpg

Flower

Figure 34d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g034_d.jpg

Capsule

Burmanniaceae

Burmannia capitata

(Walter ex J.F. Gmel.) Mart.

  • Burmannia capitata Basionym: Vogelia capitata Walter ex J.F. Gmel.
  • Burmannia capitata Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: LeBlond & Franklin 6578 (NCU!)

Notes

Annual herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Jul−Nov. Fig. Fig.3535

Figure 35.
Burmannia capitata (digital photograph taken by Alexander Krings)

Cyperaceae

Carex alata

Torr.

  • Carex alata Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−98 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; usually at or just below the juncture of the supralittoral and eulittoral zones (NLSS−LW). May−Jun. Fig. Fig.3636

Carex alata (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 36a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g036_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-98 (NCSC)

Figure 36b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g036_b.jpg

Inflorescence

Carex longii

Mack.

  • Carex longii Taxon concept: [< C. albolutescens Schwein. – RAB, GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Rare): Howell BATR−34 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; typically at or just below the juncture of the supralittoral and eulittoral zones. May−Jun. Fig. Fig.3737

Carex longii (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 37a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g037_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-34 (NCSC)

Figure 37b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g037_b.jpg

Inflorescence

Carex lupulina

Muhl. ex Willd.

  • Carex lupulina Taxon concept: [= RAB; < C. lupulina Muhl. ex Willd. – GW (see C. lupuliformis); = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−136 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Juncture of the eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS−LW). Jun−Sep. A taxon of bottomland forests throughout the state, this large-fruited sedge occurs where bottomland swamp forests abut the shoreline of Lake Waccamaw. Fig. Fig.3838

Carex lupulina (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 38a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g038_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-136 (NCSC)

Figure 38b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g038_b.jpg

Inflorescence

Carex striatavar.brevis

L.H. Bailey

  • Carex striatavar.brevis Taxon concept: [< C. walteriana L.H. Bailey – RAB, GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake: Buell 2279 (DUKE!, NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; typically in acidic, saturated, peaty soils (CPSI−CG, FB). May−Jun. Fig. Fig.3939

Figure 39.
Carex striata var. brevis (from Britton and Brown 1913)

Cladium mariscoides

(Muhl.) Torr.

  • Cladium mariscoides Basionym: Schoenus mariscoides Muhl.
  • Cladium mariscoides Taxon concept: [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

SR–O; S3, G5.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Abundant): Howell LAWA−16, 146 (NCSC!); LeBlond 3862 (NCU!); Wilbur 49778, 49789 (DUKE!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Jul−Sep. This taxon is the principal sedge component of the natural shoreline community of Lake Waccamaw. Fig. Fig.4040

Cladium mariscoides (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 40a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g040_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-16 (NCSC)

Figure 40b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g040_b.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-146 (NCSC)

Figure 40c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g040_c.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 40d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g040_d.jpg

Inflorescence

Cyperus erythrorhizos

Muhl.

  • Cyperus erythrorhizos Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake: Buell 2263 (DUKE!); Rothfels, Burge, Duke Natural History Society 2403 (DUKE!)

Cyperus odoratusvar.odoratus

  • Cyperus odoratusvar.odoratus Taxon concept: [= C. odoratus L. – RAB, GW; < C. odoratus L. – FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Rare): Howell BATR−63 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual or short-lived perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; typically on moist sandy beaches at or just below the maximum annual high water mark. Jul−Sep. Fig. Fig.4242

Cyperus odoratus var. odoratus (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 42a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g042_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-63 (NCSC)

Figure 42b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g042_b.jpg

Inflorescence

Cyperus polystachyos

Rottb.

  • Cyperus polystachyos Taxon concept: [> C. polystachyos Rottb. var. texensis (Torr.) Fernald – RAB; < C. polystachyos – GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Jones Lake (Rare): Howell JOLA−43 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; usually in sandy moist soil just below the maximum annual high water mark (NLSM−T). Jul−Oct. Fig. Fig.4343

Dulichium arundinaceumvar.arundinaceum

  • Dulichium arundinaceumvar.arundinaceum Basionym: Cyperus arundinaceus L.
  • Dulichium arundinaceumvar.arundinaceum Taxon concept: [< D. arundinaceum (L.) Britton – RAB, GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Beal 4345 (NCSC!); Buell s.n. (DUKE!); Howell HOLA−32 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−26, 77 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Infrequent): Howell LISI−41 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; calm, quiet waters along shorelines or on floating bogs (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW, CPSI−CG, FB). Jul–Oct. Fig. Fig.4444

Dulichium arundinaceum (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 44a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g044_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-26 (NCSC)

Figure 44b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g044_b.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-77 (NCSC)

Figure 44c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g044_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 44d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g044_d.jpg

Leaves (3-ranked)

Eleocharis baldwinii

Chapm.

  • Eleocharis baldwinii Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Infrequent): Howell BATR−36, 40 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake: • (The first author has observed Eleocharis baldwinii/vivipara around the peripheries of floating bogs and along saturated peaty shores, but voucher specimens were not collected. These two species are unidentifiable from a distance and the use of a hand lens is needed to distinguish one from the other.)

Little Singletary Lake (Rare): Howell LISI−43 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual (?) herbs. Eulittoral zone and infralittoral zones; typically submersed in shallow water or on sarurated organic to sandy soils above current lake levels (NLSS−C, NLSM−T). Jul−Sep. Fig. Fig.4545

Eleocharis baldwinii (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 45a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g045_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-40 (NCSC)

Figure 45b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g045_b.jpg

Specimen: Howell LISI-43 (NCSC)

Figure 45c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g045_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 45d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g045_d.jpg

Habit

Eleocharis equisetoides

(Elliott) Torr.

  • Eleocharis equisetoides Basionym: Scirpus equisetoides Elliott
  • Eleocharis equisetoides Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

W1; S3, G4.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−67, 155 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Rare): Howell LISI−38 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral and infralittoral zones; calm, quiet waters along shorelines (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW). Jun−Sep. Fig. Fig.4646

Eleocharis equisetoides (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 46a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g046_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-67 (NCSC)

Figure 46b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g046_b.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-155 (NCSC)

Figure 46c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g046_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 46d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g046_d.jpg

Inflorescence detail

Eleocharis olivaceavar.olivacea

  • Eleocharis olivaceavar.olivacea Taxon concept: [< E. flavescens (Poir.) Urb. – RAB; < E. olivacea Torr. – GW; < E. flavescens (Poir.) Urb. var. olivacea (Torr.) Gleason – FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−78 (NCSC!); LeBlond 3987 (NCU!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral and infralittoral zones; calm, quiet waters along shorelines (NLSS−LW). Jun−Sep. Fig. Fig.4747

Eleocharis olivacea var. olivacea (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 47a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g047_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-78 (NCSC)

Figure 47b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g047_b.jpg

Habit

Eleocharis vivipara

Link

  • Eleocharis vivipara Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

State E; S1, G5.

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake: • (The first author has observed Eleocharis baldwinii/vivipara around the peripheries of floating bogs and along saturated peaty shores, but voucher specimens were not collected. These two species are unidentifiable from a distance and the use of a hand lens is needed to distinguish one from the other.)

Little Singletary Lake (Rare): Howell LISI−53 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (calm, quiet waters) or boggy, saturated, organic soils at or just below the maximum annual high water mark (NLSS−C, NLSM−T). Jul−Sep. Fig. Fig.4848

Eleocharis vivipara (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 48a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g048_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LISI-53 (NCSC)

Figure 48b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g048_b.jpg

Habit

Fimbristylis autumnalis

(L.) Roem. & Schult.

  • Fimbristylis autumnalis Basionym: Scirpus autumnalis L.
  • Fimbristylis autumnalis Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Radford 677 (NCU!)

Notes

Annual herbs. Eulittoral zone; wet, sandy, disturbed areas (NLSS−LW). Jun−Oct. Fig. Fig.4949

Figure 49.
Fimbristylis autumnalis (from Britton and Brown 1913)

Fuirena pumila

(Torr.) Spreng.

  • Fuirena pumila Basionym: Fuirena squarrosa Michx. var. pumila Torr.
  • Fuirena pumila Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Rare): Howell BATR−62 (NCSC!); Wilbur 57396 (DUKE!)

Notes

Annual herbs. Eulittoral zone; typically in moist sandy soil at high water mark. Jul−Oct. Fig. Fig.5050

Fuirena pumila (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 50a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g050_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-62 (NCSC)

Figure 50b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g050_b.jpg

Inflorescence detail

Rhynchospora alba

(L.) Vahl

  • Rhynchospora alba Basionym: Schoenus albus L.
  • Rhynchospora alba Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

SR−P; S2, G5.

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−45 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. floating bogs of Horseshoe Lake (FB). Jul−Oct. Fig. Fig.5151

Rhynchospora alba (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 51a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g051_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-45 (NCSC)

Figure 51b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g051_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 51c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g051_c.jpg

Inflorescences

Figure 51d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g051_d.jpg

Inflorescences

Rhynchospora corniculata

(Lam.) A. Gray

  • Rhynchospora corniculata Basionym: Schoenus corniculatus Lam.
  • Rhynchospora corniculata Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA; < R. corniculata (L.) A. Gray var. corniculata − Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−135, 163 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Jul−Sep. Fig. Fig.5252

Rhynchospora corniculata (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 52a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g052_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-135 (NCSC)

Figure 52b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g052_b.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-163 (NCSC)

Figure 52c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g052_c.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 52d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g052_d.jpg

Inflorescence detail

Rhynchospora distans

(Michx.) Vahl

  • Rhynchospora distans Basionym: Schoenus distans Michx.
  • Rhynchospora distans Taxon concept: [< R. fascicularis (Michx.) Vahl – RAB, GW, FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Rare): Howell BALA−2 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw: Wilbur 49814 (DUKE!)

Little Singletary Lake (Rare): Howell LISI−33 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; typically at the high water mark in moist sandy soil (NLSS−C). Jun−Sep. Fig. Fig.5353

Figure 53.
Rhynchospora distans (Howell BALA-2, NCSC)

Rhynchospora elliottii

A. Dietr.

  • Rhynchospora elliottii Taxon concept: [= R. schoenoides (Elliott) Wood – RAB; = GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: ♦

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Jul−Sep.

Rhynchospora inexpansa

(Michx.) Vahl

  • Rhynchospora inexpansa Basionym: Schoenus inexpansus Michx.
  • Rhynchospora inexpansa Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Jones Lake: Beal 799 (NCSC!)

Rhynchospora inundata

(Oakes) Fernald

  • Rhynchospora inundata Basionym: Ceratoschoenus macrostachyus (Torr. ex A. Gray) A. Gray var. inundatus Oakes
  • Rhynchospora inundata Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

W1; S3, G4?

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Infrequent): Howell HOLA−53 (NCSC!); Grant s.n. (NCU!); Rothfels, Burge, Duke Nat. Hist. Soc. 2401 (DUKE!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone of shorelines and on floating bogs (CPSI−CG, FB). Jul−Sep. Fig. Fig.5555

Rhynchospora inundata (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 55a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g055_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-53 (NCSC)

Figure 55b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g055_b.jpg

Inflorescence

Rhynchospora latifolia

(Baldwin) W.W. Thomas

  • Rhynchospora latifolia Basionym: Dichromena latifolia Baldwin
  • Rhynchospora latifolia Taxon concept: [= Dichromena latifolia Baldwin ex Elliott – RAB, GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Radford 723 (NCU!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). May−Sep. Fig. Fig.5656

Figure 56.
Rhynchospora latifolia (illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Rhynchospora macrostachya

Torr. ex A. Gray

  • Rhynchospora macrostachya Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−130 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Jul−Sep. Fig. Fig.5757

Rhynchospora macrostachya (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 57a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g057_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-130 (NCSC)

Figure 57b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g057_b.jpg

Achene detail

Rhynchospora nitens

(Vahl) A. Gray

  • Rhynchospora nitens Basionym: Scirpus nitens Vahl
  • Rhynchospora nitens Taxon concept: [= Psilocarya nitens (Vahl) Alph. Wood – RAB, GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

W1; S3, G4?

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Wilbur 49781 (DUKE!)

Notes

Annual herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Jul−Aug. Fig. Fig.5858

Figure 58.
Rhynchospora nitens (illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Scirpus cyperinus

(L.) Kunth

  • Scirpus cyperinus Basionym: Eriophorum cyperinum L.
  • Scirpus cyperinus Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−58 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Occasional): Howell JOLA−4, 45 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−166 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): •

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW, NLSM−T). Jul−Sep. Fig. Fig.5959

Scirpus cyperinus (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 59a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g059_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-58 (NCSC)

Figure 59b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g059_b.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-166 (NCSC)

Figure 59c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g059_c.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 59d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g059_d.jpg

Inflorescence detail

Eriocaulaceae

Eriocaulon aquaticum

(Hill) Druce

  • Eriocaulon aquaticum Basionym: Cespa aquatica Hill
  • Eriocaulon aquaticum Taxon concept: [> E. pellucidum Michx. – RAB; = E. septangulare – GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

SC−V; S2, G5.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Abundant): Howell LAWA−5, 52 (NCSC!); Lynch 185 (NCSC!); Wilbur 49802 (DUKE!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral and infralittoral zones (NLSS−LW, NLSM−LWP). Jul−Oct. A dominant species in the littoral zone of Lake Waccamaw. Fig. Fig.6060

Eriocaulon aquaticum (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 60a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g060_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-5 (NCSC)

Figure 60b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g060_b.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-52 (NCSC)

Figure 60c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g060_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 60d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g060_d.jpg

Leaves

Figure 60e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g060_e.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 60f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g060_f.jpg

Inflorescence

Haemodoraceae

Lachnanthes caroliniana

(Lam.) Dandy

  • Lachnanthes caroliniana Basionym: Dilatris caroliniana Lam.
  • Lachnanthes caroliniana Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Infrequent): Howell BATR−50, 51 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Infrequent): Howell HOLA−51 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−107 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Infrequent): Howell LISI−25, 51 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; typically in saturated soils at or below the maximum annual high water mark (NLSS–C, NLSS–LW, NLSM–T, CPSI–CG). Jun–early Sep; Sep–Nov. Fig. Fig.6161

Lachnanthes caroliniana (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell):

Figure 61a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g061_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-50 (NCSC)

Figure 61b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g061_b.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-51 (NCSC)

Figure 61c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g061_c.jpg

Roots

Figure 61d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g061_d.jpg

Inflorescence

Hydrocharitaceae

Hydrilla verticillata

(L. f.) Royle

  • Hydrilla verticillata Basionym: Serpicula verticillata L.f.
  • Hydrilla verticillata Taxon concept: [= GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: ¤

Notes

Perennial herbs. Infralittoral zone (NLSS−LW, NLSM−LWP). Jun−Aug. This exotic, invasive taxon is native to warm climates of the Old World. Hydrilla verticillata was introduced to Florida in 1950 as an ornamental and has since become a terrible aquatic invasive throughout the Southeast. Where introduced, H. verticillata chokes out native submersed aquatic vegetation (e.g., Ceratophyllum, Myriophyllum, Najas, Potomogeton, Vallisneria), negatively impacts recreational activities and alters natural hydrology and water chemistry (Ramey and Peichel 2001). Fig. Fig.6262

Najas guadalupensisvar.guadalupensis

  • Najas guadalupensisvar.guadalupensis Basionym: Caulinia guadalupensis Spreng.
  • Najas guadalupensisvar.guadalupensis Taxon concept: [< N. guadalupensis (Spreng.) Magnus – RAB, GW; = N. guadalupensis ssp. guadalupensis – FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Blomquist & Schuster 16190 (DUKE!)

Notes

Annual herbs. Infralittoral zone (NLSS−LW, NLSM−LWP). Jul−Sep. Fig. Fig.6363

Hypoxidaceae

Hypoxis curtissii

Rose

  • Hypoxis curtissii Taxon concept: [= H. hirsuta (L.) Coville var. leptocarpa (Engelm. & A. Gray) Fernald – RAB; = H. leptocarpa (Engelm. & A. Gray) Small – GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−60 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; at the high water mark in moist to saturated soil (NLSS−LW). Mar−Jun; May−Jul. Fig. Fig.6464

Hypoxis curtissii (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 64a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g064_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-60 (NCSC)

Figure 64b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g064_b.jpg

Habit

Figure 64c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g064_c.jpg

Flower

Figure 64d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g064_d.jpg

Flower

Juncaceae

Juncus acuminatus

Michx.

  • Juncus acuminatus Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Rare): Howell BATR−15 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone. May−Aug. Fig. Fig.6565

Juncus biflorus

Elliott

  • Juncus biflorus Taxon concept: [= RAB; < J. marginatus Rostk. – GW, FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Little Singletary Lake (Rare): Howell LISI−58 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake: Beal 796 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Juncture of the eulittoral and supralittoral zones; usually in wet soils at or just below the high water mark (NLSM−T, NLSS−C). Jun−Oct. Fig. Fig.6666

Juncus biflorus (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 66a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g066_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LISI-58 (NCSC)

Figure 66b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g066_b.jpg

Inflorescence

Juncus canadensis

J. Gay ex Laharpe

  • Juncus canadensis Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−32, 170 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Jul−Oct. Fig. Fig.6767

Juncus coriaceus

Mack.

  • Juncus coriaceus Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake: Beal 828 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (CPSI−CG). Jun−Sep. Fig. Fig.6868

Figure 68.
Juncus coriaceus (from Britton and Brown 1913)

Juncus effusus solutusvar.effusus

(Fernald & Wiegand) Hämet-Ahti

  • Juncus effusus solutusvar.effusus Taxon concept: [< J. effusus – RAB, GW, FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Occassional): Howell BATR−6 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occassional): Howell LISI−3 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Occassiona): Howell HOLA−8 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−C, NLSM−T, CPSI−CG). Jun−Sep. Fig. Fig.6969

Juncus effusus (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida, IFAS 2015)

Figure 69a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g069_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-8 (NCSC)

Figure 69b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g069_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 69c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g069_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 69d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g069_d.jpg

Inflorescence

Juncus pelocarpus

E. Mey.

  • Juncus pelocarpus Taxon concept: [> J. abortivus Chapm. – RAB, GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Frequent): Howell BATR−61 (NCSC!); Wilbur 57415 (DUKE!)

Horseshoe Lake: Wilbur 2264, 81465 (DUKE!)

Jones Lake (Occasional): Howell JOLA−17, 35 (NCSC!); Wilbur 57582 (DUKE!)

Lake Waccamaw (Frequent): Howell LAWA−3 (NCSC!); Wilbur s. n., 84188 (DUKE!)

Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell SILA−31 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW, NLSM−T, CPSI−CG). Jul−Oct. Fig. Fig.7070

Juncus pelocarpus (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 70a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g070_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-61 (NCSC)

Figure 70b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g070_b.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-3 (NCSC)

Figure 70c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g070_c.jpg

Flower

Figure 70d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g070_d.jpg

Inflorescence

Juncus repens

Michx.

  • Juncus repens Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−8 (NCSC!); Wilbur 57395 (DUKE!)

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Beal 4348 (NCSC!); Howell HOLA−14 (NCSC!); Wilbur & Menchi Ho 83792 (DUKE!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−30, 31 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell LISI−19, 44 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell SILA−1, 32 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW, NLSM−T, CPSI−CG). Jun−Oct. Fig. Fig.7171

Figure 71a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g071_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell SILA-32 (NCSC)

Figure 71b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g071_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 71c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g071_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 71d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g071_d.jpg

Habit

Juncus scirpoidesvar.scirpoides

  • Juncus scirpoidesvar.scirpoides Taxon concept: [< J. scirpoides Lam. – RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Infrequent): Howell BATR−27, 66 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Infrequent): Howell LISI−55 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−C, NLSM−T). Jun−Sep. Fig. Fig.7272

Juncus scirpoides (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 72a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g072_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-27 (NCSC)

Figure 72b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g072_b.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-66 (NCSC)

Figure 72c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g072_c.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 72d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g072_d.jpg

Inflorescence

Mayacaceae

Mayaca fluviatilis

Aubl.

  • Mayaca fluviatilis Taxon concept: [> M. aubletii Michx. – RAB; > M. fluviatilis Aubl. – RAB; = GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: ¤

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral and infralittoral zones (NLSS−LW). May−Jul. Fig. Fig.7373

Orchidaceae

Calopogon tuberosusvar.tuberosus

  • Calopogon tuberosusvar.tuberosus Basionym: Limodorum tuberosum L.
  • Calopogon tuberosusvar.tuberosus Taxon concept: [< C. pulchellus R. Brown − RAB; < C. tuberosus (L.) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb. – GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−24, 39 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. floating bogs (CPSI–CG, FB). Apr–Jul. Fig. Fig.7474

Calopogon tuberosus (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 74a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g074_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-24 (NCSC)

Figure 74b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g074_b.jpg

Flower

Epidendrum magnoliae

Muhl.

  • Epidendrum magnoliae Taxon concept: [< E. conopseum R. Br. – RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

T; S1S2, G4.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Correll & Blomquist 4900 (DUKE!)

Notes

Perennial, epiphytic herbs. Eulittoral zone; typically on limbs and trunks of Taxodium ascendens, Taxodium distichum, Nyssa aquatica, Nyssa biflora, Liquidambar styraciflua, and possibly other bottomland tree species in the shoreline of Lake Waccamaw (NLSS– LW, NLSS–C). Jul–Oct. This species usually co-occurs with Pleopeltis polypodiodes. The first author observed a vegetative specimen on the edge of Big Creek ca. 50–70 meters from the shoreline of Lake Waccamaw. The specimen was on a large Nyssa aquatica limb, ca. 25–30 meters above the water, and was co- occuring with Pleopeltis polypodioides.

Habenaria repens

Nutt.

  • Habenaria repens Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

W1; S2, G5.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: ►

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–LW). Apr–Nov.

Pogonia ophioglossoides

(L.) Ker Gawl.

  • Pogonia ophioglossoides Basionym: Arethusa ophioglossoides L.
  • Pogonia ophioglossoides Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−30 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. floating bogs (CPSI–CG, FB). Mar–Jun. Fig. Fig.7575

Pogonia ophioglossoides (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 75a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g075_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-30 (NCSC)

Figure 75b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g075_b.jpg

Flower

Spiranthes laciniata

(Small) Ames

  • Spiranthes laciniata Basionym: Gyrostachys laciniata Small
  • Spiranthes laciniata Taxon concept: [= RAB; < S. × laciniata – GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

SC−V; S2, G4,G5.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−105, 106, 116 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–LW). May–Aug. Fig. Fig.7676

Spiranthes laciniata (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 76a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g076_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-105 (NCSC)

Figure 76b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g076_b.jpg

Leaf

Figure 76c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g076_c.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 76d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g076_d.jpg

Inflorescence (detail)

Poaceae

Agrostis hyemalis

(Walter) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

  • Agrostis hyemalis Basionym: Cornucopiae hyemalis Walter
  • Agrostis hyemalis Taxon concept: [< A. hyemalis (Walter) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. – RAB; = A. hiemalis (Walter) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. – GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Little Singletary Lake (Rare): Howell LISI−37 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Juncture of supralittoral and eulittoral zones; typically in moist sandy soils (NLSM−T). Mar−Jul. Fig. Fig.7777

Agrostis hyemalis (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Hitchcock and Chase 1951)

Figure 77a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g077_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LISI-37 (NCSC)

Figure 77b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g077_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 77c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g077_c.jpg

Base of inflorescence

Figure 77d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g077_d.jpg

Inflorescence, including spikelets

Andropogon glaucopsis

Steud.

  • Andropogon glaucopsis Taxon concept: [< A. virginicus L. – RAB; = GW; = A. glomeratus var. glaucopsis (Elliott) C. Mohr − FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake: Buell s.n. (DUKE!, NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Infrequent): Howell JOLA–16 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (CPSI−CG, FB). Sep−Oct. Fig. Fig.7878

Figure 78.
Andropogon glaucopsis (Howell JOLA-16, NCSC)

Andropogon virginicusvar.virginicus

  • Andropogon virginicusvar.virginicus Taxon concept: [< A. virginicus L. – RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: ♦

Arundinaria tecta

(Walter) Muhl.

  • Arundinaria tecta Basionym: Arundo tecta Walter
  • Arundinaria tecta Taxon concept: [< A. gigantea (Walter) Muhl. – RAB, GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Bennedict 4350 (DUKE!)

Notes

Arborescent herbs. Eulittoral zone; at or just below the mean annual high water mark (NLSS−LW). Apr−Jul. The first author has not encountered this taxon in the field, but a single voucher specimen (see above) places it within the immediate vicinity. Fig. Fig.8080

Figure 80.
Arundinaria tecta (from Hitchcock and Chase 1951)

Coleataenia longifoliavar.longifolia

  • Coleataenia longifoliavar.longifolia Basionym: Panicum longifolium Torr.
  • Coleataenia longifoliavar.longifolia Taxon concept: [= Panicum longifolium Torr. var. longifolium – RAB; < Panicum longifolium Torr. – GW; = Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Nees ssp. pubescens (Vasey) Freckmann & Lelong − FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Infrequent): Howell BATR – 68 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA −145, 147, 164, 168 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Jul−Oct. Fig. Fig.8181

Figure 81.
Coleataenia longifolia (illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Coleataenia tenera

(Beyr. ex Trin.) Soreng

  • Coleataenia tenera Basionym: Panicum tenerum Bey. ex Trin.
  • Coleataenia tenera Taxon concept: [= Panicum tenerum Bey. ex Trin. – RAB, GW, FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: ►

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Jun−Sep.

Dichanthelium boreale

(Nash) Freckmann

  • Dichanthelium boreale Basionym: Panicum boreale Nash
  • Dichanthelium boreale Taxon concept: [> Panicum bicknellii Nash– RAB; > D. boreale (Nash) Freckmann – FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Blomquist 957 (DUKE!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLS−LW). Apr−Sep. Fig. Fig.8282

Figure 82.
Dichanthelium boreale (illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Dichanthelium dichotomumvar.roanokense

(Ashe) LeBlond

  • Dichanthelium dichotomumvar.roanokense Basionym: Panicum roanokense Nash
  • Dichanthelium dichotomumvar.roanokense Taxon concept: [< D. dichotomum (L.) Gould – RAB, GW; < D. dichotomum (L.) Gould) ssp. roanokense (Ashe) Freckmann & Lelong – FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Ashe s.n. (NCU!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; moist to peaty lakeshores (NLSS−LW). May−Sep.

Dichanthelium erectifolium

(Nash) Gould & C.A. Clark

  • Dichanthelium erectifolium Basionym: Panicum erectifolium Nash
  • Dichanthelium erectifolium Taxon concept: [= Panicum erectifolium Nash – RAB, GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

W2; S2, G4.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−111 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; moist sandy to peaty shores (NLSS−LW). May−Aug. Fig. Fig.8383

Dichanthelium erectifolium (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 83a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g083_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-111 (NCSC)

Figure 83b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g083_b.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-127 (NCSC)

Figure 83c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g083_c.jpg

Culm and leaf

Figure 83d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g083_d.jpg

Inflorescence

Dichanthelium lancearium

  • Dichanthelium lancearium Taxon concept: [= Panicum lancearium Trinius – RAB; < D. portoricense (Desv. ex Ham.) B.F. Hansen & Wunderlin ssp. patulum (Scribner & Merrill) Freckmann & Lelong – FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Blomquist & Correll 9383 (NCU!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). May−Sep.

Dichanthelium mattamuskeetense

(Ashe) Mohlenbr.

  • Dichanthelium mattamuskeetense Basionym: Panicum mattamuskeetense Ashe
  • Dichanthelium mattamuskeetense Taxon concept: [< Panicum dichotomum L. – RAB, GW; < D. dichotomum (L.) Gould ssp. mattamuskeetense (Ashe) Freckmann & Lelong – FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Blomquist & Correll 9385 (DUKE!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). May−Oct. Fig. Fig.8484

Figure 84.
Dichanthelium mattamuskeetense (illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Dichanthelium portoricense

(Desv. ex Ham.) B.F. Hansen & Wunderlin

  • Dichanthelium portoricense Basionym: Panicum portoricense Desv. ex Ham.
  • Dichanthelium portoricense Taxon concept: [= Panicum portoricense Desv. ex Ham. – RAB; = D. portoricense (Desv. ex Ham.) B.F. Hansen & Wunderlin ssp. portoricense – FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Infrequent): Howell BATR – 52 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw: Blomquist & Correll 9383 (NCU!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; moist sandy to peaty shores (NLSS−LW). May−Sep. Fig. Fig.8585

Figure 85.
Dichanthelium portoricense (Howell BATR-52, NCSC)

Eragrostis elliottii

S. Watson

  • Eragrostis elliottii Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Rare): Howell BATR−67 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw: ►

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Sep−Oct. Fig. Fig.8686

Figure 86.
Eragrostis elliottii (Howell BATR-67, NCSC)

Eragrostis refracta

(Muhl. ex Elliott) Scribn.

  • Eragrostis refracta Basionym: Poa refracta Muhl. ex Elliott
  • Eragrostis refracta Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: ►

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Jul−Oct.

Luziola fluitansvar.fluitans

  • Luziola fluitansvar.fluitans Basionym: Zizania fluitans Michx.
  • Luziola fluitansvar.fluitans Taxon concept: [= Hydrochloa carolinensis P. Beauv. – RAB, GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Bolser MEH107 (NCU!); Howell LAWA−51 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Aug−Oct. Fig. Fig.8787

Luziola fluitans (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Hitchcock and Chase 1951)

Figure 87a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g087_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-51 (NCSC)

Figure 87b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g087_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 87c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g087_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 87d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g087_d.jpg

Leaves

Panicum hemitomon

Schult.

  • Panicum hemitomon Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Abundant): Howell BATR−18 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Infrequent): Howell HOLA−23 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Abundant): Blomquist 1399 (DUKE!); Blomquist & Correll 9379 (DUKE!, NCU!); Howell LAWA−79 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Infrequent): Howell LISI−35 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Occasional): Howell SALA−14 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Occasional): Blomquist 1400 (DUKE!); Howell SILA−17 (NCSC!); Wilbur 60947 (DUKE!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral and infralitoral zones (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW, NLSM−T, CPSI−CG). Jun−Jul. Fig. Fig.8888

Figure 88a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g088_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-18 (NCSC)

Figure 88b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g088_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 88c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g088_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 88d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g088_d.jpg

Inflorescences

Panicum verrucosum

Muhl.

  • Panicum verrucosum Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Infrequent): Howell BATR−53 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Rare): Howell JOLA−40, 41 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Rare): Howell LISI−50 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSM−T, NLSS−C). Aug−Oct. Fig. Fig.8989

Panicum verrucosum (illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 89a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g089_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-53 (NCSC)

Figure 89b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g089_b.jpg

Illustration

Panicum virgatumvar.virgatum

  • Panicum virgatumvar.virgatum Taxon concept: [< P. virgatum – RAB, GW, FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake: Wilbur 57420 (DUKE!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone. Jun−Oct. Fig. Fig.9090

Figure 90.
Panicum virgatum (illustration from Hitchcock and Chase 1951)

Saccharum giganteum

(Walter) Pers.

  • Saccharum giganteum Basionym: Anthoxanthum giganteum Walter
  • Saccharum giganteum Taxon concept: [= Erianthus giganteus (Walter) P. Beauv. – RAB, GW; = FNA. Weakley]

Distribution

Jones Lake (Rare): Howell JOLA−37 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−7, 160 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW). Sep−Oct. Fig. Fig.9191

Figure 91a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g091_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-7 (NCSC)

Figure 91b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g091_b.jpg

lllustration

Figure 91c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g091_c.jpg

Culm and leaf blade

Figure 91d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g091_d.jpg

Inflorescence

Sacciolepis striata

(L.) Nash

  • Sacciolepis striata Basionym: Holcus striatus L.
  • Sacciolepis striata Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−43, 54, 55 (NCSC!); Wilbur 48657, 57394 (DUKE!)

Horseshoe Lake: Rothfels, Burge, Duke Natural History Society 2398 (DUKE!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−131 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Occasional): Beal 3225 (NCSC!); Frey s.n. (NCU!); Howell SILA−38 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW, NLSM−T, CPSI−CG). Jul−Oct. Fig. Fig.9292

Figure 92a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g092_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-55 (NCSC)

Figure 92b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g092_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 92c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g092_c.jpg

Leaf sheath

Figure 92d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g092_d.jpg

Inflorescence

Sphenopholis obtusata

(Michx.) Scribn.

  • Sphenopholis obtusata Basionym: Aria obtusata Michx.
  • Sphenopholis obtusata Taxon concept: [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Blomquist 1492 (DUKE!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Apr−May. Fig. Fig.9393

Figure 93.
Sphenopholis obtusata (illustration from Hitchcock and Chase 1951)

Pontederiaceae

Pontederia cordatavar.cordata

  • Pontederia cordatavar.cordata Taxon concept: [< P. cordata − RAB; = GW; < P. cordata – FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Rare): •Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−15, 50, 159 (NCSC!); Matthews s.n. (NCU!); Wilbur 59382 (DUKE!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). May−Oct. Fig. Fig.9494

Figure 94a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g094_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-159 (NCSC)

Figure 94b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g094_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 94c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g094_c.jpg

Leaves

Figure 94d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g094_d.jpg

Inflorescence

Pontederia cordatavar.lancifolia

(Muhl.) Torr.

  • Pontederia cordatavar.lancifolia Taxon concept: [< P. cordata – RAB; = GW; < P. cordata – FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: ♦

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). May−Oct.

Potamogetonaceae

Potamogeton pulcher

Tuck.

  • Potamogeton pulcher Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: ►

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral and infralittoral zones (NLSS−LW, NLSM−LWP). Jun−Sep. Fig. Fig.9595

Figure 95.
Potamogeton pulcher (illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Potamogeton pusillus

L.

  • Potamogeton pusillus Taxon concept: [< P. berchtoldii Fieber – RAB; = GW; > P. pusillus L. ssp. pusillus – FNA; > P. pusillus L. var. pusillus − Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: ¤

Notes

Annual herbs. Eulittoral and infralittoral zones (NLSS−LW, NLSM−LWP). May−Sep.

Smilacaceae

Smilax glauca

Walter

  • Smilax glauca Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Rare): Howell BATR−29 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial vines. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones. Late Apr−Early Jun; Sep−Nov and persisting. Fig. Fig.9696

Smilax glauca (digital photographs taken by Alexander Krings)

Figure 96a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g096_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-29 (NCSC)

Figure 96b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g096_b.jpg

Leaf (abaxial surface)

Figure 96c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g096_c.jpg

Leaf showing contrast between abaxial surface (left) and adaxial surface (right)

Figure 96d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g096_d.jpg

Fruits

Smilax laurifolia

L.

  • Smilax laurifolia Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Frequent): Howell BALA−13 (NCSC!)

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−44 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−3 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Frequent): Howell JOLA−7 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−34 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Frequent): Howell SALA−4, 15 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Frequent): Howell SILA−9 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial vines. Eulittoral zone; typically at the maximum annual high water mark in saturated organic to sandy soils (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW, NLSM−T, CPSI−CG). Jul−Aug; Sep−Oct and persisting. Fig. Fig.9797

Figure 97a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g097_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell SALA-15 (NCSC)

Figure 97b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g097_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 97c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g097_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 97d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g097_d.jpg

Infructescence

Smilax rotundifolia

L.

  • Smilax rotundifolia Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: ♦

Notes

Perennial vines. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral (NLSS−LW). Apr−May; Sep−Oct and persisting. Fig. Fig.9898

Figure 98a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g098_a.jpg

Illustration

Figure 98b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g098_b.jpg

Leaf (adaxial surface)

Figure 98c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g098_c.jpg

Stem (with prickles), petiole, and withered stipular tendrils (at base of petiole)

Figure 98d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g098_d.jpg

Denticulations at base of leaf blade (arrowed)

Smilax walteri

Pursh

  • Smilax walteri Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−13, 21, 25 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−29, 55, 162 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial vines. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW, CPSI−CG). Late Apr−May; Sep−Nov and persisting. Fig. Fig.9999

Smilax walteri (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [leaf and flower] and Alexander Krings [fruits])

Figure 99a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g099_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-55 (NCSC)

Figure 99b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g099_b.jpg

Leaf (adaxial surface)

Figure 99c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g099_c.jpg

Flower

Figure 99d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g099_d.jpg

Fruits

Xyridaceae

Xyris fimbriata

Elliott

  • Xyris fimbriata Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake: Rothfels, Burge, Duke Natural History Society 2400, 2404 (DUKE!)

Lake Waccamaw: ►

Singletary Lake: Frey s.n. (NCU!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−C, NLSM−T, NLSS−LW, CPSI–CG). Sep−Oct. Fig. 100

Xyris iridifolia

Chapm.

  • Xyris iridifolia Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW; < X. laxifolia Mart. var. iridifolia (Chapm.) Kral – FNA; = Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

W7; S2, G4G5T4T.

Distribution

Salters Lake: ♦

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–C). Jul–Sep.

Xyris jupicai

Rch.

  • Xyris jupicai Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Little Singletary Lake (Infrequent): Howell LISI−46 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual, rarely biennial, herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−C, NLSM−T). Jul−Sep. Fig. 101

Xyris jupicai (illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 101a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g101_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LISI-46 (NCSC)

Figure 101b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g101_b.jpg

Illustration

Xyris smalliana

Nash

  • Xyris smalliana Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

W1; S3, G5.

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake: R.L Wilbur 81092 (DUKE!)

Jones Lake (Occasional): Howell JOLA−42 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Abundant): Howell LAWA−114, 125, 142, 144 (NCSC!); LeBlond 3996 (NCU)

Salters Lake: Beckman & Linnenburger 24 (DUKE!); Grant s.n. (NCU)

Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell SILA−29 (NCSC!); Rothfels & O’ Reilly, Shaw Lab s.n. (DUKE!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW, NLSM–T, CPSI–CG). Jul−Aug. Fig. 102

Xyris smalliana (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 102a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g102_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-114 (NCSC)

Figure 102b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g102_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 102c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g102_c.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 102d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g102_d.jpg

Flowers

BASAL ANGIOSPERMS, MAGNOLIIDS, and EUDICOTYLEDONS

Families represented: 55 (BA: 2; M: 2; E: 51)

Altingiaceae

Liquidambar styraciflua

L.

  • Liquidambar styraciflua Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Infrequent): Howell BATR−47 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−45, 133 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS–LW). Apr–May; Aug–Sep. Fig. 103

Liquidambar styraciflua (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [leaves] and Alexander Krings [twig, staminate flowers, fruit]; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 103a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g103_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-133 (NCSC)

Figure 103b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g103_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 103c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g103_c.jpg

Twig, bud, and leaf scars

Figure 103d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g103_d.jpg

Leaves

Figure 103e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g103_e.jpg

Staminate flowers

Figure 103f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g103_f.jpg

Fruit

Amaranthaceae

Alternanthera philoxeroides

(Mart.) Griseb.

  • Alternanthera philoxeroides Basionym: Bucholzia philoxeroides Mart.
  • Alternanthera philoxeroides Taxon concept: [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Beal 543, 1776 (DUKE!); Howell LAWA−65 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; calm, quiet waters (NLSS–LW). Apr–Oct. Fig. 104

Alternanthera philoxeroides (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [habit, node] and Alexander Krings [leaf, inflorescence]; illustration from United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service PLANTS Database / United ...

Figure 104a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g104_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-65 (NCSC)

Figure 104b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g104_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 104c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g104_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 104d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g104_d.jpg

Node

Figure 104e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g104_e.jpg

Leaf

Figure 104f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g104_f.jpg

Inflorescence

Anacardiaceae

Rhus copallinumvar.copallinum

  • Rhus copallinumvar.copallinum Taxon concept: [< R. copallina L. – RAB; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Rare): Howell BALA−10 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs or small trees. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS−C). Jul−Sep; Aug−Oct. Fig. 105

Rhus copallinum (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [infructescence] and Alexander Krings [stem, leaf, infructescence detail]; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 105a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g105_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BALA-10 (NCSC)

Figure 105b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g105_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 105c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g105_c.jpg

Stem

Figure 105d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g105_d.jpg

Imparipinnate leaf (with winged rachis)

Figure 105e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g105_e.jpg

Infructescence

Figure 105f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g105_f.jpg

Infructescence (detail)

Toxicodendron radicansvar.radicans

  • Toxicodendron radicansvar.radicans Taxon concept: [< Rhus radicans L. – RAB; < T. radicans (L.) Kuntze – GW; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Infrequent): •

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−82, 152 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs or lianas. Eulittoral zone; typically growing on woody shrubs and trees at or just below the high water mark (NLSS−LW, NLSM−LWP). Late Apr−May; Aug−Oct. Fig. 106

Figure 106a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g106_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-152 (NCSC)

Figure 106b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g106_b.jpg

lllustration

Figure 106c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g106_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 106d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g106_d.jpg

Climbing stem with adventitious roots

Figure 106e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g106_e.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 106f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g106_f.jpg

Fruits

Apiaceae

Centella asiatica

(L.) Urb.

  • Centella asiatica Basionym: Hydrocotyle asiatica L.
  • Centella asiatica Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Frequent): Howell LAWA−25, 115 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–LW). Jun–Aug; Jul–Sep. Fig. 107

Centella asiatica (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 107a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g107_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-115 (NCSC)

Figure 107b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g107_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 107c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g107_c.jpg

Leaves

Figure 107d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g107_d.jpg

Flower

Cicuta maculatavar.maculata

  • Cicuta maculatavar.maculata Taxon concept: [= C. maculata L. – RAB, GW; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−121 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; moist soils at or just below the mean annual high water mark, also on sandbars and peninsular islands stranded in the littoral zone (NLSS–LW). May−Aug; Jul−Sep. Fig. 108

Figure 108a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g108_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-121 (NCSC)

Figure 108b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g108_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 108c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g108_c.jpg

Leaf

Figure 108d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g108_d.jpg

Inflorescence

Aquifoliaceae

Ilex coriacea

(Pursh) Chapm.

  • Ilex coriacea Basionym: Prinos coriaceus Pursh
  • Ilex coriacea Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Rare): Howell BATR−16 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Occasional): Howell JOLA−10, 32 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS−C). Apr−May; Sep−Oct. Fig. 109

Ilex coriacea (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 109a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g109_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-16 (NCSC)

Figure 109b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g109_b.jpg

Leaves

Figure 109c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g109_c.jpg

Flower

Figure 109d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g109_d.jpg

Fruits

Ilex glabra

(L.) A. Gray

  • Ilex glabra Basionym: Prinos glaber L.
  • Ilex glabra Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Rare): Howell BALA−9 (NCSC!)

Bay Tree Lake (Rare): Howell BATR−3, 59 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−9, 153 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW). May−Jun; Sep−Nov. Fig. 110

Figure 110a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g110_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-9 (NCSC)

Figure 110b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g110_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 110c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g110_c.jpg

Leaves

Figure 110d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g110_d.jpg

Fruits

Araliaceae

Hydrocotyle umbellata

L.

  • Hydrocotyle umbellata Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, RAB, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Rare): Howell BATR−45 (NCSC; this specimen is sterile and tentatively referred here)

Lake Waccamaw (Frequent): Howell LAWA−24, 53 (NCSC; these specimens are sterile and tentatively referred here)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–LW). Apr–Sep. Fig. 111

Asteraceae

Baccharis halimifolia

L.

  • Baccharis halimifolia Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−88 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Eulittoral zone; can be found on saturated soil at or just below the mean annual high water mark or growing from the bases of Taxodium in the littoral zone (NLSS−LW). Aug−Oct. Fig. 112f

Baccharis halimifolia (digital photographs taken by Alexander Krings; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 112a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g112_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-88 (NCSC)

Figure 112b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g112_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 112c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g112_c.jpg

Stem

Figure 112d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g112_d.jpg

Leaf

Figure 112e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g112_e.jpg

Staminate capitulescence

Figure 112f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g112_f.jpg

Pistillate capitulescence

Bidens laevis

(L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

  • Bidens laevis Basionym: Helianthus laevis L.
  • Bidens laevis Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Radford 683 (NCU!)

Notes

Annual herbs. Eulittoral zone; wet sandy beaches and sand bars (NLSS−LW). (Aug−Nov). The first author did not encounter this taxon in the field, but a single voucher confirms its historical presence. Fig. 113

Boltonia asteroidesvar.glastifolia

(Hill) Fernald

  • Boltonia asteroidesvar.glastifolia Basionym: Matricaria glastifolia Hill
  • Boltonia asteroidesvar.glastifolia Taxon concept: [< B. asteroides (L.) L’Hér – RAB; < Boltonia spp. – GW (formal treatment of the genus lacking); < B. asteroides (L.) L’Hér var. asteroides – FNA; = Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

SR−O; S2,G5TNR.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−1, 158 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Aug−Sep. Fig. 114

Boltonia asteroides var. glastifolia (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service PLANTS Database / United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource ...

Figure 114a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g114_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-158 (NCSC)

Figure 114b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g114_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 114c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g114_c.jpg

Stem and leaf

Figure 114d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g114_d.jpg

Radiate head

Erigeron vernus

(L.) Torr. & A. Gray

  • Erigeron vernus Basionym: Aster vernus L.
  • Erigeron vernus Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: ♦

Notes

Biennial or short-lived perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Late Mar−Jun. Fig. 115

Figure 115.
Erigeron vernus (illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Eupatorium capillifolium

(Lam.) Small ex Porter & Britton

  • Eupatorium capillifolium Basionym: Artemisia capillifolia Lam.
  • Eupatorium capillifolium Taxon concept: [= E. capillifolium (Lam.) Small ex Porter & Britton var. capillifolium – RAB; = GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA– 141 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; usually in a stunted form where detritus has washed ashore just under the maximum annual high water mark (NLSS−LW). Sep−Nov. Fig. 116

Figure 116a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g116_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-141 (NCSC)

Figure 116b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g116_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 116c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g116_c.jpg

Leaf

Figure 116d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g116_d.jpg

Leaf

Eupatorium mohrii paludicola

E.E. Schilling & LeBlond

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−6 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eutlittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Aug−Oct. Fig. 117

Eupatorium mohrii × paludicola (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 117a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g117_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-6 (NCSC)

Figure 117b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g117_b.jpg

Stem and leaves

Figure 117c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g117_c.jpg

Capitulescence

Figure 117d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g117_d.jpg

Capitulescence (detail)

Euthamia caroliniana

(L.) Greene ex Porter & Britton

  • Euthamia caroliniana Basionym: Erigeron carolinianus L.
  • Euthamia caroliniana Taxon concept: [> Solidago microcephala (Nutt.) Bush – RAB; > Solidago tenuifolia Pursh – RAB; < E. tenuifolia – GW (also see E. hirtipes); > E. minor (Michx.) Greene – GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−12 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Sep−Dec. Fig. 118

Euthamia caroliniana (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [capitulescence] and Alexander Krings [leaves]; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 118a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g118_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-12 (NCSC)

Figure 118b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g118_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 118c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g118_c.jpg

Leaves

Figure 118d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g118_d.jpg

Capitulescence

Hypochaeris radicata

L.

  • Hypochaeris radicata Taxon concept: [= Hypochoeris radicata L. – RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Rare): Howell BATR−32 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; moist sandy shores. Apr−Oct. Fig. 119

Hypochaeris radicata (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 119a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g119_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-32 (NCSC)

Figure 119b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g119_b.jpg

Habit

Figure 119c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g119_c.jpg

Basal rosette

Figure 119d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g119_d.jpg

Ligulate head

Krigia virginica

(L.) Willd.

  • Krigia virginica Basionym: Hyoseris virginica L.
  • Krigia virginica Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Rare): Howell BATR−20 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual herbs. Eulittoral zone; moist sandy shores. Late Mar−Jul. Fig. 120

Krigia virginica (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 120a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g120_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-20 (NCSC)

Figure 120b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g120_b.jpg

Basal rosette

Figure 120c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g120_c.jpg

Capitulescence

Figure 120d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g120_d.jpg

Capitulescence (lateral)

Mikania scandens

(L.) Willd.

  • Mikania scandens Basionym: Eupatorium scandens L.
  • Mikania scandens Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−161 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial, sometimes lianescent, vines. Eulittoral zone; usually sprawling and climbing on small shrubs and trees (NLSS−LW). Jun−Oct. Fig. 121

Figure 121a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g121_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-161 (NCSC)

Figure 121b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g121_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 121c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g121_c.jpg

Leaves

Figure 121d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g121_d.jpg

Capitulescence

Pluchea baccharis

(Mill.) Pruski

  • Pluchea baccharis Basionym: Conyza baccharis Mill.
  • Pluchea baccharis Taxon concept: [= P. rosea R.K. Godfrey – RAB; = P. rosea R.K. Godfrey var. rosea – GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Frequent): Howell LAWA−2, 101, 148 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Jun−Jul. Fig. 122

Pluchea baccharis (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 122a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g122_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-101 (NCSC)

Figure 122b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g122_b.jpg

Stem and leaves

Figure 122c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g122_c.jpg

Capitulescence

Figure 122d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g122_d.jpg

Capitulescence

Sclerolepis uniflora

(Walter) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

  • Sclerolepis uniflora Basionym: Ethulia uniflora Walter
  • Sclerolepis uniflora Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Frequent): Howell LAWA−18, 23, 103, 108 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). May−Aug; Jul−Oct. Fig. 123

Sclerolepis uniflora (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 123a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g123_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-18 (NCSC)

Figure 123b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g123_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 123c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g123_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 123d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g123_d.jpg

Capitulescence

Solidago fistulosa

Mill.

  • Solidago fistulosa Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Rare): Howell BATR−64, 65 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake: Buell 2266 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; saturated peaty to sandy soils at or just below the mean annual high water mark (CPSI−CG). Aug−Nov. Fig. 124

Solidago fistulosa (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 124a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g124_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-64 (NCSC)

Figure 124b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g124_b.jpg

Habit

Figure 124c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g124_c.jpg

Stem and leaves

Figure 124d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g124_d.jpg

Capitulescence

Betulaceae

Alnus serrulata

(Aiton) Willd.

  • Alnus serrulata Basionym: Betula serrulata Aiton
  • Alnus serrulata Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−39, 170 (NCSC!); Matthews 683 (NCU!)

Notes

Shrubs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–LW). Feb–Mar; Aug–Oct. Fig. 125

Figure 125a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g125_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-11 (NCSC)

Figure 125b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g125_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 125c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g125_c.jpg

Twig and axillary bud

Figure 125d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g125_d.jpg

Leaf

Figure 125e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g125_e.jpg

Staminate catkin

Figure 125f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g125_f.jpg

Pistillate catkin

Betula nigra

L.

  • Betula nigra Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−13, 19 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Blomquist 15004 (DUKE!); Howell LAWA−37, 63 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Infrequent): Howell LISI−29 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–LW). Mar–Apr; May–Jun. Fig. 126

Figure 126a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g126_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-63 (NCSC)

Figure 126b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g126_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 126c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g126_c.jpg

Bark (young tree on right)

Figure 126d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g126_d.jpg

Pistillate catkin

Bignoniaceae

Campsis radicans

(L.) Bureau

  • Campsis radicans Basionym: Bignonia radicans L.
  • Campsis radicans Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−81 (NCSC!)

Notes

Lianas. Eulittoral zone; climbing on young trees and shrubs at or just below the mean annual high water mark (NLSS−LW). Jun−Jul; Sep−Oct. Fig. 127

Figure 127a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g127_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell-LAWA 81 (NCSC)

Figure 127b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g127_b.jpg

lllustration

Figure 127c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g127_c.jpg

Flower

Figure 127d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g127_d.jpg

Fruit

Cabombaceae

Brasenia schreberi

J.F. Gmel.

  • Brasenia schreberi Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Infrequent): Howell HOLA−43 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Infralittoral zone (CPSI–CG). Jun–Oct. Fig. 128

Brasenia schreberi (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida, IFAS 2015)

Figure 128a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g128_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-43 (NCSC)

Figure 128b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g128_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 128c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g128_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 128d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g128_d.jpg

Flower (with hymenopteran visitor)

Cabomba caroliniana

A. Gray

  • Cabomba caroliniana Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Infrequent): Howell HOLA−26 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Infralittoral Zone (CPSI–CG). May–Sep. Fig. 129

Figure 129a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g129_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-26 (NCSC)

Figure 129b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g129_b.jpg

Illustration

Campanulaceae

Lobelia glandulosa

Walter

  • Lobelia glandulosa Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: ¤

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Sep−Oct.

Lobelia nuttallii

Roem. & Schult.

  • Lobelia nuttallii Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Rare): Howell HOLA−47 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; moist sandy soil at or just below the high water mark (CPSI−CG). May−Nov. Fig. 130

Lobelia nuttallii (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 130a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g130_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-47 (NCSC)

Figure 130b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g130_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 130c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g130_c.jpg

Cauline leaf

Figure 130d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g130_d.jpg

Inflorescences

Caryophyllaceae

Stipulicida setaceavar.setacea

  • Stipulicida setaceavar.setacea Taxon concept: [< S. setacea Michx. – RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Rare): Howell BATR−21 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual, or short-lived perennial, herbs. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones. May−Aug. Fig. 131

Stipulicida setacea (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 131a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g131_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-21 (NCSC)

Figure 131b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g131_b.jpg

Habit

Figure 131c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g131_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 131d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g131_d.jpg

Flowers

Clethraceae

Clethra alnifolia

L.

  • Clethra alnifolia Taxon concept: [< C. alnifolia L. var. alnifolia – RAB; = GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−12 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Occasional): Howell JOLA−5 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−42, 132, 150 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell LISI−7, 57 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell SILA−15, 28 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Juncture of supralittoral and eulittoral zones; can also establish itself on stumps, logs, and tree bases in the eulittoral zone (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW, NLSM−T, CPSI−CG). Jun−Jul; Sep−Oct. Fig. 132

Clethra alnifolia (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [leaves and flowers] and Alexander Krings [twig and fruits]; illustration from United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service PLANTS Database / United States ...

Figure 132a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g132_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-150 (NCSC)

Figure 132b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g132_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 132c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g132_c.jpg

Twig, showing leaf scar

Figure 132d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g132_d.jpg

Leaves

Figure 132e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g132_e.jpg

Flowers

Figure 132f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g132_f.jpg

Fruits

Cyrillaceae

Cyrilla racemiflora

L.

  • Cyrilla racemiflora Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Frequent): Howell BATR−38, 41, 60 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−37 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Occasional): •

Lake Waccamaw (Frequent): Howell LAWA−100 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Frequent): Howell LISI−32 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Frequent): Howell SILA−11, 23 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs or small trees. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS−C, NLSM−T, NLSS−LW, CPSI−CG). May−Jul; Sep−Oct. Fig. 133

Cyrilla racemiflora (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [inflorescence and infructescence] and Alexander Krings [twig and leaves]; illustration from United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service PLANTS Database ...

Figure 133a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g133_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-100 (NCSC)

Figure 133b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g133_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 133c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g133_c.jpg

Twig, leaf scar, and bud

Figure 133d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g133_d.jpg

Leaves

Figure 133e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g133_e.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 133f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g133_f.jpg

Infructescence

Droseraceae

Drosera intermedia

Hayne

  • Drosera intermedia Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Frequent): Howell HOLA−28, 40, 49 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell LISI−52, 56 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone and floating bogs (NLSS−C, NLSM−T, CPSI−CG, FB). Jul–Sep. Fig. 134

Figure 134a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g134_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-49 (NCSC)

Figure 134b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g134_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 134c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g134_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 134d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g134_d.jpg

Inflorescences

Ebenaceae

Diospyros virginiana

L.

  • Diospyros virginiana Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−80 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS−LW). May−Jun; Sep−Dec. Fig. 135

Diospyros virginiana (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [leaves and fruit] and Alexander Krings [twig and flowers]; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 135a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g135_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-80 (NCSC)

Figure 135b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g135_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 135c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g135_c.jpg

Twig, showing the typical dark bud and a single vascular bundle scar in the leaf scar

Figure 135d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g135_d.jpg

Leaves

Figure 135e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g135_e.jpg

Flowers

Figure 135f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g135_f.jpg

Fruit

Ericaceae

Chamaedaphne calyculata

(L.) Moench

  • Chamaedaphne calyculata Basionym: Andromeda calyculata L.
  • Chamaedaphne calyculata Taxon concept: [= Cassandra calyculata (L.) D. Don − RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Occasional): Howell BALA−1 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−1, 6, 42 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell LISI−15, 24 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake: Fox, Wells, Sharp, Whitford, Fairchild s. n. (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Eulittoral zone, either in shallow water or in saturated organic soils at the high water mark (NLSS–C, NLSM-T, CPSI–CG, FB). Mar–Apr; Jun–Oct. Fig. 136

Figure 136a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g136_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-42 (NCSC)

Figure 136b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g136_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 136c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g136_c.jpg

Inflorescences

Figure 136d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g136_d.jpg

Inflorescences

Eubotrys racemosa

(L.) Nutt.

  • Eubotrys racemosa Basionym: Andromeda racemosa L.
  • Eubotrys racemosa Taxon concept: [= Leucothoe racemosa (L.) A. Gray − RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−12 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−40, 151 (NCSC!); Matthews s.n. (NCU!)

Jones Lake (Occasional): Howell JOLA−30 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell LISI−1 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Occasional): Howell SALA−12 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell SILA−7 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones; sometimes on the bases of large Taxodium trunks (NLSS–C, NLSS–LW, NLSM–T, CPSI–CG). Late Mar–early Jun; Sept–Oct. Fig. 137

Figure 137a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g137_a.jpg

Specimen:Howell SALA-12 (NCSC)

Figure 137b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g137_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 137c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g137_c.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 137d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g137_d.jpg

Infructescence

Lyonia ligustrinavar.foliosiflora

(Michx.) Fernald

  • Lyonia ligustrinavar.foliosiflora Basionym: Andromeda paniculata var. foliosiflora Michx.
  • Lyonia ligustrinavar.foliosiflora Taxon concept: [< L. ligustrina (L.) DC. – RAB; = GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Infrequent): Howell BALA−17 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Infrequent): Howell JOLA−31 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Infrequent): Howell SALA−17 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones; sometimes growing from the bases of large Taxodium (NLSS–C). Late Apr–Jul; Sep–Oct. Two varieties of Lyonia ligustrina are commonly recognized: var. foliosiflora (Michx.) Fernald, with numerous and conspicuous leaf-like bracts in the inflorescence, and var. ligustrina, with no or few leaf-like bracts in the inflorescence. The material collected by the first author is var. foliosiflora, the more common variety found in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Fig. 138

Lyonia ligustrina (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [leaves] and Alexander Krings [abaxial leaf surface, flower, infructescence]; illustration from United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service PLANTS Database ...

Figure 138a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g138_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell SALA-17 (NCSC)

Figure 138b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g138_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 138c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g138_c.jpg

Leaves

Figure 138d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g138_d.jpg

Abaxial leaf surface

Figure 138e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g138_e.jpg

Flower

Figure 138f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g138_f.jpg

Fruits

Lyonia lucida

(Lam.) K. Koch

  • Lyonia lucida Basionym: Andromeda lucida Lam.
  • Lyonia lucida Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Occasional): Howell BALA−8 (NCSC!)

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−17 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−7 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Frequent): Howell JOLA−11, 19 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−35 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary (Occasional): Howell LISI−5, 36 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Frequent): Howell SALA−5, 11 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Frequent): Howell SILA−3 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones; sometimes growing from the bases of mature Taxodium (NLSS–C, NLSS–LW, NLSM–T, CPSI–CG). Apr–early Jun; Sep–Oct. Fig. 139

Lyonia lucida (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [inflorescence] and Alexander Krings [leaf, flowers, fruits]; illustration from United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service PLANTS Database / United States Department ...

Figure 139a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g139_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell SALA-11 (NCSC)

Figure 139b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g139_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 139c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g139_c.jpg

Leaf (abaxial surface)

Figure 139d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g139_d.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 139e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g139_e.jpg

Flowers

Figure 139f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g139_f.jpg

Fruits

Rhododendron viscosumvar.serrulatum

(Small) H.E. Ahles

  • Rhododendron viscosumvar.serrulatum Basionym: Azalea serrulata Small
  • Rhododendron viscosumvar.serrulatum Taxon concept: [= RAB; < R. viscosum – GW, FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Singletary Lake (Rare): Howell SILA−33, 34 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS–C). Late May–Jun; Jul–Oct. Fig. 140

Rhododendron viscosum (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [leaves, fruit] and Alexander Krings [flower, flower detail]; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 140a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g140_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell SILA-33 (NCSC)

Figure 140b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g140_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 140c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g140_c.jpg

Leaves

Figure 140d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g140_d.jpg

Flower

Figure 140e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g140_e.jpg

Flower detail

Figure 140f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g140_f.jpg

Fruit

Vaccinium formosum

Andrews

  • Vaccinium formosum Taxon concept: [< V. corymbosum L. – RAB; = V. australe Small – GW; < V. corymbosum L. – FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−33 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Occasional): Howell JOLA−13, 24, 26 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Occasional): Howell SALA−10 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell SILA−18 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS−C, NLSM−T, NLSS−LW). Late Feb−May; Jun−Aug. Fig. 141

Vaccinium formosum (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [leaves, infructescence] and Alexander Krings [inflorescence])

Figure 141a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g141_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell SALA-10 (NCSC)

Figure 141b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g141_b.jpg

Leaves

Figure 141c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g141_c.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 141d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g141_d.jpg

Infructescence

Vaccinium fuscatum

Aiton

  • Vaccinium fuscatum Taxon concept: [= V. atrococcum (Gray) Heller – RAB; = GW; < V. corymbosum L. –FNA; Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Occasional): Howell BALA−7 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−49 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell LISI−14, 39, 40 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Occasional): Howell SALA−16 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell SILA−21 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS−C, NLSM−T, NLSS−LW). Late Feb−May; Jun−Aug. Fig. 142

Vaccinium fuscatum (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [leaves, infructescence] and Alexander Krings [flower])

Figure 142a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g142_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell SALA-16 (NCSC)

Figure 142b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g142_b.jpg

Leaves

Figure 142c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g142_c.jpg

Flower

Figure 142d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g142_d.jpg

Infructescence

Zenobia pulverulenta

(W. Bartram ex Willd.) Pollard

  • Zenobia pulverulenta Basionym: Andromeda pulverulenta W. Bartram ex Willd.
  • Zenobia pulverulenta Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Infrequent): Howell BALA−5 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−17, 22, 35 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Occasional): Howell JOLA−25 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell LISI−10, 23 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake: Fox & Boyce 3781 (NCSC!); Fox, Wells, Sharp, Whitford, Fairchild 1708 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Juncture of supralittoral and eulittoral zones; sometimes growing on the bases of mature Taxodium (NLSS–C, NLSM–T, CPSI–CG, FB). Apr–Jun; Sep–Oct. Fig. 143

Zenobia pulverulenta (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [inflorescence, flowers within] and Alexander Krings [leaves, flower]; illustration from United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service PLANTS Database / ...

Figure 143a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g143_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-35 (NCSC)

Figure 143b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g143_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 143c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g143_c.jpg

Leaves

Figure 143d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g143_d.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 143e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g143_e.jpg

Flowers within

Figure 143f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g143_f.jpg

Flower

Euphorbiaceae

Triadica sebifera

(L.) Small

  • Triadica sebifera Basionym: Croton sebifer L.
  • Triadica sebifera Taxon concept: [= Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. – RAB, GW; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−92 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–LW). May–Jun; Aug–Nov. Fig. 144

Triadica sebifera (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 144a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g144_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-92 (NCSC)

Figure 144b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g144_b.jpg

Young tree

Fabaceae

Wisteria frutescens

(L.) Poir.

  • Wisteria frutescens Basionym: Glycine frutescens L.
  • Wisteria frutescens Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−37 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−99, 117 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Infrequent): Howell SILA−35 (NCSC!)

Notes

Lianas. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–LW). Apr–May; Jun–Sep. Fig. 145

Figure 145a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g145_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-37 (NCSC)

Figure 145b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g145_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 145c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g145_c.jpg

Imparipinnate leaf

Figure 145d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g145_d.jpg

Fruit

Fagaceae

Quercus nigra

L.

  • Quercus nigra Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Godfrey 6320 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS–LW). Apr; Sep–Nov. Fig. 146

Figure 146a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g146_a.jpg

Illustration

Figure 146b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g146_b.jpg

Bark

Figure 146c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g146_c.jpg

Leaves

Figure 146d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g146_d.jpg

Fruit

Gelsemiaceae

Gelsemium sempervirens

(L.) J. St.−Hil.

  • Gelsemium sempervirens Basionym: Bignonia sempervirens L.
  • Gelsemium sempervirens Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−10, 25 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Rare): Howell HOLA−4 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Infrequent): Howell JOLA−34 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−41 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Infrequent): Howell LISI−34 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Infrequent): Howell SILA−36 (NCSC!)

Notes

Lianas. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–C, NLSS–LW, NLSM–T, CPSI–CG). Mar–early May; Sept–Nov. Fig. 147

Figure 147a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g147_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell JOLA-34 (NCSC)

Figure 147b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g147_b.jpg

lllustration

Figure 147c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g147_c.jpg

Leaves

Figure 147d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g147_d.jpg

Flower

Figure 147e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g147_e.jpg

Fruit

Figure 147f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g147_f.jpg

Seed

Hydrangeaceae

Decumaria barbara

L.

  • Decumaria barbara Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Dumond 1621 (NCU!); Godfrey 52278 (NCSC!); Howell LAWA−86 (NCSC!)

Notes

Lianas. Eulittoral zone; climbing on trees and shrubs at or just below the maximum annual high water mark (NLSS−LW, NLSM−LWP). May−Jun; Jul−Oct. Fig. 148

Figure 148a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g148_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-86 (NCSC)

Figure 148b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g148_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 148c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g148_c.jpg

Leaves

Figure 148d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g148_d.jpg

Fruits

Hypericaceae

Hypericum canadense

L.

  • Hypericum canadense Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Rare): Howell HOLA−48 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual or perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; moist sandy soils at or just below the maximum annual high water mark (CPSI−CG). Jul−Sep. Fig. 149

Hypericum canadense (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 149a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g149_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-48 (NCSC)

Figure 149b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g149_b.jpg

Stem and leaves

Figure 149c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g149_c.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 149d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g149_d.jpg

Flower

Hypericum mutilumvar.mutilum

  • Hypericum mutilumvar.mutilum Taxon concept: [< H. mutilum L. – RAB, GW; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−139 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual or perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; at or just below the maximum annual high water mark (NLSS−LW). Jun−Oct. Fig. 150

Hypericum mutilum (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 150a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g150_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-139 (NCSC)

Figure 150b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g150_b.jpg

Habit

Figure 150c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g150_c.jpg

Flower (front)

Figure 150d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g150_d.jpg

Flower (side)

Hypericum virginicum

L.

  • Hypericum virginicum Taxon concept: [= RAB; = Triadenum virginicum (L.) Raf. – GW; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−9, 56 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−33 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell LISI−54 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−C, NLSM−T, CPSI−CG, FB). Jul−Sep. Fig. 151

Hypericum virginicum (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 151a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g151_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-56 (NCSC)

Figure 151b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g151_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 151c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g151_c.jpg

Leaves

Figure 151d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g151_d.jpg

Infructescence

Hypericum walteri

J.F. Gmel.

  • Hypericum walteri Taxon concept: [= RAB; = Triadenum walteri (J.F. Gmel.) Gleason – GW; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−20, 134, 149 (NCSC!); Wilbur 9363 (DUKE!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Jul−Sep. Fig. 152

Hypericum walteri (digital photographs by Nathan Howell)

Figure 152a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g152_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-20 (NCSC)

Figure 152b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g152_b.jpg

Habit

Figure 152c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g152_c.jpg

Leaves, showing distinct petioles

Figure 152d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g152_d.jpg

Infructescence

Iteaceae

Itea virginica

L.

  • Itea virginica Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Infrequent): Howell BALA−6 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−9 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Occasional): Howell JOLA−27 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−85 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell SILA−2 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones; sometimes establishing itself on stumps, logs, and bases of trees in the eulittoral zone (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW, CPSI−CG). May−Jun. Fig. 153

Itea virginica (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [habit and inflorescence] and Alexander Krings [leaf and fruits]; illustration from United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service PLANTS Database / United States ...

Figure 153a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g153_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BALA-6 (NCSC)

Figure 153b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g153_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 153c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g153_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 153d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g153_d.jpg

Leaf

Figure 153e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g153_e.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 153f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g153_f.jpg

Fruits

Juglandaceae

Carya glabra

(Mill.) Sweet

  • Carya glabra Basionym: Juglans glabra Mill.
  • Carya glabra Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW; < C. glabra (Mill.) Sweet – FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−96 (NCSC!); Matthews s.n. (DUKE!)

Notes

Trees. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS−LW). Apr−May. Fig. 154

Carya glabra (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 154a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g154_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-96 (NCSC)

Figure 154b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g154_b.jpg

Stem and buds

Figure 154c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g154_c.jpg

Imparipinnate leaf

Figure 154d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g154_d.jpg

Fruits

Lamiaceae

Lycopus angustifolius

Elliott

  • Lycopus angustifolius Taxon concept: [< L. rubellus Moench var. angustifolius (Elliott) H.E. Ahles – RAB, GW; = Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

SR−P; S1, G4?Q.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−4, 156, 157 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–LW). Jun–Sep. Fig. 155

Figure 155a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g155_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-4 (NCSC)

Figure 155b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g155_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 155c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g155_c.jpg

Flowers

Figure 155d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g155_d.jpg

Fruits

Lauraceae

Persea palustris

(Raf.) Sarg.

  • Persea palustris Basionym: Tamala palustris Raf.
  • Persea palustris Taxon concept: [< P. borbonia – RAB; = GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Occasional): Howell BALA−12 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Occasional): Howell JOLA−6, 18 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−61, 69 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell LISI−6 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Occasional): Buell s.n. (DUKE!, NCSC!); Howell SALA−6, 20 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell SILA−10, 25, 27 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs or small trees. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW). May−Jun; Sep−Oct. Fig. 156

Persea palustris (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 156a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g156_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell SALA-20 (NCSC)

Figure 156b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g156_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 156c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g156_c.jpg

Twig (note pubescence)

Figure 156d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g156_d.jpg

Leaf abaxial surface

Figure 156e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g156_e.jpg

Flower

Figure 156f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g156_f.jpg

Fruits

Lentibulariaceae

Utricularia cornuta

Michx.

  • Utricularia cornuta Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−109 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual or perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; commonly in saturated sandy to peaty soils just above current water levels or in 1−4 inches of water (NLSS−LW). May−Sep. Fig. 157

Utricularia cornuta (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 157a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g157_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-109 (NCSC)

Figure 157b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g157_b.jpg

Habit

Utricularia gibba

L.

  • Utricularia gibba Taxon concept: [= RAB; = U. biflora Lam. – GW; = Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−19 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual or perennial herbs. Eulittoral and infralittoral zones; Godfrey and Wooten (1981) described the habit as “very much intertwined, forming large floating bunches or mats” (CPSI−CG). May−Sep. Fig. 158

Utricularia gibba (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 158a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g158_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-19 (NCSC)

Figure 158b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g158_b.jpg

Flower

Utricularia purpurea

Walter

  • Utricularia purpurea Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−36 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual or perennial herbs. Eulittoral and infralittoral zones; floating bogs (CPSI−CG). May−Sep. Fig. 159

Utricularia purpurea (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 159a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g159_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-36 (NCSC)

Figure 159b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g159_b.jpg

Habit

Figure 159c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g159_c.jpg

Flower

Figure 159d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g159_d.jpg

Flower

Utricularia resupinata

B.D. Greene ex Bigelow

  • Utricularia resupinata Taxon concept: [= GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−123 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual or perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; commonly in saturated sandy to peaty soils above current lake levels or in 1−4 inches of water (NLSS−LW). Jun−Aug. Fig. 160

Utricularia resupinata (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 160a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g160_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-123 (NCSC)

Figure 160b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g160_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 160c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g160_c.jpg

Flower (front)

Figure 160d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g160_d.jpg

Flower (side)

Utricularia striata

Leconte ex Torr.

  • Utricularia striata Taxon concept: [= U. fibrosa Walter – RAB, GW; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−35, 42 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−27 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−14, 122 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; typically seen in shallow water or stranded on saturated organic soils (NLSS−LW, CPSI−CG, FB). May−Nov. Fig. 161

Utricularia striata (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 161a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g161_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-42 (NCSC)

Figure 161b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g161_b.jpg

Habit

Figure 161c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g161_c.jpg

Flower

Figure 161d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g161_d.jpg

Flower

Utricularia subulata

L.

  • Utricularia subulata Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: ♦

Little Singletary Lake (Infrequent): Howell LISI−28, 49 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual or perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; typically found in saturated sands and peats (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW, NLSM−T). Mar−Aug. Fig. 162

Utricularia subulata (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [habit, flower front, flower back] and Alexander Krings [flower side]; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 162a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g162_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LISI-28 (NCSC)

Figure 162b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g162_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 162c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g162_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 162d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g162_d.jpg

Flower (front)

Figure 162e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g162_e.jpg

Flower (back)

Figure 162f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g162_f.jpg

Flower (side)

Linderniaceae

Lindernia dubiavar.dubia

  • Lindernia dubiavar.dubia Basionym: Gratiola dubia L.
  • Lindernia dubiavar.dubia Taxon concept: [= L. dubia (L.) Pennell – RAB, GW; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Radford & Stewart 679 (NCU!)

Notes

Annual or biennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; saturated sandy soils (NLSS−LW). May−Nov. (Fig. 159). The first author did not encounter this taxon in the field, but a single voucher confirms its historic presence (see above). Fig. 163

Loganiaceae

Mitreola petiolata

(Walter ex J.F. Gmelin) Torr. & A. Gray

  • Mitreola petiolata Basionym: Cynoctonum petiolatum Walter ex J.F. Gmelin
  • Mitreola petiolata Taxon concept: [= Cynoctonum mitreola (L.) Britton – RAB; = GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−140, 154 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual herbs. Eulittoral zone; shallow water (1−6 inches) or saturated soils above current lake levels (NLSS−LW). Jul−Sep; Sep−Nov. Fig. 164

Mitreola petiolata (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 164a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g164_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-140 (NCSC)

Figure 164b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g164_b.jpg

Stem and leaves

Figure 164c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g164_c.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 164d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g164_d.jpg

Flower

Lythraceae

Decodon verticillatus

(L.) Elliott

  • Decodon verticillatus Basionym: Lythrum verticillatum L.
  • Decodon verticillatus Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Infrequent): •

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−31 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Infrequent): •

Salters Lake (Infrequent): •

Notes

Shrubs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−C, NLSM−T, FB, CPSI−CG). Jul−Sep. Fig. 165

Figure 165a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g165_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-31 (NCSC)

Figure 165b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g165_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 165c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g165_c.jpg

Leaves

Figure 165d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g165_d.jpg

Fruits

Magnoliaceae

Magnolia virginianavar.virginiana

  • Magnolia virginianavar.virginiana Taxon concept: [< M. virginiana – RAB, GW, FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Occasional): Howell BALA−3 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Occasional): Howell JOLA−8, 29 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−62 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Occasional): Howell SALA−13 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell SILA−5, 19 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW, NLSM−T). Fig. 166

Magnolia virginiana (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 166a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g166_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-62 (NCSC)

Figure 166b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g166_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 166c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g166_c.jpg

Stem and terminal bud

Figure 166d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g166_d.jpg

Terminal bud (detail)

Figure 166e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g166_e.jpg

Leaves (note glaucescence below)

Figure 166f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g166_f.jpg

Flower

Melastomataceae

Rhexia aristosa

Britton

  • Rhexia aristosa Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

SC–V, FSC; S3, G3G4.

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake: ►

Notes

Perennial herbs. floating bogs (CPSI–CG, FB). Jun–Sep. Fig. 167

Rhexia aristosa (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 167a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g167_a.jpg

Illustration

Figure 167b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g167_b.jpg

Calyx tube (lateral)

Figure 167c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g167_c.jpg

Calyx tube (latero-adaxial)

Figure 167d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g167_d.jpg

Flower (adaxial)

Rhexia cubensis

Griseb.

  • Rhexia cubensis Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

W1; S3, G4G5.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA–113, 126, 129 (NCSC!); LeBlond 3990 (NCU!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLS–LW). Jun–Sep. Fig. 168

Rhexia cubensis (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 168a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g168_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-113 (NCSC)

Figure 168b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g168_b.jpg

Leaves

Figure 168c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g168_c.jpg

Flower (unopened)

Figure 168d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g168_d.jpg

Flower (opened)

Rhexia marianavar.exalbida

Michx.

  • Rhexia marianavar.exalbida Taxon concept: [= RAB; < R. mariana var. mariana – GW; = Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Rare): Howell HOLA−46 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (CPSI–CG). Jun–Sep. Fig. 169

Rhexia mariana var. exalbida (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 169a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g169_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell HOLA-46 (NCSC)

Figure 169b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g169_b.jpg

Leaves

Figure 169c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g169_c.jpg

Flower (abaxial)

Figure 169d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g169_d.jpg

Flower (adaxial)

Rhexia nashii

Small

  • Rhexia nashii Taxon concept: [< R. mariana var. purpurea Michx. – RAB; = GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−39, 57 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−44 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Infrequent): Howell JOLA−38,39 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell LISI−45 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Infrequent): Howell SILA−26 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–C, NLSS–LW, NLSM–T, CPSI–CG, FB). May–Oct. Fig. 170

Rhexia nashii (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 170a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g170_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-39 (NCSC)

Figure 170b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g170_b.jpg

Leaves

Figure 170c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g170_c.jpg

Calyx tube (and unopened corolla)

Figure 170d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g170_d.jpg

Flower

Rhexia virginica

L.

  • Rhexia virginica Taxon concept: [> R. virginica L. var. purshii – RAB; > R. virginica L. var. virginica; = GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Little Singletary Lake (Infrequent): Howell LISI – 47 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSM–T, NLSS–C). May–Oct. Fig. 171

Rhexia virginica (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 171a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g171_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LISI-47 (NCSC)

Figure 171b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g171_b.jpg

Stem and leaves

Figure 171c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g171_c.jpg

Flower (lateral)

Figure 171d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g171_d.jpg

Flower (adaxial)

Menyanthaceae

Nymphoides aquatica

(J.F. Gmel.) Kuntze

  • Nymphoides aquatica Basionym: Villarsia aquatica J.F. Gmel.
  • Nymphoides aquatica Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Harper 954 (NCU!); Howell LAWA−28, 54 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Late Apr−Sep. Fig. 172

Nymphoides aquatica (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 172a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g172_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-54 (NCSC)

Figure 172b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g172_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 172c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g172_c.jpg

Leaf (abaxial surface)

Figure 172d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g172_d.jpg

Leaf (abaxial surface)

Figure 172e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g172_e.jpg

Flowers

Figure 172f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g172_f.jpg

Flowers

Myricaceae

Morella cerifera

(L.) Small

  • Morella cerifera Basionym: Myrica cerifera L.
  • Morella cerifera Taxon concept [< Myrica cerifera L. var. cerifera – RAB; < Myrica cerifera L. – GW, FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Infrequent): Howell BATR−11 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Infrequent): Howell JOLA−15 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Dennis 66-15 (DUKE!); Howell LAWA−36, 169 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Infrequent): Howell SALA−3 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs or small trees. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW). Apr; Aug–Oct. Fig. 173

Figure 173a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g173_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-11 (NCSC)

Figure 173b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g173_b.jpg

lllustration

Figure 173c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g173_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 173d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g173_d.jpg

Leaf

Figure 173e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g173_e.jpg

Staminate inflorescence

Figure 173f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g173_f.jpg

Fruits

Nelumbonaceae

Nelumbo lutea

Willd.

  • Nelumbo lutea Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

W7; S2, G4.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Bell 12836 (NCU!); Leonard, Burnham & Ripperton 1748 (NCU!); Radford 6078 (NCU!); Schallert 10662 (DUKE!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral and infralittoral zones (NLSS−LW, NLSM−LWP). Jun−Sep. Fig. 174

Nymphaeaceae

Nuphar sagittifolia

(Walter) Pursh

  • Nuphar sagittifolia Basionym: Nymphaea sagittifolia Walter
  • Nuphar sagittifolia Taxon concept: [< N. luteum (L.) Sibth. & J.E. Smith ssp. sagittifolium (Walter) E.O. Beal – RAB, GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

W1, FSC; S2, G5T2.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare along south and southwest shorelines; frequent elsewhere): Buell & Godfrey 3505 (NCSC!); Fox 1878 (NCSC!); Godfrey & Buell 3505 (NCU!); Howell LAWA−83 (NCSC!); Leconte 1085 (DUKE!); Matthews s.n. (DUKE!, NCU!); Radford 681, 4348 (NCU!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Infralittoral zone; encountered around dam, northern shorelines, and offshore (NLSS–LW, NLSM–LWP). Apr–Oct. Fig. 175

Nuphar sagittifolia (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 175a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g175_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-83 (NCSC)

Figure 175b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g175_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 175c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g175_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 175d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g175_d.jpg

Leaves

Figure 175e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g175_e.jpg

Flower

Figure 175f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g175_f.jpg

Flower

Nymphaea odoratavar.odorata

  • Nymphaea odoratavar.odorata Taxon concept: [< N. odorata – RAB, GW; = FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Frequent): Beal 4349 (NCSC!); Buell & Whitford 1851 (DUKE!, NCSC!); Howell HOLA−18 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−17, 27, 76 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake: Wilbur 60946 (DUKE!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral and infralittoral zones (NLSS–LW, NLSM–T, NLSM–LWP, CPSI–CG). Jun–Sep. Fig. 176

Figure 176a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g176_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-76 (NCSC)

Figure 176b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g176_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 176c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g176_c.jpg

Leaves

Figure 176d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g176_d.jpg

Flower

Nyssaceae

Nyssa aquatica

L.

  • Nyssa aquatica Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−56, 89 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Apr−May; Sep−Oct. Fig. 177

Nyssa aquatica (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [leaves, fruits] and Alexander Krings [bark, twig]; illustration from United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service PLANTS Database / United States Department ...

Figure 177a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g177_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-56 (NCSC)

Figure 177b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g177_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 177c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g177_c.jpg

Bark

Figure 177d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g177_d.jpg

Twig

Figure 177e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g177_e.jpg

Leaves

Figure 177f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g177_f.jpg

Fruit

Nyssa biflora

Walter

  • Nyssa biflora Taxon concept: [= N. sylvatica Marshall var. biflora (Walter) Sarg. – RAB, GW; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Frequent): Howell BALA−11 (NCSC!)

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−48 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−15 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−10 (NCSC!); Totten s.n. (NCU!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell LISI−12, 17 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Occasional): •

Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell SILA−4 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–C, NLSS–LW, NLSM–T, CPSI–CG). Apr–Jun; Aug–Oct. Fig. 178

Nyssa biflora (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [leaves, fruits] and Alexander Krings [bark, twig]; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 178a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g178_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-48 (NCSC)

Figure 178b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g178_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 178c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g178_c.jpg

Bark

Figure 178d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g178_d.jpg

Twig

Figure 178e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g178_e.jpg

Leaves

Figure 178f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g178_f.jpg

Fruits

Oleaceae

Fraxinus caroliniana

Mill.

  • Fraxinus caroliniana Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−70, 75 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–LW). May; Jul–Oct. Fig. 179

Fraxinus caroliniana (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 179a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g179_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-70 (NCSC)

Figure 179b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g179_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 179c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g179_c.jpg

Stem

Figure 179d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g179_d.jpg

Imparipinnate leaf

Figure 179e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g179_e.jpg

Leaflet

Figure 179f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g179_f.jpg

Fruits

Onagraceae

Ludwigia brevipes

(Long) Eames

  • Ludwigia brevipes Basionym: Ludwigiantha brevipes Long
  • Ludwigia brevipes Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

SR–T, FSC; S1S2, G2G3.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−102, 118 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLS–LW). Jul–Oct. Fig. 180

Ludwigia brevipes (digital photographs by Nathan Howell; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 180a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g180_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-118 (NCSC)

Figure 180b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g180_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 180c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g180_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 180d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g180_d.jpg

Flower

Ludwigia sphaerocarpa

Elliott

  • Ludwigia sphaerocarpa Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

E; S1, G5.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−33, 143 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone (NLS–LW). Jun–Sep. Fig. 181

Ludwigia sphaerocarpa (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 181a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g181_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-143 (NCSC)

Figure 181b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g181_b.jpg

Submerged leaves

Figure 181c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g181_c.jpg

Flowers

Figure 181d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g181_d.jpg

Fruits

Plantaginaceae

Bacopa caroliniana

(Walter) B.L. Rob.

  • Bacopa caroliniana Basionym: Obolaria caroliniana Walter
  • Bacopa caroliniana Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Ecological interactions

Conservation status

T; S1, G4G5.

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−66, 120 (NCSC!); LeBlond 3984 (NCU!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; calm, quiet waters (NLSS–LW). May–Sep. Fig. 182

Figure 182a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g182_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-120 (NCSC)

Figure 182b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g182_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 182c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g182_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 182d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g182_d.jpg

Flower

Nuttallanthus canadensis

(L.) D.A. Sutton

  • Nuttallanthus canadensis Basionym: Antirrhhinum canadense L.
  • Nuttallanthus canadensis Taxon concept: [< Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum. Cours.; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Rare): Howell BATR–28 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual or biennial herbs. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones. Mar−Jul. Fig. 183

Nuttallanthus canadensis (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [inflorescence] and Alexander Krings [flower]; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 183a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g183_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-28 (NCSC)

Figure 183b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g183_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 183c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g183_c.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 183d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g183_d.jpg

Flower

Platanaceae

Platanus occidentalis

L.

  • Platanus occidentalis Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−68 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Eulittoral zone; on saturated soils of sandbars and shorelines (NLSS−LW). Apr−May; Sep−Nov. Fig. 184

Platanus occidentalis (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [twigs and leaves] and Alexander Krings [bark])

Figure 184a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g184_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-68 (NCSC)

Figure 184b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g184_b.jpg

Bark

Figure 184c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g184_c.jpg

Twigs and leaves

Figure 184d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g184_d.jpg

Leaves

Polygalaceae

Polygala lutea

L.

  • Polygala lutea Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Rare): Howell HOLA−50 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−127 (NCSC!)

Notes

Biennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; moist sandy soils at or below the maximum annual high water mark (NLSS−LW, CPSI−CG). Apr−Oct. Fig. 185

Polygala lutea (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 185a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g185_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-128 (NCSC)

Figure 185b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g185_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 185c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g185_c.jpg

Basal leaf

Figure 185d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g185_d.jpg

Inflorescence

Polygonaceae

Rumex hastatulus

Baldwin

  • Rumex hastatulus Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Infrequent): Howell BATR−14, 23, 30 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual or short-lived perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; moist sandy to peaty shores. Mar−May; May−Jul. Fig. 186

Rumex hastatulatus (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 186a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g186_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-14 (NCSC)

Figure 186b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g186_b.jpg

Infructescence

Ranunculaceae

Clematis crispa

L.

  • Clematis crispa Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA. Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Matthews s.n. (NCU!)

Notes

Perennial, sometimes lianescent, vines. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–LW). Apr–Aug. Fig. 187

Clematis crispa (digital photograph taken by Alexander Krings; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 187a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g187_a.jpg

Illustration

Figure 187b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g187_b.jpg

Flower

Rhamnaceae

Berchemia scandens

(Hill) K. Koch

  • Berchemia scandens Basionym: Rhamnus scandens Hill
  • Berchemia scandens Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−38 (NCSC!)

Notes

Lianas. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–LW). Apr–May; Aug–Oct. Fig. 188

Figure 188a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g188_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-38 (NCSC)

Figure 188b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g188_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 188c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g188_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 188d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g188_d.jpg

Stem and leaves

Rosaceae

Amelanchier canadensis

(L.) Medik.

  • Amelanchier canadensis Basionym: Mespilus canadensis L.
  • Amelanchier canadensis Taxon concept: [=RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake: Radford 1354 (NCU!)

Notes

Shrubs or small trees. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones. Mar−Apr; May−Jun. Fig. 189

Amelanchier obovalis

(Michx.) Ashe

  • Amelanchier obovalis Basionym: Mespilus canadensis L. var. obovalis Michx.
  • Amelanchier obovalis Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−48 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Mar−Apr; May−Jun. The only specimen encountered by the current author was found in a shallow concave depression in the middle of two boles of Taxodium ascendens arising from the same stump. The shrub established itself in the small amount of soil that had accumulated in the depression through the years. Fig. 190

Amelanchier obovalis (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 190a.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g190_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-48 (NCSC)

Figure 190b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g190_b.jpg

Fruits (immature)

Aronia arbutifolia

(L.) Pers.

  • Aronia arbutifolia Basionym: Mespilus arbutifolia L.
  • Aronia arbutifolia Taxon concept: [= Sorbus arbutifolia (L.) Hyenh. var. arbutifolia; = RAB; = GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Salters Lake: Buell s.n. (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Rare): Howell SILA−24 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS−C). Mar−May; Sep−Nov. Fig. 191

Figure 191a.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g191_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell SILA-24 (NCSC)

Figure 191b.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g191_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 191c.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g191_c.jpg

Inflorescence

Figure 191d.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g191_d.jpg

Infructescence

Rosa palustris

Marshall

  • Rosa palustris Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): LAWA−74, 112 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake: Fox, Wells, Sharp, Whitford, Fairchild s. n. (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Eulittoral zone; sandy to peaty soils at or just below the maximum annual high water mark (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW). May−Jul; Sep−Oct. Rosa palustris can be distinguished from R. multiflora, a common exotic in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, by its large (adnate portion 13–30 mm long), entire, stipules. Those of R. multiflora are up to 21 mm long (adnate portion 3–15 mm long) and pectinate- fringed. Fig. 192

Rosa palustris (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 192a.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g192_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-112 (NCSC)

Figure 192b.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g192_b.jpg

Leaf

Figure 192c.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g192_c.jpg

Flower

Figure 192d.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g192_d.jpg

Fruit

Rubus pensilvanicus

Poir.

  • Rubus pensilvanicus Taxon concept: [> R. argutus Link – RAB, GW; > R. betulifolius Small – RAB; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−73, 97 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Eulittoral zone; sandy to peaty soils at or just below the maximum annual high water mark (NLSS−LW). Apr−May; Late May−Jul. Fig. 193

Rubus pensilvanicus (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 193a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g193_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-73 (NCSC)

Figure 193b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g193_b.jpg

Leaf

Rubiaceae

Cephalanthus occidentalis

L.

  • Cephalanthus occidentalis Taxon concept: [= RAB; < C. occidentalis L. var. occidentalis – GW; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−104, 119, 165 (NCSC!)

Notes

Shrubs. Eulittoral zone (NLSS–LW). Jun–Jul. Fig. 194

Figure 194a.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g194_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-104 (NCSC)

Figure 194b.

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Illustration

Figure 194c.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g194_c.jpg

Leaves

Figure 194d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g194_d.jpg

Inflorescence

Diodia virginiana

L.

  • Diodia virginiana Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Rare): Howell BATR−22 (NCSC!)

Notes

Annual or perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; sandy soils at or just below the maximum annual high water mark. Jun–Dec. Fig. 195

Figure 195a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g195_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-22 (NCSC)

Figure 195b.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g195_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 195c.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g195_c.jpg

Flower (adaxial)

Figure 195d.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g195_d.jpg

Flower (lateral)

Galium obtusumvar.obtusum

  • Galium obtusumvar.obtusum Taxon concept: [= RAB; < G. obtusum – GW; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Howell LAWA−138 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. Eulittoral zone; at or just below maximum annual high water mark (NLSS–LW). Apr–May. Fig. 196

Galium obtusum var. obtusum (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 196a.

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Specimen: Howell LAWA-138 (NCSC)

Figure 196b.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g196_b.jpg

Leaves

Figure 196c.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g196_c.jpg

Flowers

Figure 196d.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g196_d.jpg

Fruits

Salicaceae

Populus heterophylla

L.

  • Populus heterophylla Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−91 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Eulittoral zone; saturated soils at or just below the maximum annual high water mark (NLSS−LW). Mar−Apr. Fig. 197

Populus heterophylla (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [young tree, leaves, inflorescences] and Alexander Krings [abaxial leaf surface]; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 197a.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g197_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-91 (NCSC)

Figure 197b.

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Illustration

Figure 197c.

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Young tree

Figure 197d.

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Leaves

Figure 197e.

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Abaxial leaf surface

Figure 197f.

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Inflorescences

Salix caroliniana

Michx.

  • Salix caroliniana Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Harper 970 (NCU!); Matthews s.n. (DUKE!, NCU!)

Notes

Trees. Eulittoral zone; sandbars and sandy shorelines (NLSS−LW). Mar−Apr. This taxon was not encountered by the first author, but voucher specimens confirm its historical presence. Fig. 198

Figure 198a.

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Illustration

Figure 198b.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g198_b.jpg

Leaves (abaxial surface [top], adaxial surface [bottom])

Salix nigra

Marshall

  • Salix nigra Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−72 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Eulittoral zone; sandbars and sandy shorelines (NLSS−LW). Mar−Apr. Fig. 199

Salix nigra (digital photograph taken by Alexander Krings)

Figure 199a.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g199_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-72 (NCSC)

Figure 199b.

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Leaves (abaxial surface [top], adaxial surface [bottom])

Santalaceae

Phoradendron leucarpumvar.leucarpum

  • Phoradendron leucarpumvar.leucarpum Basionym: Viscum leucarpum Raf.
  • Phoradendron leucarpumvar.leucarpum Taxon concept: [< P. serotinum (Raf.) M.C. Johnst. – RAB; = Weakley]

Distribution

Jones Lake (Infrequent): Howell JOLA−12 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Infrequent): Howell SALA−7, 19 (NCSC!)

Notes

Epiphytic shrubs. Eulittoral zone; typically on limbs of Acer or Nyssa (NLSS–C). Oct–Nov; Nov–Jan. Fig. 200

Phoradendron leucocarpum (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell; illustraton from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 200a.

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Specimen: Howell SALA-7 (NCSC)

Figure 200b.

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Illustration

Figure 200c.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g200_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 200d.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g200_d.jpg

Fruits

Sapindaceae

Acer rubrumvar.rubrum

  • Acer rubrumvar.rubrum Taxon concept: [< A. rubrum L. – RAB, GW; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Rare): Howell BALA−4 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Eulittoral zone; typically in saturated organic to sandy soils at or just below the maximum annual high water mark (NLSS−C). Jan−Mar; Apr−July. Fig. 201

Acer rubrum var. rubrum (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell; illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Figure 201a.

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Illustration

Figure 201b.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g201_b.jpg

Leaves

Acer rubrumvar.trilobum

Torr. & A. Gray ex K. Koch

  • Acer rubrumvar.trilobum Taxon concept: [< A. rubrum L. – RAB, GW; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−1 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake (Occasional): Howell HOLA−5, 20 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Occasional): Howell JOLA−9, 21 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−22, 43, 44 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell LISI−11, 21 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Occasional): Beckman & Linnenburger 27 (DUKE!); Howell SALA−2, 18 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Occasional): Howell SILA−8 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Eulittoral zone; typically in saturated organic to sandy soils at or just below the maximum annual high water mark (NLSS−C, NLSS−LW, NLSM−T, CPSI−CG). Jan−Mar; Apr−Jun. Fig. 202

Acer rubrum var. trilobum (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 202a.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g202_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-1 (NCSC)

Figure 202b.

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Leaves

Aesculus paviavar.pavia

  • Aesculus paviavar.pavia Taxon concept: [< A. pavia L. − RAB; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw: Harbison 6084 (NCU!); Harper s. n., 955, 965 (NCU!); Matthews s.n. (NCU!); Oosting 3498 (DUKE!); Reed & Stites 275 (NCU!)

Notes

Shrubs or trees. Eulittoral zone (NLSS−LW). Apr−early May; Jul−Aug. Fig. 203

Figure 203.
Aesculus pavia (illustration from Britton and Brown 1913)

Sarraceniaceae

Sarracenia flava

L.

  • Sarracenia flava Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Horseshoe Lake (Abundant): Buell & Whitford s.n. (NCSC!); Howell HOLA−16, 41 (NCSC!)

Notes

Perennial herbs. floating bogs (CPSI-CG, FB). Mar–Apr; May–Jun. Fig. 204

Figure 204a.

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Specimen: Howell HOLA-41 (NCSC)

Figure 204b.

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Illustration

Figure 204c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
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Habit

Figure 204d.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g204_d.jpg

Flower (petals removed)

Theaceae

Gordonia lasianthus

(L.) J. Ellis

  • Gordonia lasianthus Basionym: Hypericum lasianthus L.
  • Gordonia lasianthus Taxon concept: [= RAB, GW, FNA, Weakley]

Distribution

Bakers Lake (Infrequent): Howell BALA−16 (NCSC!)

Horseshoe Lake: Buell 2262 (NCSC!)

Jones Lake (Occasional): Howell JOLA−2 (NCSC!)

Little Singletary Lake (Infrequent): Howell LISI−30, 48 (NCSC!)

Singletary Lake (Infrequent): Howell SILA−30 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Juncture of eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS−C). Jul−Sep; Sep−Oct. Fig. 205

Figure 205a.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g205_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BALA-16 (NCSC)

Figure 205b.

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Illustration

Figure 205c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g205_c.jpg

Twig and leaves

Figure 205d.

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Leaves

Figure 205e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g205_e.jpg

Flower

Figure 205f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g205_f.jpg

Fruit

Ulmaceae

Ulmus americanavar.americana

  • Ulmus americanavar.americana Taxon concept: [< U. americana L. – RAB, GW, FNA; = Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Rare): Bell 12839 (NCU!); Godfrey 6318 (NCSC!); Howell LAWA−95 (NCSC!)

Notes

Trees. Juncture of the eulittoral and supralittoral zones (NLSS−LW). Feb−Mar; Mar−Apr. Fig. 206

Ulmus americana (digital photograph taken by Nathan Howell)

Figure 206a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g206_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-95 (NCSC)

Figure 206b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g206_b.jpg

Leaves

Vitaceae

Muscadinia rotundifoliavar.rotundifolia

  • Muscadinia rotundifoliavar.rotundifolia Basionym: Vitis rotundifolia Michx.
  • Muscadinia rotundifoliavar.rotundifolia Taxon concept: [< Vitis rotundifolia Michx. – RAB, GW; = Weakley]

Distribution

Bay Tree Lake (Occasional): Howell BATR−46 (NCSC!)

Lake Waccamaw (Occasional): Howell LAWA−64, 137 (NCSC!)

Salters Lake (Infrequent): Howell SALA−21 (NCSC!)

Notes

Lianas. Upper eulittoral zone; typically at the high water mark forming dense tangles along the waters edge (NLSS–C, NLSS–LW, NLSM–T). Late Apr–May; late Jul–Sep. Fig. 207

Muscadinia rotundifolia (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [all, except flowers] and Alexander Krings [flowers]; illustration from United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service PLANTS Database / United States ...

Figure 207a.

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Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g207_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell BATR-46 (NCSC)

Figure 207b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g207_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 207c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g207_c.jpg

Habit

Figure 207d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g207_d.jpg

Leaf

Figure 207e.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g207_e.jpg

Flowers

Figure 207f.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g207_f.jpg

Fruits

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

(L.) Planch.

  • Parthenocissus quinquefolia Basionym: Hedera quinquefolia L.
  • Parthenocissus quinquefolia Taxon concept: [= RAB, Weakley]

Distribution

Lake Waccamaw (Infrequent): Howell LAWA−94 (NCSC!)

Notes

Lianas. Eulittoral zone; growing on fallen trees, shrubs, and erect trees at or just below the maximum annual high water mark (NLSS−LW). May−Jul; Jul−Aug. Fig. 208

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (digital photographs taken by Nathan Howell [fruits] and Alexander Krings [flowers]; illustration from United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service PLANTS Database / United States Department ...

Figure 208a.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g208_a.jpg

Specimen: Howell LAWA-94 (NCSC)

Figure 208b.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g208_b.jpg

Illustration

Figure 208c.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g208_c.jpg

Flowers

Figure 208d.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is biodiversity_data_journal-4-e7964-g208_d.jpg

Fruits

Identification Keys

Keys to the major vascular plant groups

1Plant reproducing by sporesPteridophytes
Plant reproducing by seeds 2
2Seeds borne in woody cones; leaves needle-like or scale-like, < 3 mm wideGymnosperms
Seeds borne in fruits; leaves various 3
3Plant exhibiting ≥ 2 of the following characters: Cotyledon 1; stem vascular bundles scattered; leaves parallel veined; floral parts in 3sMonocotyledons
Plant exhibiting ≥ 2 of the following characters: Cotyledons 2; stem vascular bundles in a ring; leaves without parallel venation; floral parts in 4s and 5sBasal Angiosperms, Magnoliids, and Eudicotyledons

PTERIDOPHYTES

1Leaves simple, scale-like, < 2 cm long, each leaf with 1, unbranched vein; sporangia borne in strobili at the tips of shootsLycopodiaceae [Lycopodiella appressa] Fig. Fig.2121
Leaves pinnatifid to 2-pinnate, “ferny”, > 2 cm long, each leaf bearing numerous pinately-branched veins; sporangia borne in sori on the undersides of modified or unmodified pinnae 2
2Plant epiphytic, growing on large limbs and tree trunks along shorelines; leaves (not including the petiole) 3−25 × 2.5−5 cm, evergreen, undersides with peltate, gray scalesPolypodiaceae [Pleopeltis polypodioides ssp. michauxiana]Fig. ]Fig.2424
Plant not epiphytic, growing in inundated, saturated, or moist soils of shorelines; leaves (not including the petiole) > 25 cm × 5 cm, deciduous or evergreen, undersides lacking peltate, gray scales 3
3Stipules present, wing-like; leaves 2-pinnate or more divided, pinnae divided to their midribs; sori and indusia lackingOsmundaceae [Osmunda spectabilis] Fig. Fig.2323
Stipules absent; leaves 1-pinnate-pinatifid or less divided; sori and indusia present 4
4Leaves 1-pinnatifid, the rachis winged by leaf tissue throughout most or allof its length 5
Leaves 1-pinnate-pinnatifid, the pinnae fully divided from one another (the rachis not winged by leaf tissue throughout most or all of its length) 6
5Fertile leaf woody, with bead-like segments; margins of sterile leaves entire, wavy, the lowermost pinnae sometimes becoming slightly lobed; pinnae with obtuse apicesOnocleaceae [Onoclea sensibilis] Fig. Fig.2222
Fertile leaf herbaceous, not woody or with bead-like segments; margins of sterile pinnae finely serrulate; pinnae mostly with acute apicesBlechnaceae [Lorinseria areolata] Fig. Fig.1919
6Rhizomes long-creeping; leaves deciduous, monomorphic, 28–60 cm long, scattered along the rhizome, forming clonal patches; petiole dark purple to black proximally; sori elongate, borne end to end along both sides of main veins, pinnae lobes of sterile leaves with reticulate, chain-like venation on either side of the central veinBlechnaceae [Anchistea virginica] Fig. Fig.1818
Rhizomes short-creeping; leaves evergreen, somewhat dimorphic (fertile pinnae in distal half of leaves), 35–120 cm long, clustered on the rhizome, not forming clonal patches; petiole not purple to black proximally; sori circular, not borne end to end along the main veins, located midway between main vein and pinnae lobe margins; pinnae lobes of sterile portions of leaves lacking a chain-like venation pattern on either side of the central veinDryopteridaceae [Dryopteris ludoviciana] Fig. Fig.2020

Key adapted from Radford et al. (1968), Smith (1993a), and Weakley (2012).

Note: Successful keying of ferns is greatly facilitated by a basic understanding of fern morphology. Thornhill et al. (2014) provided a useful summary of important morphological terms: “Pinnate indicates lobing of leaves, leaflets, or pinnules entirely to the rachis or midrib. Pinnatifid indicates lobing of leaves, leaflets, or pinnules to near the midrib (i.e., not all the way to the rachis or midrib, as in the leaflets of Anchistea virginica). Pinnate- pinnatifid refers to a leaf blade that is once-pinnate and whose segments (pinnae) are themselves pinnatifid. Sori are the spore-producing structures found on many species of ferns; these may be either exposed or covered by the margin of the leaves (a false indusium) or a separate structure altogether (a true indusium). Leaf-like structures that bear sporangia are called sporophylls; these may be similar to the sterile leaves or be highly modified (e.g., the compact, cone-like structures, or strobili of the Lycopodiaceae)”.

GYMNOSPERMS

1Leaves scale-like or needle-like, < 1.5 cm long, not in fascicles; seed cone scales valvate or imbricate, if imbricate then leaves opposite and scale-like; seeds 1−3 per scale Cupressaceae
Leaves needle-like, (10−) 12−45 cm long, in fascicles of 2−3 leaves; seed cone scales imbricate; seeds 2 per scalePinaceae [Pinus]

Key adapted from Eckenwalder and Thieret (1993).

Cupressaceae

1Leaves scale-like, 1−3 mm long, opposite or whorled, evergreen; mature seed cones woody, 4−9 mm broad, scales imbricate; seeds 1–2 (−3) per scaleChamaecyparis thyoides Fig. Fig.2525
Leaves linear, 3−17 mm long, alternate, deciduous; mature seed cones woody, 1.3–3.6 cm broad, scales valvate; seeds (1−) 2 per scale Taxodium

Key adapted from Watson and Eckenwalder (1993) and Weakley (2012).

Taxodium Rich.

1Leaves mostly vertically ascending, appressed and overlapping, spirally arranged; branchlets ascending from twigs, secundly erect; bark 1–2.5 cm thick, furrowed, dark- brown, not exfoliating; larger knees short, rarely > 4 dm tall, with thick, compact bark on top; trees of isolated depressions, natural lakes, wet savannas, pocosins, other wet peaty habitats, and, less commonly, blackwater swampsTaxodium ascendens Fig. Fig.2626
Leaves pendent to horizontally spreading to laterally divergent, spirally arranged but generally appearing distichous (“featherlike”); branchlets not ascending from twigs; bark < 1 cm thick, exfoliating in shreddy, orange-brown strips; larger knees often tall, frequently > 4 dm tall, with thin, shreddy bark on top; trees of blackwater swamps, brownwater swamps, natural lakes, and millponds; usually in riverine situationsTaxodium distichum Fig. Fig.2727

Key adapted from Watson (1993), Weakley (2012), and Thornhill et al. (2014).

Note: “In the following key, leaf and branchlet characters of T. ascendens refer to mature trees; foliage of juvenile trees often mimics that of T. distichum. Leaf and branchlet characters of T. distichum refer to both mature and juvenile trees; however, in the crowns of mature T. distichum, leaf and branchlet characters sometimes mimic those of T. ascendens. For these reasons, accurate identification of the two species often requires observation of other, non-foliage features, including the stature of the “knees”, the thickness and texture of the bark, and the habitat in which the trees grow” (Thornhill et al. 2014).

Pinaceae

1Open seed cones about as broad as long, “top-shaped”, 3–6 cm long, serotinous; trunks typically producing epicormic branches, especially in response to firePinus serotina Fig. Fig.2828
Open seed cones distinctly longer than broad, not top-shaped, 6–18(−20) cm long, not serotinous; trunk not producing epicormic branchesPinus taeda Fig. Fig.2929

Key adapted from Radford et al. (1968), Kral (1993), and Weakley (2012).

MONOCOTYLEDONS

1Plant an epiphyte, growing on the trunks and limbs of trees in the littoral zone 2
Plant not epiphytic, rooted in soil or freely floating 3
2Plant green, erect, not scurfy; leaves lanceolate; roots present, fibrous; flowers in racemes, petals dimorphic (two similar in size, the third differentiated into a broad lip)Orchidaceae [Epidendrum magnoliae]
Plants gray, pendent (often in masses), scurfy; leaves filiform; roots absent; flowers solitary, petals monomorphicBromeliaceae [Tillandsia usneoides Fig. Fig.3434]
3Plant diminutive ≤ 1.5 mm long in any dimension, floating or submersed in water, sometimes left stranded on mud or debris by receding water levels, plants thallus-like, not differentiated into stems and leaves, rootless or with few simple rootsAraceae [Wolffia]
Plant not diminutive or thallus-like, > 2 mm in any dimension, differentiated into stems and leaves, rooted in soil or floating on water surface 4
4Stems woody5
Stems herbaceous 6
5Leafy stem erect, smooth, lacking prickles; internodes hollowPoaceae [Arundinaria tecta Fig. Fig.8080]
Leafy stems climbing by stipular tendrils, armed with prickles; internodes solidSmilacaceae [Smilax]
6Flowers borne in a single compact head terminating an elongate scape 7
Flowers not borne in single compact heads atop elongated scapes 8
7Flowering head involucrate, white to gray, hemispheric, “button-like”, < 1 cm tall; flowers 2−3-merous, unisexual, 1.5−4 mm long, pale to grayish, not subtended by a scale- like bract, sepals and petals partially coated with club-shaped hairs; anthers black, 2-locular Eriocaulaceae
Flowering head not involucrate, brown, globose to cylindrical, “cone-like”, 0.5−3.5 cm tall; flowers 3-merous, bi-sexual, individual petals 3−6 mm long, yellow, subtended by a conspicuous scale-like bract, sepals and petals not coated with white club-shaped hairs; anthers yellow, 2−4-locular Xyridaceae
8Flowers and fruits subtended by imbricate or distichous bracts or scales and for the most part hidden by them, usually only the stamens and styles protruding at anthesis; fruit 1-seeded 9
Flowers and fruits not subtended by imbricate or distichous scales, or if so, then the flowers exceeding or equalling the bracts or scales and not hidden; fruit > 1- seeded 10
9Leaves usually 3-ranked, sheaths typically closed; culms typically triangular in cross- section and solid; fruit an achene Cyperaceae
Leaves usually 2-ranked, sheaths open (split lengthwise on the side opposite the blade); culms terete in cross-section, usually hollow; fruit a caryopsis Poaceae
10Plants aquatic, wholly submersed (except for Mayaca fluviatilis, which may be found wholly submersed or growing erect in saturated soils along shorelines); inflorescences submersed, floating, or just above the water surface 11
Plants terrestrial, or if growing in shallow water then the inflorescences well above the water surface (except during infrequent flooding events) 13
11Leaves opposite or whorled (if opposite but appearing whorled, then leaf bases dilated and sheathlike); flowers either lacking perianth parts as in Najas or inconspicuous as in Hydrilla Hydrocharitaceae
Leaves alternate; perianth parts present or not, if so, then conspicuous 12
12Plant moss-like, habit ranging from wholly submersed to completely emersed; not heterophyllous; leaves 20−200 (−300) × 0.5−1 mm, very numerous and tightly spaced, spirally arranged, apices sometimes slightly bifid; flowers solitary in the leaf axils, petals rose to maroon to lilac, sometimes white basally, obovateMayacaceae [Mayaca fluviatilis Fig. Fig.7373]
Plant not moss-like, habit restricted to wholly submersed; heterophyllous or not, if heterophyllous, then the submersed leaves transluscent and with a soft, fragile, texture, the floating leaves coriaceous; leaves 10−160 × 0.5−85 mm, diffusely spaced, somewhat spirally arranged in P. pusillus, no so in P. pulcher, apices entire; flowers in axillary spikes, perianth lacking Potamogetonaceae
13Inflorescence a spadix surrounded by a yellow spathe; leaves 17−70 × 10−40 cm, peltate, bases cordate to sagittate to hastate, adaxial surface glaucous blue-green, typically with a red or purple spot where the petiole attaches to the bladeAraceae [Colocasia esculenta]
Plant not with the above combination of characters 14
14Perianth segments densely pubescent abaxially 15
Perianth segments not densely pubescent abaxially 16
15Leaves linear, equitant; corolla yellow; ovary inferiorHaemodoraceae [Lachnanthes caroliniana Fig. Fig.6161]
Leaves cordate to lanceolate, not equitant; corolla blue to purple; ovary superiorPontederiaceae [Pontederia cordata]
16Corolla stellate, petals white, female flowers exhibiting an apocarpous gynoecium, each pistil ripening into an achene; phyllodia presentAlismataceae [Sagittaria]
Corolla not stellate (or, if so, then petals not white), female flowers not exhibiting an apocarpous gynoecium, 1 pistil restricted to each flower, ripening into a capsule; phyllodia absent 17
17Plant annual, diminutive, 5−20 cm tall, stems filiform; leaves minutely scale-likeBurmanniaceae [Burmannia capitata Fig. Fig.3535]
Plant perennial, not diminutive, > 20 cm tall, stems not filiform; leaves not scale-like (though blades not well-developed in Juncus effusus) 18
18Ovary superior; perianth parts bract-like, dry, scarious, persistent, not petal-like; leaves septate or not, terete, or flat and blade-like Juncaceae
Ovary inferior, perianth parts petal-like, neither bract-like, hard, nor scarious, not persistent; leaves flat and blade-like, never septate 19
19Flowers radially symmetric; androecium and gynoecium in separate whorls, not borne in a column; pollen freeHypoxidaceae [Hypoxis curtisii Fig. Fig.6464]
Flowers strongly bilaterally symmetric; androecium and gynoecium borne in a column; pollen in pollinia (pollen sacs) Orchidaceae

Key adapted from Radford et al. (1968), Godfrey and Wooten (1979), and Weakley (2012).

Alismataceae

1Leaf blades floating, cordate basallySagittaria filiformis Fig. Fig.3030
Leaf blades not floating, without basal lobes, linear to lanceolate, or modified asbladeless phyllodia, these with a spongy texture 2
2Stalks of the pistillate flowering heads stout and reflexed in fruit; stamen filaments glabrous Sagittaria filiformis
Stalks of the pistillate flowering heads not overly stout and either spreading or ascending in fruit; stamen filaments roughened with minute scales 3
3Mature leaves all phyllodial, phyllodia terete or very nearly soSagittaria isoetiformis Fig. Fig.3232
Mature leaves with blades and petioles, or phyllodia flattened on the adaxial surface or triangular in cross-section 4
4Plant with corms or stolons, coarse rhizomes lacking; blades of emersed leaves < 3 (−4) mm wide; flowers ≤ 1.3 cm in diam. Sagittaria isoetiformis
Coarse rhizomes present, stolons and corms absent; blades of emersed leaves > 1 cm wide; flowers ≤ 2.3 cm in diameter 5
5Larger phyllodes ≤ 1 cm wide, apices acute; pistillate pedicels 1−4 cm long; median resin duct of mature achene club-shaped, 2× the width of the posterior ductSagittaria graminea Fig. Fig.3131
Larger phyllodes 0.8−2.5 cm wide, apices blunt; pistillate pedicels 2−5 (−6.5) cm long; median resin duct of mature achene linear, about as wide as the posterior duct (or ducts absent) Sagittaria weatherbiana

Key adapted from Durand (2000), Godfrey and Wooten (1979), and Weakley (2012).

Araceae

1Plant terrestrial, stems present, rooted in moist to saturated soils; leaf blades to 70 cm longColocasia esculenta Fig. Fig.3333
Plant floating, diminutive, thallus-like, stems absent, dropping water levels sometimes leaving some plants stranded; leaf blades < 0.2 cm longWolffia spp.

Key adapted from Thompson (2000) and Weakley (2012).

Wolffia Horkel ex Schleid.

1Fronds nutshell-like, upper surface flattened, 0.5−1 × as deep as wide, a small portion not flattened and with minute central papillae, fronds brownish punctate above (best seen in dead fronds), cells of fronds inflated in the lower portions and becoming progressively smaller and more compact toward the upper surfaceWolffia brasiliensis Fig. 209
Fronds globoid to ovoid, upper surface convex, 1−1.5 × as deep as wide, a small portion slightly flattened and roughened with minute central papillae, fronds not brownish punctate above, cells of frond uniformly inflated throughout Wolffia columbiana

Key adapted from Weakley (2012).

Note: The first author did not encountered taxa within this genus in the field; however, the Carolina Vegetation Survey reported “Wolffia spp.” from the southwest side of Lake Waccamaw. Although a species-level identification has not been made, a key to the two species most likely to inhabit this location is provided below.

Cyperaceae

1