Enterotoxin A is one of the major virulence factors of Clostridium difficile, and the causative agent of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis. In cell culture (NIH-3T3, rat basophilic leukemia cells) toxin A inhibits Clostridium botulinum ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 (C3)-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of the low molecular mass GTP-binding Rho proteins. Rho participates in the regulation of the microfilament cytoskeleton. Decrease in ADP-ribosylation of Rho occurs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and precedes the toxin A-induced destruction of the actin cytoskeleton. Action of toxin A is not due to proteolytical degradation of Rho or to an inherent ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of toxin A. Toxin A-induced decrease in ADP-ribosylation is observed also in cell lysates and with recombinant RhoA protein. A heat stable low molecular mass cytosolic factor is essential for the toxin effect on Rho. Thus, the enterotoxin (toxin A) resembles the effects of the C. difficile cytotoxin (toxin B) on Rho proteins (Just, I., G. Fritz, K. Aktories, M. Giry, M. R. Popoff, P. Boquet, S. Hegenbath, and C. Von Eichel-Streiber. 1994. J. Biol. Chem. 269:10706-10712). The data indicate that despite different in vivo effects, toxin A and toxin B act on the same cellular target protein Rho to elicit their toxic effects.