Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jcinvestThe Journal of Clinical InvestigationCurrent IssueArchiveSubscriptionAbout the Journal
J Clin Invest. 1983 March; 71(3): 726–735.
PMCID: PMC436923

Regulation of Renal Blood Flow by Plasma Chloride


Micropuncture studies have shown that glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls in response to a rise in Na+ or Cl- concentrations in the loop of Henle, whereas studies in isolated kidneys have shown that GFR falls in response to osmotic diuresis. To define the separate effects of an acute increase in plasma sodium (PNa), chloride (PCl) or osmolality (Posmol), changes in renal blood flow (RBF) and GFR were measured during intrarenal infusions of hypertonic NaCl, NaHCO3, Na acetate, dextrose, NH4Cl or NH4acetate to denervated kidneys. The infusions raised Posmol at the experimental kidney by 30-45 mosmol. RBF increased abruptly by 10-30% with all hypertonic infusions indicating that an acute increase in plasma tonicity causes renal vasodilatation. Renal vasodilatation persisted or increased further during infusion of dextrose, NaHCO3 and Na acetate, but GFR was unchanged. In contrast, during infusion of the two Cl-containing solutions, vasodilatation was reversed after 1-5 min and RBF and GFR decreased (P < 0.01) below preinfusion levels. Prior salt depletion doubled the vasoconstriction seen with hypertonic NaCl infusions. Overall, changes in RBF were unrelated to changes in PNa or fractional Na or fluid reabsorption but correlated with changes in PCl (r = -0.91) and fractional Cl- reabsorption (r = 0.94). The intrafemoral arterial infusion of the two Cl-containing solutions did not increase femoral vascular resistance. In conclusion, hyperchloremia produces a progressive renal vasoconstriction and fall in GFR that is independent of the renal nerves, is potentiated by prior salt depletion and is related to tubular Cl- reabsorption. Chloride-induced vasoconstriction appears specific for the renal vessels.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • THURAU K. RENAL HEMODYNAMICS. Am J Med. 1964 May;36:698–719. [PubMed]
  • McDougal WS, Wright FS. Defect in proximal and distal sodium transport in post-obstructive diuresis. Kidney Int. 1972 Dec;2(6):304–317. [PubMed]
  • Ploth DW, Schnermann J, Dahlheim H, Hermle M, Schmidmeier E. Autoregulation and tubuloglomerular feedback in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Kidney Int. 1977 Oct;12(4):253–267. [PubMed]
  • Wright FS, Briggs P. Feedback regulation of glomerular filtration rate. Am J Physiol. 1977 Jul;233(1):F1–F7. [PubMed]
  • Tucker BJ, Steiner RW, Gushwa LC, Blantz RC. Studies on the tubulo-glomerular feedback system in the rat. The mechanism of reduction in filtration rate with benzolamide. J Clin Invest. 1978 Nov;62(5):993–1004. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schnermann J, Ploth DW, Hermle M. Activation of tubulo-glomerular feedback by chloride transport. Pflugers Arch. 1976 Apr 6;362(3):229–240. [PubMed]
  • Nashat FS, Tappin JW, Wilcox CS. The renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate of anaesthetized dogs during acute changes in plasma sodium concentration. J Physiol. 1976 Apr;256(3):731–745. [PubMed]
  • Gerber JG, Branch RA, Nies AS, Hollifield JW, Gerkens JF. Influence of hypertonic saline on canine renal blood flow and renin release. Am J Physiol. 1979 Dec;237(6):F441–F446. [PubMed]
  • Sadowski J. Effects of renal artery infusion of various hypertonic solutions on the renal blood flow and renal handling of PAH in the dog. Pflugers Arch. 1972;334(1):85–102. [PubMed]
  • Nizet A. Influence of replacement of chloride by sulphate upon urine excretion and glomerular filtration rate in blood perfused isolated dog kidneys. Pflugers Arch. 1979 Nov;382(3):217–223. [PubMed]
  • Nizet A. Connection between the changes in tubular reabsorption and in glomerular filtration rate induced by replacement of plasma sodium and chloride by isotonic mannitol. Arch Int Physiol Biochim. 1981 Feb;89(1):35–40. [PubMed]
  • Nizet A. Influence of uranyl nitrate upon tubular reabsorption and glomerular filtration in blood perfused isolated dog kidneys. Pflugers Arch. 1981 Oct;391(4):296–300. [PubMed]
  • Wilcox CS. A denervated dog's kidney preparation for studying the actions of drugs or hormones on renal function and renal lymph formation [proceedings]. J Physiol. 1977 Feb;265(1):6P–7P. [PubMed]
  • Wilcox CS. The effect of increasing the plasma magnesium concentration on renin release from the dog's kidney: interactions with calcium and sodium. J Physiol. 1978 Nov;284:203–217. [PubMed]
  • Koch KM, Dume T, Krause HH, Ochwadt B. Intratubulärer Druck, glomerulärer Capillardruck und Glomerulumfiltrat während Mannit-Diurese. Pflugers Arch Gesamte Physiol Menschen Tiere. 1967;295(1):72–79. [PubMed]
  • Dubb J, Goldberg M, Agus ZS. Tubular effects of acute metabolic acidosis in the rat. J Lab Clin Med. 1977 Aug;90(2):318–323. [PubMed]
  • Corman B, Carriere S, Le Grimellec C, Cardinal J. Proximal tubular response to variations in extracellular sodium concentration. Am J Physiol. 1980 Apr;238(4):F256–F260. [PubMed]
  • HARVEY RB. Vascular resistance changes produced by hyperosmotic solutions. Am J Physiol. 1960 Jul;199:31–34. [PubMed]
  • Navar LG, Guyton AC, Langston JB. Effect of alterations in plasma osmolality on renal blood flow autoregulation. Am J Physiol. 1966 Dec;211(6):1387–1392. [PubMed]
  • BOHR DF, BRODIE DC, CHEU DH. Effect of electrolytes on arterial muscle contraction. Circulation. 1958 Apr;17(4 Pt 2):746–749. [PubMed]
  • HADDY FJ. Local effects of sodium, calcium and magnesium upon small and large blood vessels of the dog forelimb. Circ Res. 1960 Jan;8:57–70. [PubMed]
  • Raizner AE, Costin JC, Croke RP, Bishop JB, Inglesby TV, Skinner NS., Jr Reflex, systemic, and local hemodynamic alterations with experimental hyperosmolality. Am J Physiol. 1973 Jun;224(6):1327–1333. [PubMed]
  • Arvill A, Johansson B, Jonsson O. Effects of hyperosmolarity on the volume of vascular smooth muscle cells and the relation between cell volume and muscle activity. Acta Physiol Scand. 1969 Mar;75(3):484–495. [PubMed]
  • Gazitùa S, Scott JB, Swindall B, Haddy FJ. Resistance responses to local changes in plasma osmolality in three vascular beds. Am J Physiol. 1971 Feb;220(2):384–391. [PubMed]
  • Hauge A, Bo G. Blood hyperosmolality and pulmonary vascular resistance in the cat. Circ Res. 1971 Mar;28(3):371–376. [PubMed]
  • Gazitúa S, Scott JB, Chou CC, Haddy FJ. Effect of osmolarity on canine renal vascular resistance. Am J Physiol. 1969 Oct;217(4):1216–1223. [PubMed]
  • Young DB, Rostorfer HH. Blood flow and filtration rate responses to alterations in renal arterial osmolarity. Am J Physiol. 1973 Nov;225(5):1003–1008. [PubMed]
  • Betz E, Csornai M. Action and interaction of perivascular H+, K+ and Ca++ on pial arteries. Pflugers Arch. 1978 Apr 25;374(1):67–72. [PubMed]
  • Meiselman HJ, Merrill EW, Gilliland ER, Pelletier GA, Salzman EW. Influence of plasma osmolarity on the rheology of human blood. J Appl Physiol. 1967 Apr;22(4):772–781. [PubMed]
  • Schmid-Schönbein H, Wells RE, Goldstone J. Effect of ultrafiltration and plasma osmolarity upon the flow properties of blood: A possible mechanism for control of blood flow in the renal medullary vasa recta. Pflugers Arch. 1973 Jan 22;338(2):93–144. [PubMed]
  • Gordon D, Nashat FS, Wilcox CS. An analysis of the regulation of sodium excretion during induced changes in plasma sodium concentration in anaesthetized dogs. J Physiol. 1981 May;314:531–545. [PubMed]
  • Baylis C, Deen WM, Myers BD, Brenner BM. Effects of some vasodilator drugs on transcapillary fluid exchange in renal cortex. Am J Physiol. 1976 Apr;230(4):1148–1158. [PubMed]
  • Ichikawa I. Hemodynamic influence of altered distal salt delivery on glomerular microcirculation. Kidney Int Suppl. 1982 Aug;12:S109–S113. [PubMed]
  • Schnermann J, Wright FS, Davis JM, von Stackelberg W, Grill G. Regulation of superficial nephron filtration rate by tubulo-glomerular feedback. Pflugers Arch. 1970;318(2):147–175. [PubMed]
  • Wright FS, Schnermann J. Interference with feedback control of glomerular filtration rate by furosemide, triflocin, and cyanide. J Clin Invest. 1974 Jun;53(6):1695–1708. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Navar LG, Bell PD, Thomas CE, Ploth DW. Influence of perfusate osmolality on stop-flow pressure feedback responses in the dog. Am J Physiol. 1978 Oct;235(4):F352–F358. [PubMed]
  • Schnermann J, Briggs J, Wright FS. Feedback-mediated reduction of glomerular filtration rate during infusion of hypertonic saline. Kidney Int. 1981 Oct;20(4):462–468. [PubMed]
  • Dev B, Drescher C, Schnermann J. Resetting of tubulo-glomerular feedback sensitivity by dietary salt intake. Pflugers Arch. 1974;346(4):263–277. [PubMed]
  • Schnermann J, Stowe N, Yarimizu S, Magnsusson M, Tingwald G. Feedback control of glomerular filtration rate in isolated, blood-perfused dog kidneys. Am J Physiol. 1977 Sep;233(3):F217–F224. [PubMed]
  • Briggs JP, Wright FS. Feedback control of glomerular filtration rate: site of the effector mechanism. Am J Physiol. 1979 Jan;236(1):F40–F47. [PubMed]
  • Levine DZ, Nash LA. Effect of chronic NH4Cl acidosis on proximal tubular H2O and HCO3 reabsorption. Am J Physiol. 1973 Aug;225(2):380–384. [PubMed]
  • Nashat FS, Tappin JW, Wilcox CS. Plasma sodium concentration and sodium excretion in the anaesthetized dog. J Physiol. 1976 Jan;254(1):183–202. [PubMed]
  • Malnic G, Mello Aires M, Lacaz Vieira F. Chloride excretion in nephrons of rat kidney during alterations of acid-base equilibrium. Am J Physiol. 1970 Jan;218(1):20–26. [PubMed]
  • RECTOR FC, Jr, CLAPP JR. Evidence for active chloride reabsorption in the distal renal tubule of the rat. J Clin Invest. 1962 Jan;41:101–107. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from The Journal of Clinical Investigation are provided here courtesy of American Society for Clinical Investigation