Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jnnpsycJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and PsychiatryVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1995 October; 59(4): 368–374.
PMCID: PMC486071

Cerebral perfusion and psychometric testing in military amateur boxers and controls.


The objective was to compare two neurophysiological variables in active amateur boxers with non-boxing sportsmen. 41 boxers and 27 controls were given psychometric tests: 34 boxers and 34 controls underwent technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime single photon emission computerised tomography (Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT) cerebral perfusion scans. The controls performed better at most aspects of the psychometric tests. Boxers who had fought fewer bouts had a tendency to perform better at psychometric tests than those boxers who had fought more bouts. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral perfusion scanning showed that controls had less aberrations in cerebral perfusion than the boxers. In conclusion, significant differences were shown in two neurophysiological variables between young amateur sportsmen who box and those who do not. The long term effects of these findings remain unknown.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Corsellis JA, Bruton CJ, Freeman-Browne D. The aftermath of boxing. Psychol Med. 1973 Aug;3(3):270–303. [PubMed]
  • Roberts GW, Allsop D, Bruton C. The occult aftermath of boxing. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1990 May;53(5):373–378. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tokuda T, Ikeda S, Yanagisawa N, Ihara Y, Glenner GG. Re-examination of ex-boxers' brains using immunohistochemistry with antibodies to amyloid beta-protein and tau protein. Acta Neuropathol. 1991;82(4):280–285. [PubMed]
  • Thomassen A, Juul-Jensen P, de Fine Olivarius B, Braemer J, Christensen AL. Neurological, electroencephalographic and neuropsychological examination of 53 former amateur boxers. Acta Neurol Scand. 1979 Dec;60(6):352–362. [PubMed]
  • McLatchie G, Brooks N, Galbraith S, Hutchison JS, Wilson L, Melville I, Teasdale E. Clinical neurological examination, neuropsychology, electroencephalography and computed tomographic head scanning in active amateur boxers. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1987 Jan;50(1):96–99. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brooks N, Kupshik G, Wilson L, Galbraith S, Ward R. A neuropsychological study of active amateur boxers. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1987 Aug;50(8):997–1000. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jordan BD, Zimmerman RD. Magnetic resonance imaging in amateur boxers. Arch Neurol. 1988 Nov;45(11):1207–1208. [PubMed]
  • Haglund Y, Edman G, Murelius O, Oreland L, Sachs C. Does Swedish amateur boxing lead to chronic brain damage? 1. A retrospective medical, neurological and personality trait study. Acta Neurol Scand. 1990 Oct;82(4):245–252. [PubMed]
  • Haglund Y, Bergstrand G. Does Swedish amateur boxing lead to chronic brain damage? 2. A retrospective study with CT and MRI. Acta Neurol Scand. 1990 Nov;82(5):297–302. [PubMed]
  • Haglund Y, Persson HE. Does Swedish amateur boxing lead to chronic brain damage? 3. A retrospective clinical neurophysiological study. Acta Neurol Scand. 1990 Dec;82(6):353–360. [PubMed]
  • Murelius O, Haglund Y. Does Swedish amateur boxing lead to chronic brain damage? 4. A retrospective neuropsychological study. Acta Neurol Scand. 1991 Jan;83(1):9–13. [PubMed]
  • Butler RJ, Forsythe WI, Beverly DW, Adams LM. A prospective controlled investigation of the cognitive effects of amateur boxing. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1993 Oct;56(10):1055–1061. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stewart WF, Gordon B, Selnes O, Bandeen-Roche K, Zeger S, Tusa RJ, Celentano DD, Shechter A, Liberman J, Hall C, et al. Prospective study of central nervous system function in amateur boxers in the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Mar 15;139(6):573–588. [PubMed]
  • Ashall F, Bramwell ME, Harris H. A new marker for human cancer cells. 1 The Ca antigen and the Ca1 antibody. Lancet. 1982 Jul 3;2(8288):1–6. [PubMed]
  • Ross RJ, Cole M, Thompson JS, Kim KH. Boxers--computed tomography, EEG, and neurological evaluation. JAMA. 1983 Jan 14;249(2):211–213. [PubMed]
  • Casson IR, Siegel O, Sham R, Campbell EA, Tarlau M, DiDomenico A. Brain damage in modern boxers. JAMA. 1984 May 25;251(20):2663–2667. [PubMed]
  • Jordan BD, Zimmerman RD. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging comparisons in boxers. JAMA. 1990 Mar 23;263(12):1670–1674. [PubMed]
  • Gemmell HG, Evans NT, Besson JA, Roeda D, Davidson J, Dodd MG, Sharp PF, Smith FW, Crawford JR, Newton RH, et al. Regional cerebral blood flow imaging: a quantitative comparison of technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT with C15O2 PET. J Nucl Med. 1990 Oct;31(10):1595–1600. [PubMed]
  • Messa C, Perani D, Lucignani G, Zenorini A, Zito F, Rizzo G, Grassi F, Del Sole A, Franceschi M, Gilardi MC, et al. High-resolution technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease: comparison with fluorine-18-FDG PET. J Nucl Med. 1994 Feb;35(2):210–216. [PubMed]
  • Newton MR, Greenwood RJ, Britton KE, Charlesworth M, Nimmon CC, Carroll MJ, Dolke G. A study comparing SPECT with CT and MRI after closed head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1992 Feb;55(2):92–94. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Barber DC. Registration of low resolution medical images. Phys Med Biol. 1992 Jul;37(7):1485–1498. [PubMed]
  • Houston AS, Kemp PM, Macleod MA. A method for assessing the significance of abnormalities in HMPO brain SPECT images. J Nucl Med. 1994 Feb;35(2):239–244. [PubMed]
  • Turnage JJ, Kennedy RS, Smith MG, Baltzley DR, Lane NE. Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests. Ergonomics. 1992 Oct;35(10):1271–1295. [PubMed]
  • Oppenheimer DR. Microscopic lesions in the brain following head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1968 Aug;31(4):299–306. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gronwall D, Wrightson P. Cumulative effect of concussion. Lancet. 1975 Nov 22;2(7943):995–997. [PubMed]
  • Gentleman SM, Graham DI, Roberts GW. Molecular pathology of head trauma: altered beta APP metabolism and the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. Prog Brain Res. 1993;96:237–246. [PubMed]
  • Buée L, Hof PR, Bouras C, Delacourte A, Perl DP, Morrison JH, Fillit HM. Pathological alterations of the cerebral microvasculature in Alzheimer's disease and related dementing disorders. Acta Neuropathol. 1994;87(5):469–480. [PubMed]
  • Clark C, Carson R, Kessler R, Margolin R, Buchsbaum M, DeLisi L, King C, Cohen R. Alternative statistical models for the examination of clinical positron emission tomography/fluorodeoxyglucose data. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1985 Mar;5(1):142–150. [PubMed]
  • Clark CM, Ammann W, Martin WR, Ty P, Hayden MR. The FDG/PET methodology for early detection of disease onset: a statistical model. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1991 Mar;11(2):A96–102. [PubMed]
  • Azari NP, Pettigrew KD, Schapiro MB, Haxby JV, Grady CL, Pietrini P, Salerno JA, Heston LL, Rapoport SI, Horwitz B. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease: a statistical approach using positron emission tomographic data. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1993 May;13(3):438–447. [PubMed]
  • Fazekas F, Alavi A, Chawluk JB, Zimmerman RA, Hackney D, Bilaniuk L, Rosen M, Alves WM, Hurtig HI, Jamieson DG, et al. Comparison of CT, MR, and PET in Alzheimer's dementia and normal aging. J Nucl Med. 1989 Oct;30(10):1607–1615. [PubMed]
  • Montaldi D, Brooks DN, McColl JH, Wyper D, Patterson J, Barron E, McCulloch J. Measurements of regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1990 Jan;53(1):33–38. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McKeith IG, Bartholomew PH, Irvine EM, Cook J, Adams R, Simpson AE. Single photon emission computerised tomography in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia. Regional uptake of technetium-labelled HMPAO related to clinical measurements. Br J Psychiatry. 1993 Nov;163:597–603. [PubMed]
  • Levin HS, Amparo E, Eisenberg HM, Williams DH, High WM, Jr, McArdle CB, Weiner RL. Magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography in relation to the neurobehavioral sequelae of mild and moderate head injuries. J Neurosurg. 1987 May;66(5):706–713. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of BMJ Publishing Group