Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jcinvestThe Journal of Clinical Investigation
J Clin Invest. 1985 May; 75(5): 1729–1734.
PMCID: PMC425518

Bovine milk lipoprotein lipase transfers tocopherol to human fibroblasts during triglyceride hydrolysis in vitro.


Lipoprotein lipase appears to function as the mechanism by which dietary vitamin E (tocopherol) is transferred from chylomicrons to tissues. In patients with lipoprotein lipase deficiency, more than 85% of both the circulating triglyceride and tocopherol is contained in the chylomicron fraction. The studies presented here show that the in vitro addition of bovine milk lipoprotein lipase (lipase) to chylomicrons in the presence of human erythrocytes or fibroblasts (and bovine serum albumin [BSA]) resulted in the hydrolysis of the triglyceride and the transfer of both fatty acids and tocopherol to the cells; in the absence of lipase, no increase in cellular tocopherol was detectable. The incubation system was simplified to include only fibroblasts, BSA, and Intralipid (an artificial lipid emulsion containing 10% soybean oil, which has gamma but not alpha tocopherol). The addition of lipase to this system also resulted in the transfer of tocopherol (gamma) to the fibroblasts. Addition of both lipase and its activator, apolipoprotein CII, resulted in a further increase in the cellular tocopherol content, but apolipoprotein CII alone had no effect. Heparin, which is known to prevent the binding of lipoprotein lipase to the cell surface membrane, abrogated the transfer of tocopherol to fibroblasts without altering the rate of triglyceride hydrolysis. Thus, in vitro tocopherol is transferred to cells during hydrolysis of triglyceride by the action of lipase, and for this transfer of tocopherol to occur, the lipase itself must bind to the cell membrane.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Kayden HJ. Tocopherol content of adipose tissue from vitamin E-deficient humans. Ciba Found Symp. 1983;101:70–91. [PubMed]
  • Guggenheim MA, Ringel SP, Silverman A, Grabert BE, Neville HE. Progressive neuromuscular disease in children with chronic cholestasis and vitamin E deficiency: clinical and muscle biopsy findings and treatment with alpha-tocopherol. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1982;393:84–95. [PubMed]
  • Howard L, Ovesen L, Satya-Murti S, Chu R. Reversible neurological symptoms caused by vitamin E deficiency in a patient with short bowel syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982 Dec;36(6):1243–1249. [PubMed]
  • Muller DP, Lloyd JK, Wolff OH. Vitamin E and neurological function: abetalipoproteinaemia and other disorders of fat absorption. Ciba Found Symp. 1983;101:106–121. [PubMed]
  • Rosenblum JL, Keating JP, Prensky AL, Nelson JS. A progressive neurologic syndrome in children with chronic liver disease. N Engl J Med. 1981 Feb 26;304(9):503–508. [PubMed]
  • Sokol RJ, Heubi JE, Iannaccone S, Bove KE, Balistreri WF. Mechanism causing vitamin E deficiency during chronic childhood cholestasis. Gastroenterology. 1983 Nov;85(5):1172–1182. [PubMed]
  • Bjornson LK, Kayden HJ, Miller E, Moshell AN. The transport of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene in human blood. J Lipid Res. 1976 Jul;17(4):343–352. [PubMed]
  • Kayden HJ, Bjornson L. The dynamics of vitamin E transport in the human erythrocyte. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1972 Dec 18;203:127–140. [PubMed]
  • Traber MG, Kayden HJ. Vitamin E is delivered to cells via the high affinity receptor for low-density lipoprotein. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Oct;40(4):747–751. [PubMed]
  • Nilsson-Ehle P, Garfinkel AS, Schotz MC. Lipolytic enzymes and plasma lipoprotein metabolism. Annu Rev Biochem. 1980;49:667–693. [PubMed]
  • Fielding CJ. Metabolism of cholesterol-rich chylomicroms. Mechanism of binding and uptake of cholesteryl esters by the vascular bed of the perfused rat heart. J Clin Invest. 1978 Jul;62(1):141–151. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chajek-Shaul T, Friedman G, Stein O, Olivecrona T, Stein Y. Binding of lipoprotein lipase to the cell surface is essential for the transmembrane transport of chylomicron cholesteryl ester. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1982 Jul 20;712(1):200–210. [PubMed]
  • Kayden HJ, Chow CK, Bjornson LK. Spectrophotometric method for determination of tocopherol in red blood cells. J Lipid Res. 1973 Sep;14(5):533–540. [PubMed]
  • Bengtsson G, Olivecrona T. Interaction of lipoprotein lipase with heparin-Sepharose. Evaluation of conditions for affinity binding. Biochem J. 1977 Oct 1;167(1):109–119. [PubMed]
  • Bengtsson G, Olivecrona T. On the pH dependency of lipoprotein lipase activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1982 Jul 20;712(1):196–199. [PubMed]
  • Traber MG, Kayden HJ. Low density lipoprotein receptor activity in human monocyte-derived macrophages and its relation to atheromatous lesions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Sep;77(9):5466–5470. [PubMed]
  • LOWRY OH, ROSEBROUGH NJ, FARR AL, RANDALL RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 1951 Nov;193(1):265–275. [PubMed]
  • Hatam LJ, Kayden HJ. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of tocopherol in plasma and cellular elements of the blood. J Lipid Res. 1979 Jul;20(5):639–645. [PubMed]
  • Belfrage P, Vaughan M. Simple liquid-liquid partition system for isolation of labeled oleic acid from mixtures with glycerides. J Lipid Res. 1969 May;10(3):341–344. [PubMed]
  • STERN I, SHAPIRO B. A rapid and simple method for the determination of esterified fatty acids and for total fatty acids in blood. J Clin Pathol. 1953 May;6(2):158–160. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kayden HJ, Hatam LJ, Traber MG. The measurement of nanograms of tocopherol from needle aspiration biopsies of adipose tissue: normal and abetalipoproteinemic subjects. J Lipid Res. 1983 May;24(5):652–656. [PubMed]

Articles from The Journal of Clinical Investigation are provided here courtesy of American Society for Clinical Investigation