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Fritschiana (Graz). Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 February 9.
Published in final edited form as:
PMCID: PMC4747088

Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the valley ‘Ochsental’ (Eastern Alps, Vorarlberg, Austria)


A list of 100 lichen species and 4 lichenicolous fungi from the valley ‘Ochsental’ is presented. Lecidea laboriosa is new to Austria. Lecanora swartzii, Orphniospora moriopsis, Protothelenella corrosa and the lichenicolous fungus Cercidospora stereocaulorum are new to the province of Vorarlberg.


Vorarlberg, the westernmost province of Austria, covers an area of about 2,600 km2. The most significant mountain ranges are the Rätikon, the Silvretta and the Verwall. Ochsental, a high alpine valley south of the mountain pass Bielerhöhe, is situated in the Silvretta mountain range (Fig. 1). The majority of the peaks in the Silvretta are elevated above three thousand meters and are surrounded by glaciers. There are two glaciers in the south end of the valley: the Vermunt and the Ochsentaler glacier. The latter is situated at the foot of the Piz Buin (3,312 m above sea level), the highest mountain of Vorarlberg, at the border to the Swiss canton of Graubünden. Due to the screening effect of the surrounding mountains, the climate of the valley is less oceanic than in many other parts of Vorarlberg. The bedrock consists of siliceous rocks, thus the soils have an acid character.

Fig. 1
Location of the valley “Ochsental” in Austria

Mayrhofer et al. (1989) provided a comprehensive list of 629 lichens and 21 lichenicolous fungi for Vorarlberg, as a result of the field meeting of the ‘Bryological and Lichenological Association for Central Europe (BLAM)’ in July 1986. Right after this meeting, the co-author together with Erika HINTEREGGER visited the valley ‘Ochsental’ for a one day excursion. Hinteregger (1994) recorded 20 lichen species on the stems of Rhododendron ferrugineum from this valley, including the saxicolous species Bellemerea cinereorufescens, Lecanora cenisia, L. polytropa, L. subintricata, Rhizocarpon geographicum, R. grande and R. polycarpum. The results of the field trip – not including the records published in Hinteregger (1994) – are presented in this paper.

A compilation of the lichens of Vorarlberg was presented by Pfefferkorn-Dellali & Türk (2005), listing 1069 lichen taxa based on literature data and field work. Since then, only a few additions have been published, of which Kaufmann (2013) is the most comprehensive one.

Material and methods

Sampling location: Austria, Vorarlberg, Silvretta mountain range, valley ‘Ochsental’ south of ‘Bielerhöhe’, 46°52’26”–46°53’28”N, 10°05’40”–10°06’ 26”E, 2100–2200 m above sea level, collected by Helmut MAYRHOFER, 31 July 1986.

Lichens were collected on plant debris or decaying terricolous mosses (deb), on silicious rocks (sil), on acid soil (ter-sil) and, exceptionally, on dead wood (xyl).

The specimens were identified with the aid of Wirth et al. (2013) and Ihlen & Wedin (2008), using routine light microscopy techniques. Some of the identifications required verification by using standardized thin-layer chromatography (TLC), following the protocols of White & James (1985) and Orange et al. (2001). The specimens are preserved in the herbarium of the Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Graz (GZU). The nomenclature mainly follows Wirth et al. (2013), or other modern treatments.

Results and discussion

Lichenized fungi

Acarospora badiofusca: sil

Acarospora fuscata: sil

Alectoria ochroleuca: ter-sil

Amandinea punctata: deb

Arthrorhaphis citrinella: on Baeomyces rufus

Aspicilia simoensis: sil

Baeomyces placophyllus: ter-sil

Baeomyces rufus: ter-sil

Bellemerea alpina: sil

Brodoa intestiniformis: sil

Bryonora castanea: deb

Caloplaca ammiospila: deb

Calvitimela armeniaca: sil

Candelariella vitellina: sil

Catolechia wahlenbergii: ter-sil

Cetraria ericetorum: ter-sil

Cetraria islandica: ter-sil

Cetraria muricata: ter-sil

Cladonia arbuscula subsp. squarrosa: ter-sil

Cladonia chlorophaea: ter-sil

Cladonia cf. furcata: ter-sil

Cladonia gracilis: ter-sil

Cladonia pyxidata: ter-sil

Cladonia rangiferina: ter-sil

Cladonia stellaris: ter-sil

Cladonia uncialis: ter-sil

Cornicularia normoerica: sil

Dimelaena oreina: sil – chemotype I (with fumarprotocetraric acid)

Diploschistes scruposus: sil

Epilichen scabrosus: on Baeomyces placophyllus

Flavocetraria cucullata: ter-sil

Flavocetraria nivalis: ter-sil

Fuscidea kochiana: sil

Helocarpon pulverulum: deb

Icmadophila ericetorum: deb

Lecanora bicincta: sil

Lecanora intricata: sil

Lecanora polytropa: sil

Lecanora rupicola: sil

Lecanora swartzii: sil – new to Vorarlberg

Lecidea fuscoatra: sil

Lecidea laboriosa: sil – new to Austria

Lecidea lactea: sil

Lecidea lapicida: sil

Lecidea silacea: sil

Lecidoma demissum: ter-sil

Lobaria linita: ter-sil

Melanelia hepatizon: sil

Melanelia stygia: sil

Micarea lignaria: deb

Miriquidica garovaglii: sil

Ophioparma ventosa: sil

Orphniospora moriopsis: sil – new to Vorarlberg

Parmelia omphalodes: sil

Parmelia saxatilis: sil

Parmeliella triptophylla: deb, sil

Peltigera leucophlebia: ter-sil

Pertusaria corallina: sil

Placynthiella oligotropha: deb

Pleopsidium chlorophanum: sil

Porpidia crustulata: sil

Porpidia macrocarpa: sil

Porpidia tuberculosa: sil

Protomicarea limosa: ter-sil

Protopannaria pezizoides: ter-sil

Protoparmelia badia: sil

Protothelenella corrosa: sil – new to Vorarlberg

Protothelenella sphinctrinoides: deb

Pseudephebe pubescens: sil

Psorinia conglomerata: sil

Psoroma hypnorum: ter-sil

Pycnothelia papillaria: ter-sil

Ramalina capitata: sil

Rhizocarpon copelandii: sil

Rhizocarpon geographicum: sil

Rhizocarpon lecanorinum: sil

Rhizocarpon polycarpum: sil

Rhizocarpon superficiale: sil

Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca: sil

Rhizoplaca melanophthalma: sil

Rimularia furvella: on Fuscidea kochiana

Rimularia gibbosa: sil

Rinodina conradii: deb

Rinodina mniaraea var. mniaraea: ter-sil

Schaereria fuscocinerea: sil

Solorina crocea: ter-sil

Sporastatia testudinea: sil

Stereocaulon alpinum: ter-sil

Tephromela atra: sil

Thamnolia vermicularis: ter-sil

Trapeliopsis granulosa: deb, ter-sil

Tremolecia atrata: sil

Umbilicaria crustulosa: sil

Umbilicaria cylindrica: sil

Umbilicaria deusta: sil

Umbilicaria leiocarpa: sil

Umbilicaria vellea: sil

Varicellaria lactea: sil

Xanthoria elegans: sil

Xylographa parallela: xyl

Lichenicolous fungi

Cercidospora stereocaulorum: on Stereocaulon sp. – new to Vorarlberg

Dactylospora urceolata: on Protothelenella sphinctrinoides

Muellerella pygmaea: on Lecidea lapicida

Rhagadostoma lichenicola: on Solorina crocea

A one day excursion to the valley ‘Ochsental’, situated in the Silvretta mountain range, yielded 100 lichen species and 4 lichenicolous fungi. All lichens found on Rhododendron ferrugineum were published earlier by Hinteregger (1994).

Lecidea laboriosa is new to Austria. In the Alps, this species was previously only recorded from the canton Valais in Switzerland (Clerc & Truong 2012). Because of the similarity to Lecidea plana, some specimens are probably filed under that species. Hertel (1995) presumed that Lecidea laboriosa is heterogeneous.

Lecanora swartzii, Orphniospora moriopsis, Protothelenella corrosa, and the lichenicolous fungus Cercidospora stereocaulorum on Stereocaulon sp. are new to the province of Vorarlberg.

The majority of the lichenized species (58) was collected on siliceous rocks. Twenty-nine species occurred on acid soil, eleven species on plant debris or decaying terricolous mosses. Arthrorhaphis citrinella, Epilichen scabrosus and Rimularia furvella grew on other lichens and Xylographa parallela on a dead stem of a dwarf-shrub.


We would like to thank Anja WALLNER and Veronika TUTZER for supporting the determination and preparation of the lichen material, Josef HAFELLNER for drawing our attention to a literature reference, Peter KOSNIK for the TLC and Christian SCHEUER as well as Walter OBERMAYER for critically reading the manuscript. The co-author acknowledges the support of Michaela MAYRHOFER at field work. Financial support from the Austrian Science Foundation (FWF project P25078-B16) is gratefully acknowledged.


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