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J Clin Invest. Mar 1992; 89(3): 892–898.
PMCID: PMC442935
A common type of the spectrin alpha I 46-50a-kD peptide abnormality in hereditary elliptocytosis and pyropoikilocytosis is associated with a mutation distant from the proteolytic cleavage site. Evidence for the functional importance of the triple helical model of spectrin.
P G Gallagher, W T Tse, T Coetzer, M C Lecomte, M Garbarz, H S Zarkowsky, A Baruchel, S K Ballas, D Dhermy, J Palek
, et al.
Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510.
Abstract
We studied nine individuals from five unrelated families with alpha I/46-50a hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) or hereditary pyropoikilocytosis (HPP), including one of the original HHP probands first reported by Zarkowsky and colleagues (1975. Br. J. Haematol. 29:537-543). Biochemical analysis of erythrocyte membrane proteins from these patients revealed, as a common abnormality, the presence of the alpha I/46-50a peptide after limited tryptic digestion of spectrin. The polymerase chain reaction was utilized to study the structure of the DNA encoding the alpha I domain of spectrin in the affected individuals. The DNA sequence of the alpha-spectrin gene encoding the region of the alpha-spectrin chain surrounding the abnormal proteolytic cleavage site was normal. We identified a point mutation causing the replacement of a highly conserved leucine residue by proline at position 207 in the alpha-spectrin chain, a site 51 residues to the amino-terminal side of the abnormal proteolytic cleavage site. Analysis of the proposed triple helical model of spectrin repeats reveals that the mutation occurs in helix 2 at a position directly opposite the abnormal proteolytic cleavage site in helix 3, making this the first report of a mutation occurring in helix 2 of a repeat in the alpha I domain of spectrin. These results add to the molecular heterogeneity of mutations associated with HE/HPP and provide further support for the proposed triple helical model of spectrin. Disruption of this proposed alpha-helical structure by helix-breaking proline substitutions may result in a functionally defective spectrin chain.
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